Analog Circuit Design Volume 2, 1st Edition

Immersion in the Black Art of Analog Design

 
Analog Circuit Design Volume 2, 1st Edition,Bob Dobkin,Jim Williams,ISBN9780123978882
 
 
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The second compilation of Linear Technology’s renowned App Notes: high quality, sought after real-world solutions for analog designers

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Key Features

  • This is the companion volume to the successful Analog Circuit Design: A Tutorial Guide to Applications and Solutions (October 2011), which has sold over 5000 copies in its the first 6 months of since publication. It extends the Linear Technology collection of application notes, which provides analog experts with a full collection of reference designs and problem solving insights to apply to their own engineering challenges
  • Full support package including online resources (LTSpice)
  • Contents include more application notes on power management, and data conversion and signal conditioning circuit solutions, plus an invaluable circuit collection of reference designs

Description

Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book’s in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today’s demanding designs.

Readership

Electronics engineers and designers; analog designers; engineering students; electronics hobbyists

Bob Dobkin

Bob Dobkin is a founder and Chief Technical Officer of Linear Technology Corporation. Prior to 1999, he was responsible for all new product development at Linear. Before founding Linear Technology in 1981, Dobkin was Director of Advanced Circuit Development at National Semiconductor for eleven years. He has been intimately involved in the development of high performance linear integrated circuits for over 30 years and has generated many industry standard circuits. Dobkin holds over 100 patents pertaining to linear ICs and has authored over 50 articles and papers. He attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Linear Technology Corporation, Milpitas, CA, USA

View additional works by Bob Dobkin

Jim Williams

Jim Williams, who worked for Linear Technology for nearly three decades, was a talented and prolific circuit designer and author in the field of analog electronics until his untimely passing in 2011. In nearly 30 years with Linear, he had the unique role of staff scientist with interests spanning product definition, development and support. Before joining Linear Technology in 1982, Williams worked in National Semiconductor’s Linear Integrated Circuits Group for three years. Williams was a legendary circuit designer, problem solver, mentor and writer with writings published as Linear application notes and EDN magazine articles. In addition, he was writer/editor of four books. Williams was named Innovator of the Year by EDN magazine in 1992, elected to Electronic Design Hall of Fame in 2002, and was honored posthumously by EDN and EE Times in 2012 as the first recipient of the Jim Williams Contributor of the Year Award.

Affiliations and Expertise

Linear Technology Corporation, Milpitas, California

View additional works by Jim Williams

Analog Circuit Design Volume 2, 1st Edition

Dedication 1

Dedication 2

Publisher’s Note

Trade marks

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Why I Write

Foreword

PART 1: Power Management

Section 1: Power Management Tutorials

Section 1. Power Management Tutorials

Performance enhancement techniques for three-terminal regulators (1)

Load transient response testing for voltage regulators (2)

A closed-loop, wideband, 100A active load (3)

Chapter 1. Performance enhancement techniques for three-terminal regulators

Chapter 2. Load transient response testing for voltage regulators: Practical considerations for testing and evaluating results

Introduction

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

References

Chapter 3. A closed-loop, wideband, 100A active load: Brute force marries controlled speed

Introduction

Basic load transient generator

Closed-loop load transient generator

Detailed circuitry discussion

Circuit testing

Layout effects

Regulator testing

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

References

Section 2: Switching Regulator Design

Section 2. Switching Regulator Design

Some thoughts on DC/DC converters (4)

Theoretical considerations for buck mode switching regulators (5)

Chapter 4. Some thoughts on DC/DC converters

Introduction

5V to ±15V converter circuits

Micropower quiescent current converters

200mA output 1.5V to 5V converter

High efficiency converters

Wide range input converters

High voltage converters

Switched-capacitor based converters

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

Appendix F

Appendix G

Appendix h

References

Chapter 5. Theoritical considerations for buck mode switching regulators

Introduction

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Package/order information

Block Diagram Description

Typical performance characteristics

Pin Descriptions

Ground Pin

Feedback Pin

Shutdown Pin

Status Pin (Available Only On LT1176 Parts)

ILIM PIN

Error Amplifier

Definition of Terms

Positive Step-Down (Buck) Converter

Tapped-Inductor Buck Converter

Positive-To-Negative Converter

Negative Boost Converter

Inductor Selection

Micropower Shutdown

5-Pin Current Limit

Soft-Start

Output Filters

Input Filters

Oscilloscope Techniques

EMI Suppression

Troubleshooting Hints

Section 3: Linear Regulator Design

Section 3. Linear Regulator Design

High efficiency linear regulators (6)

