Principles of Addiction, 1st Edition

Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders, Volume 1

 
Principles of Addiction, 1st Edition,Peter Miller,ISBN9780123983367
 
 
 

P Miller   

Academic Press

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Key Features

  • Each article provides glossary, full references, suggested readings, and a list of web resources
  • Edited and authored by the leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available
  • Encompasses types of addiction, as well as personality and environmental influences on addiction

Description

Principles of Addiction provides a solid understanding of the definitional and diagnostic differences between use, abuse, and disorder. It describes in great detail the characteristics of these syndromes and various etiological models.

The book's three main sections examine the nature of addiction, including epidemiology, symptoms, and course; alcohol and drug use among adolescents and college students; and detailed descriptions of a wide variety of addictive behaviors and disorders, encompassing not only drugs and alcohol, but caffeine, food, gambling, exercise, sex, work, social networking, and many other areas.

This volume is especially important in providing a basic introduction to the field as well as an in-depth review of our current understanding of the nature and process of addictive behaviors.

Principles of Addiction is one of three volumes comprising the 2,500-page series, Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders. This series provides the most complete collection of current knowledge on addictive behaviors and disorders to date. In short, it is the definitive reference work on addictions.

Readership

Researchers and students in psychology, psychiatry, neuroscience and neurology

Peter Miller

Peter M. Miller, Ph.D., is a clinical psychologist and Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences in the Center for Drug and Alcohol Programs at the Medical University of South Carolina. He is Editor-in-Chief of the journal Addictive Behaviors and an experienced researcher and clinician in the field of alcohol use disorders.

Affiliations and Expertise

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA

View additional works by Peter M. Miller

Principles of Addiction, 1st Edition

Preface

Scope and Format

Volume 1: Principles of Addiction

Editors: Biographies

List of Contributors

Section 1: The Nature of Addiction

Chapter 1. Historical Understandings of Addiction

Background

Models for Understanding Addiction Existing Prior to 1600 AD

Models Appearing Between 1600 and 1900 AD

Models Appearing Since 1900 AD

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Chapter 2. The Terminology of Addictive Behavior

Scientific Terminology

Connotations

Emphasis

Models and Analogies

Diagnostic Terms

Risk

Disclaimer

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Chapter 3. Epidemiology of Addiction

Introduction

Definition of Addiction

Definition of Epidemiology

Part 1. The Epidemiology of Substance Use in the United States

Part 2. The Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders in the United States

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 4. An Evolutionary Perspective on Addiction

Introduction

What is an Evolutionary Perspective?

Could Addiction Evolve?

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 5. International Perspectives on Addiction

Drug Use Across Time and Place

Evolutionary and Biological Explanations

Norms, Values, and Expectations

Reconceptualizing Drug Abuse and Addiction: A Culture-Inclusive Approach

Diverse Treatment Approaches

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 6. The Biopsychosocial Model of Addiction

Biopsychosocial vs. Biomedical Models of Addiction

Conceptual Models of Addictive Behavior

Biopsychosocial Model of Addiction

Biological Factors and the Development of Addictive Behaviors

Psychosocial Factors and the Development of Addictive Behaviors

The Biopsychosocial Model and Addiction Treatment

Psychosocial Factors in the Treatment of Addiction

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 7. Disease Model

History and Overview

Strengths of the Disease Model

Critique of Model

Positive Contributions of the Model

Summary and Future Directions

See also

Relevant Websites

Further Reading

Chapter 8. Denial and Lack of Awareness in Substance Dependence: Insights from the Neuropsychology of Addiction

Introduction

Awareness, Lie, and Denial in Addiction: A Neuroscientific Approach

Self-Awareness, Denial, and Cognitive Deficits

Conclusions and Clinical Implications

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 9. Gateway Hypothesis

Introduction

The Mechanisms of Progression in Drug Use

An Assessment of the Validity of Gateway Hypothesis

Challenging Accounts of the Gateway Hypothesis

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 10. Adolescent Substance Use: Symptoms and Course

