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Principles of Tissue Engineering
 
 

Principles of Tissue Engineering, 4th Edition

 
Principles of Tissue Engineering, 4th Edition,Robert Lanza,Robert Langer,Joseph Vacanti,ISBN9780123983589
 
 
 

Lanza   &   Langer   &   Vacanti   

Academic Press

9780123983589

9780123983701

1936

276 X 216

Presents the latest advances in the biology and design of tissues and organs, while simultaneously connecting the basic sciences with the potential application of tissue engineering to diseases affecting specific organ systems

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Key Features

  • Includes new chapters on biomaterial-protein interactions, nanocomposite and three-dimensional scaffolds, skin substitutes, spinal cord, vision enhancement, and heart valves
  • Offers expanded coverage of adult and embryonic stem cells of the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, musculoskeletal, nervous, and other organ systems
  • Full-color presentation throughout

Description

Now in its fourth edition, Principles of Tissue Engineering has been the definite resource in the field of tissue engineering for more than a decade. The fourth edition provides an update on this rapidly progressing field, combining the prerequisites for a general understanding of tissue growth and development, the tools and theoretical information needed to design tissues and organs, as well as a presentation by the world’s experts of what is currently known about each specific organ system. As in previous editions, this book creates a comprehensive work that strikes a balance among the diversity of subjects that are related to tissue engineering, including biology, chemistry, material science, and engineering, among others, while also emphasizing those research areas that are likely to be of clinical value in the future.

This edition includes greatly expanded focus on stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, stem cell niches, and blood components from stem cells. This research has already produced applications in disease modeling, toxicity testing, drug development, and clinical therapies.  This up-to-date coverage of stem cell biology and other emerging technologies -such as brain-machine interfaces for controlling bionics and neuroprostheses- is complemented by a series of new and updated chapters on recent clinical experience in applying tissue engineering, as well as a new section on the application of tissue-engineering techniques for food production. The result is a comprehensive textbook that will be useful to students and experts alike.

Readership

Basic and clinical researchers in fields such as biology, chemistry, materials science, and engineering with an interest in tissue engineering.

Robert Lanza

Robert Lanza, M.D. is currently Chief Scientific Officer at Advanced Cell Technology, and Adjunct Professor of Surgical Sciences at Wake Forest University School of Medicine. He has several hundred scientific publications and patents, and over 30 books, including Principles of Tissue Engineering (1st through 4th Editions), Methods of Tissue Engineering, Principles of Cloning (1st and 2nd Editions), Essentials of Stem Cell Biology (1st and 2nd Editions), XENO, Yearbook of Cell & Tissue Transplantation, One World: The Health & Survival of the Human Species in the 21st Century (as editor, with forewords by C. Everett Koop and former President Jimmy Carter), and Medical Science & the Advancement of World Health. Dr. Lanza received his B.A. and M.D. degrees from the University of Pennsylvania, where he was both a University Scholar and Benjamin Franklin Scholar. He is a former Fulbright Scholar, and studied as a student in the laboratory of Richard Hynes (MIT), Jonas Salk (The Salk Institute), and Nobel laureates Gerald Edelman (Rockefeller University) and Rodney Porter (Oxford University). He also worked closely (and coauthored a series of papers) with the late Harvard psychologist B.F. Skinner and heart transplant pioneer Christiaan Barnard. Dr. Lanza's current area of research focuses on the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine.

Affiliations and Expertise

Advanced Cell Technology, MA, USA

View additional works by Robert Lanza

Robert Langer

Robert Langer received honorary doctorates from the ETH (Switzerland) in 1996 and the Technion (Israel) in 1997. Dr. Langer is the Kenneth J. Germeshausen Professor of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering at MIT. He received a Bachelor’s Degree from Cornell University in 1970 and a Sc.D. from MIT in 1974, both in chemical engineering. Dr. Langer has written 590 articles, 400 abstracts, 350 patents, and has edited 12 books.Dr. Langer has received over 70 major awards, including the Gairdner Foundation International Award, the Lemelson-MIT prize, the American Chemical Society (ACS) Polymer Chemistry and Applied Polymer Science Awards, Creative Polymer Chemistry Award (ACS, Polymer Division), the Pearlman Memorial Lectureship Award (ACD, Biochemical Technology Division), and the A.I.Ch.E’s Walker, Professional Progress, Bioengineering, and Stine Materials Science and Engineering Awards. In 1989, Dr. Langer was elected to the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences, and in 1992 he was elected to both the National Academy of Engineering and to the National Academy of Sciences. He is the only active member of all 3 United States National Academies.