Chapter 6. High efficiency linear regulators

Introduction

Regulation from stable inputs

Regulation from unstable input—AC line derived case

SCR pre-regulator

DC input pre-regulator

10A regulator with 400mV dropout

Ultrahigh efficiency linear regulator

Micropower pre-regulated linear regulator

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

References

Section 4: High Voltage and High Current Applications

Section 4. High Voltage and High Current Applications

High voltage, low noise, DC/DC converters (7)

Chapter 7. High voltage, low noise, DC/DC converters: A kilovolt with 100 microvolts of noise

Introduction

Resonant royer based converters

Switched current source based resonant royer converters

Low noise switching regulator driven resonant royer converters

Controlled transition push-pull converters

Flyback converters

Summary of circuit characteristics

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix c

Appendix D

Appendix e

Appendix F

Appendix G

References

Section 5: Powering Illumination Devices

Section 5. Powering Illumination Devices

A fourth generation of LCD backlight technology (8)

Simple circuitry for cellular telephone/ camera flash illumination (9)

Chapter 8. A fourth generation of LCD backlight technology: Component and measurement improvements refine performance

Preface

Introduction

Perspectives on display efficiency

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

Appendix F

Appendix G

Appendix H

Appendix I

Appendix J

Appendix K

Appendix L

References

Chapter 9. Simple circuitry for cellular telephone/camera flash illumination: A practical guide for successfully implementing flashlamps

Introduction

Flash illumination alternatives

Flashlamp basics

Support circuitry

Flash capacitor charger circuit considerations

Detailed circuit discussion

Lamp layout, RFI and related issues

Appendix A

References

Section 6: Automotive and Industrial Power Design

Section 6. Automotive and Industrial Power Design

Extending the input voltage range of PowerPath circuits for automotive and industrial applications (10)

Chapter 10. Extending the input voltage range of powerpath circuits for automotive and industrial applications

Introduction

Extending the voltage range

Circuit for large negative input voltages

Circuit for large positive input voltages

Conclusion

PART 2: Data Conversion, Signal Conditioning and High Frequency/RF

Section 1: Data Conversion

Section 1. Data Conversion

Circuitry for single cell operation (11)

Component and measurement advances ensure 16-bit DAC settling time (12)

Fidelity testing for A→D converters (13)

Chapter 11. Circuitry for single cell operation

10kHz V→F converter

10-bit A/D converter

Sample-hold amplifier

Fast sample-hold amplifier

Temperature compensated crystal clock

Voltage boosted output amplifier

5V output switching regulator

Chapter 12. Component and measurement advances ensure 16-bit DAC settling time: The art of timely accuracy

Introduction

DAC settling time

Considerations for measuring DAC settling time

Practical DAC settling time measurement

Detailed settling time circuitry

Using the sampling-based settling time circuit

Compensation capacitor effects

Verifying results—alternate methods

Alternate method I—bootstrapped clamp

Alternate method II—sampling oscilloscope

Alternate method III—differential amplifier

Thermally induced settling errors

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

Appendix F

Appendix G

Appendix H

References

Chapter 13. Fidelity testing for A→D converters

Introduction

Overview

Oscillator circuitry

Verifying oscillator distortion

A→D testing

Appendix A

Section 2: Signal Conditioning

Section 2. Signal Conditioning

Applications for a new power buffer (14)

Thermal techniques in measurement and control circuitry (15)

Methods for measuring op amp settling time (16)

High speed comparator techniques (17)

Designs for high performance voltage- to-frequency converters (18)

Unique IC buffer enhances op amp designs, tames fast amplifiers (19)

Power gain stages for monolithic amplifiers (20)

Composite amplifiers (21)

A simple method of designing multiple order all pole bandpass filters by cascading 2nd order sections (22)

FilterCAD user’s manual, version 1.10 (23)

30 nanosecond settling time measurement for a precision wideband amplifier (24)

Application and optimization of a 2GHz differential amplifier/ADC driver (25)

2 nanosecond, 0.1% resolution settling time measurement for wideband amplifiers (26)

An introduction to acoustic thermometry (27)

Chapter 14. Applications for a new power buffer

Buffered output line driver

Fast, stabilized buffer amplifier

Video line driving amplifier

Fast, precision sample-hold circuit

Motor speed control

Fan-based temperature controller

Chapter 15. Thermal techniques in measurement and control circuitry

Temperature controller

Thermally stabilized pin photodiode signal conditioner

50MHz bandwidth thermal RMS→DC converter

Low flow rate thermal flowmeter

Thermally-based anemometer (air flowmeter)