Addiction: A Developmental Disorder

Adolescent Developmental Maturation and Risk for Substance Involvement

Two Developmental Pathways of Risk for Early Substance Involvement

Peak Periods of Risk for Substance Use Onset

Sequencing of Substance Use Initiation

Prevalence of Adolescent Substance Use

Contexts and Motives for Adolescent Substance Use

Trajectories of Adolescent Substance Use

Predictors and Outcomes of Adolescent Substance Use

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Definition of SUD

Limitations of DSM-IV SUDs

Developmentally Tailored Assessment of Substance Involvement in Youth

Development of SUDs in Adolescents

Prevalence of Adolescent SUDs

Adolescent SUD Course in Community Samples

Adolescent SUD Treatment

Post-treatment Trajectories of Adolescent Substance Involvement

Implications for Improving Adolescent Substance Use Prevention and Intervention

See also

Acknowledgments

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 11. Symptoms and Course: Alcohol Use Disorder in Adulthood

Introduction

Heavy Drinking and Alcohol Use Disorders

Early Onset of Drinking and the Development of Alcohol Dependence

Gender and the Progression of Alcohol Dependence

Alcohol Dependence and Physical Health

Alcohol Dependence and Psychiatric Comorbidity

Alcohol Dependence and Co-Occurring Substance Use

Alcohol Dependence, Treatment, and Recovery

Typological Classifications of Alcohol-Dependent Persons

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 12. Symptoms and Course: Older Age and Substance Abuse

Introduction

Alcohol

Tobacco

Prescription/Over-the-Counter Medication

Illicit Drugs

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 13. Relapse and Lapse

Models of Relapse

Determinants of Relapse

Relapse Prevention

Pharmacotherapy Approaches to Relapse Prevention

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 14. Natural Recovery

Introduction

Value of Natural Recovery Research

Rates of Natural Recovery

Review of the Natural Recovery Literature

Process of Natural Recovery

Maintenance of Natural Recovery

Methodological Issues

Natural Recovery from Problem Gambling

Conclusions and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 15. Gender Differences

Gender Differences in Alcohol Use and Related Problems

Social Context for Men’s and Women’s Drinking

Biological Contributors to the Gender Difference

Psychosocial Contributors to the Gender Difference

Consequences of Men’s and Women’s Drinking

Gender and Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 16. Minority Groups and Addictions

Definition of a Minority Group Member

Historical Circumstances

Cultural Factors Associated with Substance Use Patterns and Treatment Outcomes

Special Considerations for Research and Clinical Practice

Health Disparities and Addictive Behaviors

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 17. Medical Toxicology of Drugs of Abuse

Introduction

Characteristics of Psychoactive Drugs

Adulterants and Contaminants

Polydrug Use

Toxicological Properties of Selected Drugs

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 18. Tolerance and Withdrawal

Tolerance

Withdrawal

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 19. Overdose

Definition of Overdose

Symptom and Diagnosis

Treatment

Epidemiology

Prevalence and Mortality

Risk Factors

Consequences and Complications

Prevention

Summary

See also

Relevant Websites

Further Reading

Chapter 20. Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol and Illicit Substances

Introduction

Biological Effects of Prenatal Substance Use

Specific Substances

Addressing Prenatal Substance Use

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 21. Impulsivity, Disinhibition, and Risk Taking in Addiction

Introduction

Defining Disinhibition, Impulsivity, and Risk Taking

Relation to Addictive Behaviors

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 22. Emotions and Addictive Processes

Introduction: The Complex Relationship between Emotions and Addictive Processes

Clarification of Terms: Addiction and Emotion

Theoretical Frameworks for the Role of Emotion in Addictive Processes

Addiction and Emotion: Developmental Phases

Conclusions and Future Directions

Acknowledgments

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 23. Stress and Addiction

Introduction

Stress, Emotions, and Adaptive Behavior

Stress and the Development of Addictive Behaviors

Drug Use and Abuse and Changes in Stress and Reward Pathways

Novel Treatment Approaches to Address Stress and Drug Craving

Conclusions and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 24. Self-Medication

Neurobiological Basis of Substance Use and Addiction

Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders

Support for the SMH

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 25. Contextual Factors in Addiction

Introduction

Laboratory Studies

Contingency Management

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 26. Behavioral Economic Factors in Addictive Processes