Affiliations and Expertise

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, U.S.A.

Joseph Vacanti

Dr. Joseph P. Vacanti received his M.D. degree from the university of Nebraska in 1974. He received his training in general surgery at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 1974 through 1981 and in pediatric surgery at The Children’s Hospital, Boston from 1981 through 1983. He then received clinical training in transplantation from the University of Pittsburgh. He spent two years in the laboratories of Dr. M. Judah Folkman working in the filed on angiogenesis from 1977 through 1979. Upon completion of his training, Dr. Vacanti joined the staff in surgery at children’s Hospital in Boston and began clinical programs in pediatric liver transplantation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. In the laboratory, he continued studies in and began work in the filed of tissue engineering in 1985. Dr. Vacanti is now John Homans Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School, Visiting surgeon at Massachusetts General Hospital, director of the Wellman 6 Surgical laboratories, director of the Laboratory of Tissue Engineering and Organ Fabrication and Director of Pediatric Transplantation at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. He has authored more than 120 original reports, 30 book chapters, and 197 abstracts. He has more than 25 patents or patents pending in the United States, Europe, and Japan.

Affiliations and Expertise

Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, U.S.A.

Principles of Tissue Engineering, 4th Edition

Foreword

Preface

Preface to the Third Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition

List of Contributors

Abstract

Introduction to Tissue Engineering

Chapter 1. The History and Scope of Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Introduction

Scientific Challenges

Cells

Materials

General Scientific Issues

Social Challenges

Further Reading

Chapter 2. The Challenge of Imitating Nature

Abstract

Acknowledgment

Introduction

The Basic Paradigm

Modeling Nature’s Orchestra

Cell Technology

Engineering Functional Characteristics

Translation into the Living System

Concluding Discussion

References

Chapter 3. From Mathematical Models to Clinical Reality

Abstract

Introduction

Modeling Stem Cell Dynamics

Modeling Tissue Growth and Development

From Mathematical Models to Clinical Reality

References

Chapter 4. Stem Cells as Building Blocks

Abstract

List of Abbreviations

Introduction

Differentiation Potential of Stem Cells

Stem Cell Niche

Developmental Origin of Stem Cells

Stem Cell Differentiation Methods

Transdifferentiation and Reprogramming

Challenges and Looking Forward

References

Chapter 5. Moving into the Clinic

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

History of Clinical Tissue Engineering

Strategies to Advance toward the Clinic

Bringing technology platforms to the clinical setting

Transition to clinical testing

Clinical Trial Planning

Establishing a Regulatory Pathway

Conclusions

References

Chapter 6. Tissue Engineering: Future Perspectives

Abstract

Clinical Need

Current State of the Field

Current Challenges

Future Directions

References

Part 1: The Basis of Growth and Differentiation

Chapter 7. Molecular Biology of the Cell

Abstract

The Cell Nucleus

The Cytoplasm

Growth and Death

Cytoskeleton

Cell Adhesion Molecules

Extracellular Matrix

Culture Media

Cells in Tissues and Organs

Further Reading

Chapter 8. Molecular Organization of Cells

Abstract

Introduction

Molecules that Organize Cells

The EMT Transcriptional Program

Molecular Control of the EMT

Conclusion

References

Chapter 9. The Dynamics of Cell-ECM Interactions, with Implications for Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Introduction

Cell-ECM Interactions

Signal Transduction Events During Cell-ECM Interactions

Relevance for Tissue Engineering

References

Chapter 10. Matrix Molecules and Their Ligands

Abstract

Introduction

Collagens – Major Constituents of ECM

Elastic Fibers and Microfibrils

Other Multifunctional Proteins in ECM

Proteoglycans – Multifunctional Molecules in the Extracellular Matrix and on Cell Surfaces

