- Reviews, critiques and compares multiple theories on formulation
- Identifies benefits of utilizing the individual case approach
- Guides trainee therapists how to conduct assessment interviews and reach a provisional formulation
- Presents a conceptual framework for developing and testing a formulation
- Helps trainees make explicit their clinical reasoning
- Field-tested for several decades
- Provides case examples with annotated transcripts to illustrate the process of formulation
Individual Case Formulation presents formulation as a process that can be taught systematically to trainee therapists. The book begins by discussing assorted theories of case formulation, and critiques their ability to be applied in real world situations. The individual case formulation approach is then defined and discussed as a way to integrate the best of what different theoretical orientations have to offer in conjunction with the expertise and clinical judgment of the therapist. The book proposes a systemic/functional framework that focuses on difficulties as defined by the client and emphasizes constructive solutions to problems rather than symptom reduction. Moving from theory to application, the book then guides therapists in how to conduct assessment interviews, how to reach a provisional formulation, how to test that formulation for accuracy and reformulate if necessary, how a therapist can make explicit what their clinical reasoning was in making the case formulation, and provides case examples and transcripts so readers will better grasp the concepts in action.
Intended both for the starting or trainee therapist and the experienced clinician, Individual Case Formulation provides a practical guide for those looking to improve their case formulation skills.
Richard Hallam, in a significant contribution to the understanding of this topic, presents us with both a scholarly and reflective review about the nature of Individual Case Formulation (ICF) in contemporary psychotherapy, and, also with a practical guide (well illustrated with case material) about how it may be further developed.
...this thought provoking book provides a timely review of both conceptual bases of ICF and an examination of current assumptions underlying ICF in the light of modern pressures to put people’s psychological problems and complexities in to over simple categories, such as medical diagnoses.
This is a book that should be a major reference text in all clinical and counselling psychology courses but, it is also a thought provoking volume to read for the established practitioner (or clinician).
-David J. de L. Horne, Clinical Psychologist
Clinical psychologists and trainees for same.
Individual Case Formulation, 1st Edition
1. Formulation-the Main Issues
Case Formulation in Context
Different Models of Case Formulation
"Good and Bad" Therapists
Case Formulation and the Medical Model
Reasoning about Individual Cases
2. Conceptual Frameworks for Case Formulation
Reconciling Nomothetic Principles with an Idiographic Analysis
Is a Therapist’s Competence Related to Therapeutic Success?
Has Progress Been Made in Psychotherapy?
A Framework for Describing Problems
Literal Description versus Interpretation/Hypothesis
Who Owns the Formulation: Therapist or Client?
A Common Language for Problem Description
How Do Therapists Acquire Their Skills?
Different Models of Formulation and Their Relationship to Intervention
Some Initial Proposals for ICF
3. Evidence-Based Practice: Diagnostic and Transdiagnostic Approaches
Client’s Problems as an Expression of Natural Dysfunctions (Disorders)
The Effect of Disorder-Specific Models on Practice
A Critique of Randomized Control Trials and Manuals as the Basis for Practice
Manuals as a Model for Routine Practice (MEBP)
Does MEBP Serve Best Practice or Other Purposes?
The Move Toward Transdiagnostic Models
4. Theory and Evidence in Individual Case Formulation
Grounds for Emphasizing Common Factors in Therapy
Arguments for Change Methods Based on Specific Theoretical Principles
Current Status of Individualized Approaches to Therapy
5. The Process of Reasoning in Individual Case Formulation
Are Practitioners Able to Think Objectively?
Ways of Learning about Single Individuals
Common Errors in Processing Information about Clients
Different Types of Logical Reasoning
6. Narrative and Textual Analysis in Formulation
Social Constructionist Narrative Therapy
Discourse: A Different Paradigm for Formulation?
The Inadequacy of Textual Analysis Alone
Constructing New Narratives and the Process of Formulation
Dialogical Sequence Analysis (Stiles et al., 2006)
A Narrative Approach to the Formulation of Obsessions (O’Connor, Aardema, & Pélissier, 2005)
7. Formulation Skills and the Therapeutic Relationship
The Therapist as Healer or Shaman
Correlational Research on Predictors of Outcome
What Accounts for Differences in Therapist Effectiveness?
8. A Functional/Systemic Framework for Case Formulation
Basic Components of a Behavioral Description
Conventions for Producing a Functional Case Formulation Diagram
9. Future Prospects for Individual Case Formulation
Do Mental Health Professionals Really Take Case Formulation Seriously?
Is "Good-Enough" Therapy Good Enough?
Training in Case Formulation
The Dissemination of Evidence-Based Practice
The Future of Diagnostic-Led Formulation
The Trend Toward Positive Psychology
Guidelines for Assessment and Constructing an Individual Case Formulation (ICF)
Section A. Gathering Information for the Initial Formulation
Section B. Hypothesis-Driven Interviewing
Section C. Conventions for an ICF Diagram
Section D. Extended Assessment and ICF
Section E. Choice of Intervention: Revising the Formulation When an Intervention Fails