Effect of Availability and Price of Drugs and Alternative Reinforcers

Behavioral Economic Intervention Approaches

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 27. Cognitive Factors in Addictive Processes

Introduction

Outcome Expectancies

Motives

Social Norms

Behavioral Intentions

Social Cognitive Theory

Abstinence Violation Effect/Limit Violation Effect

Implicit Cognitive Factors

Self-Regulation

Specific Substance Effects

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 28. Personality and Addiction Processes

Personality Traits Implicated in Addiction

Causal Pathways to Addiction

Summary and Implications

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 29. Spirituality and Addiction

Background

Research on the Relationship between RS and Substance Use

RS and Mutual Help

RS in the Treatment of SUDs

Faith-Based Programs

Conclusions and Recommendations

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Twelve-step groups

Christian recovery and addiction related groups

Addiction related groups from other faiths

Spiritual self-schema (3-S) therapy resources

Other faith-related addiction resources

Chapter 30. Interpersonal Factors and Addictive Disorders

Initiation of Addictive Behaviors

Maintenance of Addictive Behaviors

Resolution of Addictive Behaviors

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 31. Families and Addiction

Introduction

Family-Based Assessment

Romantic Dyad Relationship Satisfaction and Addiction

Romantic Dyad Relationship Communication Behaviors and Addiction

Partner Aggression and Addiction

Partner’s Influence on One Another’s Alcohol Use

Partner Influence in the Recovery from Addiction

The Relationship between Parental Addiction Behaviors and Their Children’s Outcomes

Pathways from Parental Addictive Behaviors to Their Children’s Behavioral Problems

Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents

Summary and Areas for Future Research

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 32. The Intergenerational Transference of Addiction

Familial Similarities for Addictive Behavior

Mechanisms in the Intergenerational Transference of Alcohol Problems

Genotype-Environmental Theories

Cognitive Perspectives

Expectancies and Refusal Self-Efficacy

The Intergenerational Transference of Addiction Related Cognitions

Concluding Comments

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 33. Peer Influences on Addiction

Overview

Theories of Peer Influence

Direct and Indirect Influences

Modeling

Social Norms

Resistance

Iatrogenic Effects

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 34. Binge Drinking

Current Definition of Binge Drinking

History of the Term

Binge Drinking in Adolescents

Binge Drinking in Young Adults

Binge Drinking in Adults

Binge Drinking in the Elderly

Gender Differences in Binge Drinking

Ethnic Differences in Binge Drinking

Cultural Differences in Binge Drinking

Prevention and Intervention Efforts

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 35. Alcohol’s Effects on Sexual Arousal and Sexual Functioning

Overview

Definitions

Alcohol and Sexual Desire

Alcohol and Sexual Arousal

Alcohol and Orgasm

Sexual Pain in Women

Suggestions for Future Research

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 36. Substance Induced Myopia

Definition

Development of the Model

Behaviors Thought to be Affected by Alcohol Myopia

Does Alcohol Myopia Explain How Intoxication Can Lead to More Prudent Behavior?

Going Beyond Alcohol: Substance Myopia?

Limitations of Myopia-Based Explanation

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 37. Metacognition in Substance Misuse

The Metacognitive Model of Psychopathology

Applying the S-REF Model to Substance Misuse

Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) for Substance Misuse

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Chapter 38. Maturing Out

Introduction

Definitions of SUDS

Documenting Maturing Out

Theoretical Models of Maturing Out

Why Does the Peak Prevalence of SUDS Occur in the Early Twenties?

Why Do People Tend to Mature Out of Substance Use?

Adult Role Attainment and Role Incompatibility Theory

Is Personality Change Associated with Maturing Out?

Maturing Out: Normative But Not Universal

Adult Roles Do Not Always Lead to Decreased Substance Involvement

Developmentally Limited SUDS Can Still Be Destructive

Cultural Differences

Maturing Out in Emerging Adulthood – Higher Rates of Recovery or Decreased Onset of New Cases?