Conclusion

References

Chapter 11. Morphogenesis and Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs)

Cartilage-Derived Morphogenetic Proteins (CDMPs)

Pleiotropy and Thresholds

BMPs Bind to Extracellular Matrix

BMP Receptors

Responding Stem Cells

Morphogens and Gene Therapy

Biomimetic Biomaterials

Tissue Engineering of Bones and Joints

Future Challenges

References

Chapter 12. Gene Expression, Cell Determination, and Differentiation

Abstract

Introduction

Determination and Differentiation

MyoD and the bHLH Family of Developmental Regulatory Factors

MEFS and microRNAs – Coregulators of Development

Pax in Development

Satellite and Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle Differentiation and Repair

Conclusions

References

Part 2: In Vitro Control of Tissue Development

Chapter 13. Engineering Functional Tissues: In Vitro Culture Parameters

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Key Concepts for Engineering Functional Tissues

Importance of in Vitro Studies for Engineering Functional Tissues

Influence of Selected in Vitro Culture Parameters on the Development and Performance of Engineered Tissues

Conclusions

References

Chapter 14. Principles of Bioreactor Design for Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Acknowledgment

Introduction

Principles of Bioreactor Design

Advanced Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering

Summary

References

Chapter 15. Regulation of Cell Behavior by Extracellular Proteins

Abstract

Introduction

Thrombospondin-1

Thrombospondin-2

Tenascin-C

Osteopontin

SPARC

Conclusions

References

Chapter 16. Growth Factors

Abstract

Introduction

Wound Healing

Biological Properties of the SIG (Chemokine) Family Members

Growth Factors and Accelerated Healing

Role of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Angiogenesis

Pleiotrophin Remodels Tumor Microenvironment and Stimulates Angiogenesis

Other Roles of Growth Factors and Cytokines

Conclusions

References

Chapter 17. Mechanobiology, Tissue Development and Organ Engineering

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Extracellular Matrix Structure and Function

Pattern Formation Through ECM Remodeling

Mechanochemical Switching Between Cell Fates

Mechanobiology Summary

The Future

References

Part 3: In Vivo Synthesis of Tissues and Organs

Chapter 18. In Vivo Synthesis of Tissues and Organs

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Mammalian Response to Injury

Regeneration Versus Repair

Methods to Treat Loss of Organ Function

Active Extracellular Matrix Analogs

Basic Parameters for in Vivo Regeneration Studies: Reproducible, Non-regenerative Wounds

Examples of in Vivo Organ Regeneration

Conclusions

References

Part 4: Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering

Chapter 19. Micro-Scale Patterning of Cells and their Environment

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Soft Lithography

Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMS)

Microcontact Printing (μCP)

Microfluidic Patterning (μFP)

Laminar Flow Patterning

Dynamic Control of Surfaces

Patterning With Micro-Topographies

Three-Dimensional Patterning

Conclusion and Future Prospects

References

Chapter 20. Cell Interactions with Polymers

Abstract

Methods for Characterizing Cell Interactions with Polymers

Cell Interactions with Polymers

Cell Interactions with Polymers in Suspension

Cell Interactions with Three-Dimensional Polymer Scaffolds and Gels

Cell Interactions Unique to the In Vivo Setting

References

Chapter 21. Matrix Effects

Abstract

Introduction

Extracellular Matrix Proteins and Their Receptors

Model Systems for Study of Matrix Interactions

Cell Pattern Formation by Substrate Patterning

Conclusions

References

Chapter 22. Polymer Scaffold Fabrication

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Bioink: Cell Printing and Characterization

Biopaper: Structural Material Printing and Characterization

Printing Mechanism: Layer-By-Layer Approach

Final Layer Architecture and Resolution

Printing Applications: Vascularity and Organ Fabrication

Conclusions

References

Chapter 23. Biodegradable Polymers

Abstract

Introduction

Biodegradable Polymer Selection Criteria

Biologically Derived Polymers

Synthetic Polymers

Combinations (Hybrids) of Synthetic and Biologically Derived Polymers

Using Polymers to Create Tissue-Engineered Products

Conclusion

References

Chapter 24. 3D Scaffolds

Abstract

Introduction

3D Scaffold Design and Engineering

Conclusions

References

Part 5: Transplantation of Engineered Cells and Tissues

Chapter 25. The Role of the Host Immune Response in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Abstract

Introduction

Wound Healing

The Foreign Body Response

The Host Response in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Acquired and Innate Immunity in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Conclusions

References

Chapter 26. Tissue Engineering and Transplantation in the Fetus

Abstract

Introduction

General Characteristics of Fetal Cells

Fetal Tissue Engineering

Ethical Considerations

The Fetus as a Transplantation Host

Conclusions

References

Chapter 27. Immunomodulation

Abstract

Introduction

Origin of the Designer Tissue Concept

First Demonstration of the Concept

Expansion of Research on Designer Tissues

Antibody Masking

Gene Ablation

Rna Ablation

Enzyme Ablation

Mechanisms of Graft Survival After Class i Donor Ablation or Antibody Masking

Role of Class i Modifications in Resistance to Recurrent Autoimmunity

The Launching of Xenogeneic Human Clinical Trials in the United States using Immunomodulation

Comment

References

Chapter 28. Challenges in the Development of Immunoisolation Devices

Abstract

Introduction

Engineering Challenges

Strategies for Improving Immunobarrier Devices

Theoretical Analysis of PFC-Containing Microcapsules

Future Directions

References

Part 6: Stem Cells

Chapter 29. Embryonic Stem Cells

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Approaches to hESC Derivation

Maintenance of hESCs

Subculture of hESC

Nuances of hESC Culture

Directed Differentiation

Safety Concerns

Conclusions

References

Chapter 30. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Methodological Overview of iPSC Derivation

Improving Reprogramming Efficiency and the Quality of iPSCs

Comparison of iPSCs and ESCs

Current Applications of Human iPSCs

Challenges

Conclusion

References

Chapter 31. Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Potential Stem Cell Sources for use in Tissue Engineering

Discovery of Embryonic Stem Cells

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Conclusion

References

Chapter 32. Embryonic Stem Cells as a Cell Source for Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Maintenance of ESCs

Directed Differentiation

Isolation of Specific Progenitor Cells from ESCs

Transplantation

Future Prospects

Conclusions

References

Chapter 33. Postnatal Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

The reservoirs of postnatal stem cells

Current Approaches to Tissue Engineering using Postnatal Stem Cells

Conclusions

References

Part 7: Gene Therapy

Chapter 34. Gene Therapy

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Strategies of Gene Therapy

Ex Vivo Vs. In Vivo Gene Therapy

Chromosomal vs. Extra-Chromosomal Placement of the Transferred Gene

Gene Transfer Vectors

Cell-Specific Targeting Strategies

Regulated Expression of the Transferred Gene

Combining Gene Transfer with Stem Cell Strategies

Challenges to Gene Therapy for Tissue Engineering

References

Chapter 35. Gene Delivery into Cells and Tissues

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Fundamentals of Gene Delivery

Biodistribution, Targeting, Uptake, and Trafficking

Viral Nucleic Acid Delivery

Nonviral Nucleic Acid Delivery

Engineering Tissue Scaffolds for Viral and Nonviral Nucleic Acid Delivery

Clinical Applications of Tissue Engineering to Nucleic Acid Delivery

Outlook

References

Part 8: Breast

Chapter 36. Breast Tissue Engineering: Reconstruction Implants and Three-Dimensional Tissue Test Systems

Abstract

Introduction

Breast Anatomy and Development

Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatments

Breast Reconstruction

Breast Cancer Modeling

Concluding Remarks

References

Part 9: Cardiovascular System

Chapter 37. Progenitor Cells and Cardiac Homeostasis and Regeneration

Abstract

Introduction

Cardiac Progenitors in the Adult Heart

C-KIT-Positive Cardiac Stem Cells

Cardiac Stem Cell Niches

Origin of Newly Formed Cardiomyocytes

Myocyte Turnover and Cardiac Aging

Cardiac Stem Cell Senescence

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 38. Cardiac Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Clinical Problem