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 39. The Effects of Substances on Driving

Substances and Driving

Substances

Conclusion

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 40. Defining and Assessing Drug Craving

Advantages of Assessing Craving

Elements in the Definition of Craving

Etiological Explanations of Craving

Self-Reports of Subjective Urges and Craving

Self-Reports of Other Behaviors Considered Indirect Indications of Craving

Observation of Behavioral and Physiological Indicators of Craving

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 41. Deprivation, Craving, and Affect: Intersecting Constructs in Addiction

Introduction

Deprivation/Withdrawal

Craving

Affect

Negative Reinforcement

Self-Medication Models

Positive Reinforcement

Expectancy Theory

Affect-Induced Craving

Craving and Mixed Affect

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 42. Implicit and Associative Processes in Addiction

Why Do Things That Harm?

One Process or Multiple Processes?

Definition

Indirect Tests

Different Processes

Assessment and Findings

Origins and Relation to the Development of Addictive Behaviors

Potential for New Interventions

Conclusion

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 43. Cue Reactivity

Cue Reactivity

Conditioning and Learning Theories

Cognitive Theories

Biases in Automatic Processing of Substance Cues

Neurobiology of Cue Reactivity

Clinical Applications

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 44. Craving and Expectancies

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 45. Attentional Biases in Craving

Attentional Biases in Craving

Further Reading

Chapter 46. Sensory Imagery in Craving

What Is Sensory Imagery?

The Role of Sensory Imagery in Motivation

Sensory Imagery and Craving

Cognitive Psychology of Imagery – Clues to Tackling Craving Imagery

Interfering with Craving

Directions for Treating Addiction by Tackling Craving

Future Directions for Craving Interventions

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 47. Neural Correlates of Craving for Psychoactive Drugs

Introduction

Craving Elicitation and Measurement

Spatial Dynamics of Neural Systems Involved in Drug Craving

Role of Interoception in Craving: Insular Cortex and Anterior Cingulate Cortex

Neuroimaging Evidence Linking Interoception and Craving

Model of Interoceptive Dysfunction Associated with Craving

Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Craving

Methodological Issues

Future Directions

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 48. Interference with Concurrent Tasks

Overview

Evidence that Cravings Interfere with Cognitive Performance

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 49. Relation of Craving and Appetitive Behavior

Craving: Definition and Conceptualization

Assessing Craving

The Study of Craving: Laboratory and Field-Based Research Methodologies

Relationship between Craving and Behavior

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 50. International Data on the Prevalence and Correlates of Comorbid Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders

United States

Europe

Australia

New Zealand

Discussion

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 51. Models of Relationships between Substance Use and Mental Disorders

Secondary Psychiatric Disorder Models

Cannabis as a Precipitant of Psychosis

Substance Use and Precipitation of Bipolar Disorder

Secondary Substance Use Disorder Models

Common Factor Models

Bidirectional Models

Conclusions

Further Reading

Chapter 52. Substance Use and Mood Disorders

The Prevalence of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use Problems

The Prevalence of Mood Disorders

The Prevalence of Comorbid Alcohol/Other Drug Use and Mood Disorders

Etiological Models of Alcohol/Other Drug Use and Mood Problems

The Impact of Comorbid Alcohol/Other Drug Use and Mood Disorders

Smoking and Mood Disorders

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 53. Substance Use in Response to Anxiety Disorders

Importance of Self-medication

Evidence for Self-medication

Mediators and Moderators

Other Questions about Self-medication

Gaps in the Literature

Treatment Considerations

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 54. Cannabis Use and the Development and Maintenance of Psychosis

Introduction

Cannabis Use and Schizophrenia Onset

Impact of Cannabis Use on the Course of Schizophrenia

Intervention Studies

Biological Plausibility

An Overall Evaluation

Cannabis Use and Bipolar Disorder

What are the Policy Implications of the Evidence?

Informing Young People about the Mental Health Risks of Cannabis Use

Policies Toward Recreational Cannabis Use

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 55. Impact of Substance Use on the Course of Serious Mental Disorders

Causes of Comorbidity

The Neurobiology of Substance Use in Severe Mental Disorders

Does Causality Matter?

What are the Common Comorbid Disorders and What is their Impact?