Engineering Cardiac Tissue: Design Principles and Key Components

Directed Cardiac Differentiation of Human Stem Cells

Scaffolds

Biophysical Cues

In Vivo Applications of Cardiac Tissue Engineering

Modeling of Disease

Summary and Challenges

References

Chapter 39. Blood Vessels

Abstract

Introduction

Current Status of Vascular Conduits

Physical or Chemical Modification of Current Grafts to Improve Durability

Therapeutic Angiogenesis and Arteriogenesis

Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts

Endovascular Stents and Stent Grafts

Conclusion

References

Chapter 40. Tissue-Engineering Heart Valves

Abstract

Introduction

The Application of Tissue Engineering Towards the Construction of A Replacement Heart Valve

Conclusion

References

Part 10: Endocrinology and Metabolism

Chapter 41. Generation of Pancreatic Islets from Stem Cells

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

First Attempts to Obtain B-Cell Like Cells by Differentiation

Steps Towards β-Cells: Protocol Comparison

Alternative Strategies for Protocol Optimization

Alternative Cell Sources

Conclusion

References

Chapter 42. Bioartificial Pancreas

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Cell Types for Pancreatic Substitutes

Construct Technology

In Vivo Transplantation

References

Chapter 43. Thymus and Parathyroid Organogenesis

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Structure and Morphology of the Thymus

In Vitro T Cell Differentiation

Thymus Organogenesis

Summary

References

Part 11: Gastrointestinal System

Chapter 44. Stem Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract

Abstract

Introduction

Gastrointestinal Mucosa Contains Multiple Lineages

Epithelial Cell Lineages Originate from a Common Precursor Cell

Single Intestinal Stem Cells Regenerate Whole Crypts Containing All epithelial Lineages

Mouse Aggregation Chimeras show that Intestinal Crypts are Clonal Populations

Somatic Mutations in Stem Cells Reveal Stem Cell Hierarchy And clonal Succession

Human Intestinal Crypts Contain Multiple Epithelial Cell Lineages Derived from a Single Stem Cell

Bone Marrow Stem Cells Contribute to gut Repopulation After Damage

Gastrointestinal Stem Cells Occupy a Niche Maintained by Isemfs in the Lamina Propria

Multiple Molecules Regulate Gastrointestinal Development, Proliferation, and Differentiation

Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway Controls Intestinal Stem Cell Function

Transcription Factors Define Regional gut Specification and Intestinal Stem Cell Fate

Multiple Molecules Define Stem Cell Fate and Cell Position in the Villus-Crypt Axis

Gastrointestinal Neoplasms Originate in Stem Cell Populations

Summary

References

Chapter 45. Liver Stem Cells

Abstract

Introduction

Definition of a Tissue-Derived Stem Cell

Cellular Organization of the Hepatobiliary System

Development of the Hepatobiliary System

Hepatocytes: Functional Units of the Liver with Stem Cell Properties

Liver Stem Cells

Stem Cells in the EHBD System

Therapeutic Approaches for Using Stem Cells in the Hepatobiliary System

Conclusion

References

Chapter 46. Hepatic Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Liver Failure and Current Treatments

Cell Sources for Liver Cell-Based Therapies

In Vitro Hepatic Culture Models

Extracorporeal Bioartificial Liver Devices

Implantable Technologies for Liver Therapies and Modeling

Conclusion

References

Part 12: Hematopoietic System

Chapter 47. Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Abstract

Introduction

Historical Background

Properties of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCS)

Ontogeny of HscS

Migration, Mobilization and Homing of HSC

Hsc Proliferation and Expansion in Vitro

Morphogens and HSC Regulation

Molecular Pathways Implicated in HSC Self-Renewal

Negative Regulation of HSC

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niches

Conclusion

References

Chapter 48. Blood Components from Pluripotent Stem Cells

Abstract

Introduction

Red Blood Cells

Megakaryocytes and Platelets

White Blood Cells

Perspectives

References

Chapter 49. Red Blood Cell Substitutes

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Modified Hemoglobin

First Generation Modified Hemoglobin

New Generations of Modified Hemoglobin

A Chemical Approach Based on Perfluorochemicals

Conclusions

Link to Websites

References

Chapter 50. Lymphoid Cells

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Properties of Lymphocytes

Lymphocyte Engineering: Reality and Potential

Criteria for Engineering Developmental Stages of Lymphopoiesis

Stages of Lymphopoiesis for Engineering

Concluding Remarks and Prospects for Lymphocyte Engineering

References

Part 13: Kidney and Genitourinary System

Chapter 51. Stem Cells in Kidney Development and Regeneration

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Kidney Development

Genes that Specify Early Kidney Cell Lineages

The Establishment of Additional Cell Lineages

Stem Cells in Kidney Regeneration

References

Chapter 52. Renal Replacement Devices

Abstract

Introduction

Basics of Kidney Function

Tissue-Engineering Approach to Renal Function Replacement

Conclusion

References

Chapter 53. Genitourinary System

Abstract

Introduction

Reconstitution Strategies

The Role of Biomaterials

Vascularization

Progress in Tissue Engineering of Urologic Structures

Additional Applications

Conclusion

References

Part 14: Musculoskeletal System

Chapter 54. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

MSC Biology Relevant to Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering

MSCs in Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering

Conclusions and Future Perspectives

References

Chapter 55. Bone Regeneration

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Current Clinical Practices

Concepts and Definitions

Fracture Healing Model

Performance Criteria for Bone Regeneration

Classical Research Approaches

Vision for Bone Regeneration

Conclusion

References

Chapter 56. Tissue Engineering for Regeneration and Replacement of the Intervertebral Disc

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

IVD Structure and Function

Biomaterials for Nucleus Pulposus Replacement

Cell-Biomaterial Constructs for IVD Regeneration

Cellular Engineering for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

Growth Factors and Other Biologics for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

Gene Therapy for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 57. Articular Cartilage Injury

Abstract

Introduction

Articular Cartilage Injury and Joint Degeneration

Mechanisms of Articular Cartilage Injuries

Response of Articular Cartilage to Injury

Preventing Joint Degeneration Following Injury

Promoting Articular Surface Repair

Conclusion

References

Chapter 58. Engineering Cartilage and Other Structural Tissues: Principles of Bone and Cartilage Reconstruction

Abstract

Introduction

Materials Development

Conclusion

References

Chapter 59. Tendons and Ligament Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Histological Description of Tendons and Ligaments

Bioengineered Tendon and Ligament Substitutes

Conclusion

References

Chapter 60. Skeletal Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Introduction

Distraction Osteogenesis

Critically Sized Defects

Cellular Therapy

Cytokines

Scaffolds

Tissue Engineering in Practice

Conclusion

References

Part 15: Nervous System

Chapter 61. The Nervous System

Abstract

Introduction

Neural Development

Neural Stem Cells

Neural Differentiation of Mouse ES Cells and iPS Cells

Derivation of ES and iPS Cell-Derived Neurons

ES-Derived Glia

Lineage Selection

Neural Differentiation of Human and Non-Human Primate ES Cells

Therapeutic Perspectives

Conclusion

References

Chapter 62. Brain Implants

Abstract

Acknowledgment

Introduction

Cell Replacement Implants

Cell Protection and Regeneration Implants

Combined Replacement and Regeneration Implants

Disease Targets for Brain Implants

Surgical Considerations

Conclusions

References

Chapter 63. Brain-Machine Interfaces

Abstract

Introduction

BMI Signals

Voluntary Activity vs. Evoked Potentials

Mutual Learning

Context-Aware BMI

Future Directions

References

Chapter 64. Spinal Cord

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

The Problem

Spinal Cord Organization

Injury

Spontaneous Regeneration

Current Limitations and Approaches to Repair and Redefining Goals

Spinal Cord Development

Embryonic Stem Cells

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Alternative Transplantation Options