Schizophrenia

Major Depressive Disorder

Bipolar Disorder

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Section 2: Alcohol and Drug Prevention Adolescents and College Students

Chapter 56. Developmental Risk Taking and the Natural History of Alcohol and Drug Use among Youth

Normative Development of Risk Taking

Initiation of Alcohol and Drug Use

Developmental Trajectories

Risk and Protective Factors

Developmental Transitions

Implications for Health and Prevention

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 57. Epidemiology of Adolescent and Young Adult Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use and Misuse in the United States

Background

Extent and Nature of Substance Use by Adolescents and Young Adults

Consequences of Underage and Young Adult Substance Use

Extent and Nature of SUDS among Adolescents and Young Adults

A Continual Challenge – Recent and Emerging Issues

What Does It All Mean? Summary and Final Thoughts

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 58. Alcohol and Drug Use in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth and Young Adults

Introduction

Overview of LGBT Populations

Oppression of LGBT People

Substance Use in LGBT Populations

Substance Use Differences Across Race/Ethnicity in LGBT Populations

Substance Use in Transgender Populations

Correlates of Substance Use in LGBT Populations

Substance Abuse Treatment for LGBT Populations

LGBT Youth and Young Adults

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 59. Athletes and Substance Use

Prevalence and Reasons for Substance Use among Athletes

Treating and Preventing Substance Use among Athletes

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 60. Cultural Influences on Youth Alcohol and Drug Use

Including Cultural Variables in Substance Use Research

Rates of Substance Use Among Ethnic Minority Youth in the US

Summary of Research Regarding Cultural Influences on Substance Use in the US

Substance Abuse Treatment for Ethnic Minority Youth

Research on Youth in Other Countries

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 61. Substance Use and Mental Health Issues on the College Campus

Overview of Substance Use Trends in the United States

Overview of Mental Health Trends in the United States

Overview of the Overlap of Mental Health Issues and Substance Use

Screening/Outreach Efforts

Counseling Center Impressions

Implications for Prevention and Intervention

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 62. Costs and Consequences (Morbidity and Mortality) Associated with Adolescent and College Drinking and Related Problems

Heavy Episodic Drinking and Driving under the Influence of Alcohol

Total Alcohol-Related Unintentional Injury Deaths

Interventions to Reduce College Drinking

Individual-Level Interventions

Normative Re-Education Interventions

Parent Initiatives

Environmental Interventions: Legal Drinking Age of 21

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 63. Drinking Patterns, Alcohol Consumption, and Aggressive Behavior

Alcohol and Aggression

Definitions and Distinctions

Alcohol Users and Violence

Alcohol Use and Aggressive Events

Experimental Studies

Explanations for the Relationship Between Alcohol and Aggression

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 64. Alcohol and Sexual Violence

Overview

Prevalence of Sexual Violence

Research on Alcohol and Sexual Violence

Characteristics of Alcohol-Involved Assaults

Alcohol-related Pathways to Perpetration and Victimization

Sequelae of Alcohol-Related Victimization

Prevention of Alcohol-Related Assaults

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 65. Alcohol, Sexual Risk Taking, and Sexually Transmitted Infections

At-Risk Populations

Assessment of Alcohol’s Role in Sexual Risk Taking and STIS

Influences on Alcohol and Sexual Risk Taking

Prevention and Intervention

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Section 3: Types of Addiction

Chapter 66. Alcohol Use Disorders

Defining Alcohol Use Disorders

Prevalence of Alcohol Use Disorders

Harms Associated with Alcohol Use

Theories of Alcohol Use Disorders

Treatments for Alcohol Use Disorders

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 67. Heroin Addiction

Prevalence of Heroin Addiction

Pharmacological and Clinical Aspects of Heroin Addiction

Policy

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 68. Cocaine Addiction

Introduction

Botany

History of Coca and Cocaine

Epidemiology of Cocaine Use

Pharmacology of Cocaine

Treatment

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 69. Marijuana Use and Abuse

Introduction

Prevalence

Pharmacokinetics and Intoxication Features

Classification

Motivational Bases

Negative Correlates

Motivation to Quit, Reasons for Quitting, and Success in Quitting

Clinical Issues

Summary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 70. Methamphetamine Addiction

What is Methamphetamine?