Embryonic Stems Cells and The Neural Lineage

Embryonic Stem Cell Transplantation

Novel Approaches to CNS Repair

Toward Human Trials

Conclusions

References

Chapter 65. Protection and Repair of Hearing

Abstract

Introduction

Interventions to Prevent Hearing Loss/Cochlear Damage

Hair Cell Regeneration by Transdifferentiation

Loss of Auditory Nerve Connections and Auditory Nerve

Genetic Deafness

Methods of Therapeutic Intervention

Conclusions

References

Part 16: Ophthalmic

Chapter 66. Stem Cells in the Eye

Abstract

Introduction

Corneal Epithelial Stem Cells

Retinal Progenitor Cells

Bone Marrow Stem Cells

The Potential for Stem Cells in Ocular Repair and Tissue Engineering

References

Chapter 67. Corneal Replacement Tissue

Abstract

Introduction

Cornea: Overall Structure

Epithelium: Protects Eye From Noxious Stimuli and The Environment

Stroma: Provides Strength and Transparency

Endothelium: Maintains Proper Dehydration and Nutrition

Approaches to Engineering Cornea

Current Progress: Epithelium

Current Progress: Stroma

Current Progress: Endothelium

Current Progress: Biosynthetic Corneas

Sensory Innervation: Important for Corneal Health

Conclusions

References

Chapter 68. Retinal Degeneration

Abstract

Definitions

Epidemiology – Prevalence and Causes of Low Vision

Neurosensory Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium – Anatomy and Background

The Eye and the RPE

RPE Transplantation

Stem Cells in Retinal Degeneration

Delivery of Cells

Conclusions and Future Directions

References

Chapter 69. Vision Enhancement Systems

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Visual System, Architecture, and (DYS)Function

Current and Near-Term Approaches to Vision Restoration

Emerging Application Areas for Engineered Cells and Tissues

Conclusion: Toward 2020 Vision

References

Part 17: Oral/Dental Applications

Chapter 70. Biological Tooth Replacement and Repair

Abstract

Introduction

Tooth Development

Whole Tooth-Tissue Engineering

Dental-Tissue Regeneration

Conclusions

References

Chapter 71. Tissue Engineering in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Abstract

Introduction

Special Challenges in Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstruction

Current Methods of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstruction

Relevant Strategies in Oral and Maxillofacial Tissue Engineering

The Future of Oral and Maxillofacial Tissue Engineering

References

Chapter 72. Periodontal Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Stem Cells for Periodontal Bioengineering

Signaling Molecules

Scaffolding and Biomaterials Science

Periodontal Bioengineering Strategies

Challenges and Future Directions

Closing Remarks

References

Part 18: Respiratory System

Chapter 73. Tissue Engineering for the Respiratory Epithelium: Cell-Based Therapies for Treatment of Lung Disease

Abstract

Introduction: The Challenges Facing Cell-Based Therapy for Treatment of Lung Disease

Lung Morphogenesis

Exogenous Sources of Stem Cells: ES, iPS, HSC, and Mscs

Do Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Directly Contribute to Repair and Provide Protective Factors?

Bioengineering of Lung Tissues

Conclusion

References

Chapter 74. Lungs

Abstract

Introduction

Lung Function and Anatomy

Lung Developmental Biology 101: Primer for Tissue Engineers

Cell Sources for Lung Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering

Scaffolds and Three-Dimensional Pulmonary Tissue Constructs

Conclusions and Challenges

References

Part 19: Skin

Chapter 75. Cutaneous Epithelial Stem Cells

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Interfollicular Stem Cells

Hair Follicle Stem Cells

The Bulge as Stem Cell Source

Other Newly Discovered Hair Follicle Stem Cells

Stem Cells of Other Ectodermal Appendages

Hair Follicle Stem Cells in Skin Homeostasis, Wound Healing and Hair Regeneration

Stem Cells and Alopecia

Tissue Engineering with Epidermal Stem Cells

Conclusion

References

Chapter 76. Wound Repair: Basic Biology to Tissue Engineering

Abstract

Introduction

Basic Biology of Wound Repair

Chronic Wounds

Tissue-Engineered Therapy: Established Practice

Tissue-Engineered Therapy: New Approaches

References

Chapter 77. Bioengineered Skin Constructs

Abstract

Introduction

Skin Structure and Function

Engineering Skin Tissue

Epidermal Regeneration

Dermal Replacement

Bioengineered Living Skin Equivalents

Bioengineered Skin: FDA Approved Indications

Apligraf and Dermagraft: Off-Label Uses

The Importance of Wound Bed Preparation (WBP)

Proposed Mechanisms of Action (MOA) of Bioengineered Skin

Construct Priming and a New Didactic Paradigm for Constructs

Conclusion

References

Part 20: Tissue-Engineered Food

Chapter 78. Principles of Tissue Engineering for Food

Abstract

Introduction

Why Tissue Engineering of Food?

Specifics of Tissue Engineering for Medical Application

Skeletal Muscle and Fat Tissue Engineering

Specifics of Food Tissue Engineering

Enhanced Meat

Other Foods

Consumer Acceptance

References

Chapter 79. Prospects for In Vitro Cultured Meat – A Future Harvest

Abstract

Introduction

Need for and Advantages of in Vitro Cultured Meat

In Vitro Meat

Challenges in the Commercial Production of in Vitro Meat

Conclusion

References

Part 21: Clinical Experience

Chapter 80. Current State of Clinical Application

Abstract

Introduction

Current Challenges

Clinical Applications

Airway reconstruction

Conclusions

References

Chapter 81. Tissue-Engineered Skin Products

Abstract

Introduction

Types of Therapeutic Tissue-Engineered Skin Products

Components of Tissue-Engineered Skin Grafts as Related to Function

Commercial Production of Tissue-Engineered Skin Products

The Manufacture of Dermagraft and Transcyte

The Dermagraft and Transcyte Production Processes

Clinical Trials

Immunological Properties of Tissue-Engineered Skin

Commercial Success

Future Developments

Conclusion

References

Chapter 82. Tissue-Engineered Cartilage Products: Clinical Experience

Abstract

Introduction

Clinical Experience with First-Generation Aci

Clinical Evolution of Advanced-Generation Aci

Clinical Experience with Third-Generation Aci

Conclusions

References

Chapter 83. Bone Tissue Engineering: Clinical Challenges and Emergent Advances in Orthopedic and Craniofacial Surgery

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Cells, Scaffolds, and Biofactors: From Functional to Translational Tissue Engineering

Clinical Successes and Opportunities in Regenerative Repair of Diaphyseal Defects

Clinical Successes and Opportunities in Regenerative Repair of Craniofacial Defects

Conclusions

References

Chapter 84. Tissue-Engineered Cardiovascular Products

Abstract

Introduction

Clinical Need for Tissue-Engineered Cardiovascular Products

Concepts and Achievements in Engineering Cardiovascular Products

State of Myocardial Tissue Engineering

Bottlenecks

References

Chapter 85. Tissue-Engineered Organs

Abstract

Introduction

Tissue Engineering: Strategies for Tissue Reconstitution

Cell Sources

Alternate Cell Sources

Therapeutic Cloning

Biomaterials

Growth Factors

Vascularization

Clinical Applications

Conclusion

References

Part 22: Regulation, Commercialization and Ethics

Chapter 86. The Regulatory Process from Concept to Market

Abstract

Introduction

Regulatory Background

Early-Stage Development

FDA/Sponsor Meetings

Submitting an IND

Later-Phase Development Topics

Medical devices

Other Regulatory Topics

Conclusion

References

Appendix: CFR Citations Relevant to Cellular and Cell-based Product Development

Chapter 87. Business Issues

Abstract

Introduction

The Aging Population

Rise of Regenerative Medicine

Product Development

Reimbursement

Conclusion

References

Chapter 88. Ethical Issues

Abstract

Introduction

Are there Reasons, in Principle, Why Performing the Basic Research Should be Impermissible?

What Contextual Factors Should be Taken Into Account, and do any of these Prevent the Development and use of the Technology?

What Purposes, Techniques, or Applications Would be Permissible and Under What Circumstances?

On What Procedures and Structures, Involving What Policies, Should Decisions on Appropriate Techniques and uses be Based?

Conclusion

References

Epilogue

Index

 
 
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