History

Global Trends in Use

Effects of Methamphetamine

Dependence on Methamphetamine

Neurochemistry

Pharmacokinetics

Isomers

Chemical Production and Precursors

Precursor Regulation as a Method of Supply Control

Adulterants

Forms of Methamphetamine

Natural History of Methamphetamine Use

Methamphetamine Use Patterns

Methamphetamine Injection

Methamphetamine Smoking

Methamphetamine Psychosis

Aggression and Violent Behavior

Depression and Other Mental Health Problems

Neurotoxicity

Cognitive Deficits

HIV Risk

Crime

Dental Problems

Cardiovascular Effects

Mortality

Treatment and Management

Summary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 71. Hallucinogens

Neurobiology of Hallucinogens

Physiological Effects

Psychological Effects

Epidemiology of Hallucinogen Use

Diagnosis of Hallucinogen Intoxication and Hallucinogen Abuse and Dependence

Comorbidity with Other Drug Use, Drug-Use Disorders, and Psychiatric Disorders

Prevention/Intervention

Treatment

See also

Further reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 72. Ecstasy/MDMA

What is Ecstasy/MDMA

History of MDMA

Neurobiology of Ecstasy Use

Epidemiology/Patterns of Ecstasy Use

Ecstasy Use and Special Populations

Predictors/Correlates of Ecstasy Use

Consequences of Ecstasy Use

Treatment for Ecstasy Use

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 73. Inhalants

Introduction

What is Inhalant Use?

Patterns of Inhalant Use

Incidence and Prevalence of Inhalant Use

Assessment and Diagnosis for Inhalant Use Disorders

Prevalence and Correlates of Inhalant Use Disorders

Psychiatric Comorbidities, Medical Consequences, and Mortality

Prevention and Treatment

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 74. Ketamine

Introduction

History of Ketamine

Pharmacological and Toxicological Effects of Ketamine

Patterns of Use

Effects of Ketamine

Therapeutic Value of Ketamine in Humans

Ketamine-Related Mortality

Ketamine-Related Morbidity

Ketamine Dependence

Public Health Issues Associated with Ketamine Use

The Legal Status of Ketamine

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 75. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use and Dependence

Definition of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

History

Prevalence of Illicit AAS Use

AAS Dependence

Mechanisms of AAS Dependence

Hazards of AAS Dependence

Future Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 76. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications

Introduction

Risk and Protective Factors

Specific Medications

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 77. Tobacco

Tobacco: An Introduction

Theory of Addiction

Epidemiology of Smoking

Public Health Issues

Vulnerable Groups

Genetics

Treating Tobacco Dependence

Clinical Trials

Tobacco Policy and Control

Tobacco Marketing

Summary

Acknowledgment

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 78. Caffeine and Caffeinated Energy Drinks

Background

Beneficial Effects of Caffeine

Caffeine and Sports Performance

Caffeine and Sleep Deprivation

Caffeine and Sustained Military Operations

Caffeine and Shift Work

Caffeine and Safety at Work

Caffeine and Human Error

Caffeine and Driving

Caffeine and Dementia

Caffeine and Anxiety and Depression

Chronic Health Effects of Caffeine Consumption

Caffeine: An Atypical Drug of Dependence

Caffeine Withdrawal

Beneficial Effects of Caffeine or Removal of Negative Effects of Withdrawal?

Tolerance

Cross-Sensitization

Caffeine and Children and Adolescents

Energy Drinks

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 79. Food Addictions

Definition

Magnitude of the Problem

Supportive Evidence

T2DM and Why Food Addictions Matter

Future Research

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 80. Gambling

Epidemiology of Problem Gambling

Classification of Problem Gambling

Theoretical Models of Problem Gambling

Screening and Diagnosing Problem Gambling

Risk Factors and Problem Gambling

Psychological Treatment of Problem Gambling

Pharmacological Treatments of Problem Gambling

Summary of Treatment Efficacy

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 81. Internet Addiction: Cybersex

Defining Cybersex

Text Cybersex

Televideo Cybersex

Cybersex and Real-Life Sex

Appeals of Cybersex

Safe Sex

Fantasy Appeal

Therapeutic Values

Risks of Cybersex

Emotional Risks

Crossover into Real Life

Cybersex Participants

Cybersex Addiction

Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 82. Video Game Addiction

Introduction

The Meaning of Video Game Addiction

Features of Video Game Addiction

Physical Symptoms

Prevalence

Course and Onset

Demographic Profile

Individual Risk Factors

Video Game Structural Characteristics

Assessment

Treatment

Research Issues

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 83. Exercise Dependence

Exercise Dependence Defined

Investigation of Exercise Dependence

Neurobiological Explanations

Psychological Explanations

Primary versus Secondary Exercise Dependence

Potential Negative Consequences of Exercise Dependence

Measurement and Diagnosis of Exercise Dependence

Treatment of Exercise Dependence

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 84. Work Addiction

Introduction

Assessment

Prevalence

Workaholism and Antecedents

Outcomes and Correlates of Workaholism

Treatment

Future Research Directions

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 85. Shopping Addiction

Introduction and Definition

Epidemiology

Addictive Nature of the Disorder

Other Clinical Aspects

Differential Diagnosis

Addictive and Psychiatric Comorbidity

Treatment

Conclusion

Further Reading

Chapter 86. Sexual Addiction

Introduction

The Nature of Sexually Addictive Behavior

The Prevalence of Sexually Addictive Behavior

The Neuropsychology of Sexual Arousal and Desire

Sexual Addiction as an Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Failures of Self-Regulation

Treatment

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 87. Areca Nut, Betel Quids, and Associated Products

Introduction

History

Epidemiology

Preparations (see Table 87.1)

Route of Administration

Sought After Effects (see Table 87.2)

Pharmacology and Physiology

Short-Term Adverse (see Table 87.3)

Long-Term Effects (see Table 87.4)

Other Health Consequences

Effects on Pregnancy and the Newborn

Abuse Liability and Dependence

Assessment of Use and Dependence

Cultivation, Commercialization, and Regulation

Interventions

Public Health and Policy Approaches (see Table 87.5)

Treatment Responses (see Table 87.6)

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Chapter 88. Khat Addiction

Introduction

Prevalence of Khat Use

Is Khat a Drug?

Pharmacology

Khat Abuse and Dependency

Khat and Medical Problems

Khat and Social Problems

Khat Addiction Treatment

Khat and Regulations

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 89. Internet: Immersive Virtual Worlds

The Definition of Immersive Virtual Worlds

A Brief Historical Outline of VR Technology

The Technological Aspects of Immersive Virtual Environments

Immersion in Virtual Worlds

Methods to Measure Immersion

Applications and Extensions of VR Technologies

The Profound Effects on People’s Daily Lives

Excessive Involvement: Internet Addiction

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 90. Waterpipe Smoking

Introduction

The Epidemiology of Waterpipe Smoking

The Public Health Implications of Waterpipe Smoking

The Intervention and Policy Implications of the Waterpipe Epidemic

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 91. The Cell Phone in the Twenty-First Century: A Risk for Addiction or a Necessary Tool?

What Makes Cell Phone Use So Gratifying?

What Is the Social Significance of Text Messaging?

Differences in Usage in Terms of Gender and Age

Is There Such a Thing as Addiction to Cell Phones?

Summary

See Also

Further Reading

Chapter 92. Overuse of Social Networking

Introduction

Overuse of Social Networking Sites

Early Warning Signs of a Potential Social Networking Dependence

Is Overuse of Social Networking a Primary or Secondary Problem?

Risk Factors

Protective Factors

Treatment Considerations

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Index

Quotes and reviews

"...a “must have” for libraries, especially where courses directly or indirectly related to addiction issues are run...can serve as a reference guide as well as providing the foundation for an in-depth understanding of the field."--Drugs and Alcohol Today, Principles of Addiction, Volume 1

"This volume provides a basic understanding of the definitional and diagnostic differences among use, abuse, and disorders. It describes in great detail the characteristics, etiology, and commonalities among all of these syndromes. It also describes a variety of addictive behaviors, both behavioral- and substance-based, and their similarities and differences. It is part of an exceptional, comprehensive series that should serve as a reference for all involved in the field."--Doody.com, January 3, 2014
"Ed. by Peter M. Miller. (Comprehensive addictive behaviors and disorders, v.1)"--Reference & Research Book News, December 2013

 
 
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