Low distortion, thermally stabilized Wien Bridge oscillator

References

Chapter 16. Methods of measuring op amp settling time

References

Chapter 17. High speed comparator techniques

Introduction

The LT1016—an overview

The Rogue’s gallery of high speed comparator problems

Oscilloscopes

Applications section

Fast track-and-hold circuit

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

References

Chapter 18. Designs for high performance voltage-to-frequency converters

Ultra-high speed 1hz to 100mhz v→f converter

Fast response 1hz to 2.5Mhz v→f converter

High stability quartz stabilized v→f converter

Ultra-linear v→f converter

Single cell v→f converter

Sine wave output v→f converter

1/X transfer function v→f converters

Ex transfer function v→f converter

→frequency converter

References

Chapter 19. Unique IC buffer enhances op amp designs, tames fast amplifiers

Introduction

Design concept

Basic design

Follower boost

Charge storage PNP

Isolation-base transistor

Complete circuit

Buffer performance

Bandwidth

Phase delay

Step response

Output impedance

Capacitive loading

Slew response

Input offset voltage

Input bias current

Voltage gain

Output resistance

Output noise voltage

Saturation voltage

Supply current

Total harmonic distortion

Maximum power

Short circuit characteristics

Isolating capacitive loads

Integrators

Impulse integrator

Parallel operation

Wideband amplifiers

Track and hold

Bidirectional current sources

Voltage regulator

Voltage/current regulator

Supply splitter

Overload clamping

Conclusions

Appendix

Chapter 20. Power gain stages for monolithic amplifiers

150mA output stage

High current booster

UltraFast™ fed—forward current booster

Simple voltage gain stages

High current rail-to-rail output stage

±120V output stage

Unipolar output, 1000V gain stage

±15V powered, bipolar output, voltage gain stage

References

Chapter 21. Composite amplifiers

Chapter 22. A simple method of designing multiple order all pole bandpass filters by cascading 2nd order sections

Introduction

Designing bandpass filters

Example 1—design

Hardware implementation

Designing bandpass filters—theory behind the design

Cascading identical 2nd order bandpass sections

Example 2—design

Hardware implementation

Mode 2 operation of ltc1060 family

Cascading more than two identical 2nd order BP sections

Using the tables

Example 3—design

Example 3—frequency response estimation

Example 3—implementation

Chapter 23. FilterCAD user’s manual, version 1.10

What is filtercad?

License agreement/disclaimer

Filtercad download

Hardware requirements

What is a filter?

Step one, the basic design

Step two, graphing filter response

Implementing the filter

Saving your filter design

Loading a filter design file

Printing a report

Quitting filtercad

A Butterworth lowpass example

A Chebyshev bandpass example

Two elliptic examples

A custom example

Editing cascade order

More practical examples

Notches…the final frontier

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Chapter 24. 30 nanosecond settling time measurement for a precision wideband amplifier: Quantifying prompt certainty

Introduction

Settling time defined

Considerations for measuring nanosecond region settling time

Practical nanosecond settling time measurement

Detailed settling time circuitry

Using the sampling-based settling time circuit

Compensation capacitor effects

Verifying results—alternate method

Summary and results

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

References

Chapter 25. Application and optimization of a 2GHz differential amplifier/ADC driver

Introduction

Low distortion

Low noise

Gain and power options

Input considerations

Dynamic range and output networks

Stability

Layout considerations

Conclusion

Appendix A Terms and definitions

Appendix B Sample noise calculations

Appendix COptimizing noise performance by calculation of voltage and current noise correlation

References

Chapter 26. 2 nanosecond, 0.1% resolution settling time measurement for wideband amplifiers: Quantifying quick quiescence

Introduction

Settling time defined

Considerations for measuring nanosecond region settling time

Practical nanosecond settling time measurement

Detailed settling time circuitry

Using the sampling-based settling time circuit

Verifying results—alternate method

Summary of results and measurement limits

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

Appendix F

Appendix G

Appendix H

References

Chapter 27. An introduction to acoustic thermometry: An air filled olive jar teaches signal conditioning

Introduction

Acoustic thermometry

Practical considerations

Overview

Detailed circuitry

Appendix A

Appendix B

References

Section 3: High Frequency/RF Design

Section 3. High Frequency/RF Design

Low noise varactor biasing with switching regulators (28)

Low cost coupling methods for RF power detectors replace directional couplers (29)

Improving the output accuracy over temperature for RMS power detectors (30)

Chapter 28. Low noise varactor biasing with switching regulators: Vanquishing villainous vitiators vis-à-vis vital varactors

Introduction

Varactor biasing considerations

Low noise switching regulator design

Layout issues

Level shifts

Test circuit

Noise performance

Effects of poor measurement technique

Frequency-domain performance

Appendix A

Zetex variable capacitance diodes

Appendix B

Appendix C

References

Chapter 29. Low cost coupling methods for RF power detectors replace directional couplers

Introduction

Chapter 30. Improving the output accuracy over temperature for RMS power detectors

Introduction

Ltc5583 temperature compensation design

2nd Iteration calculation

LTC5582 single detector

Conclusion

PART 3: Circuit Collections

Part 3. Circuit Collections

Circuit techniques for clock sources (31)

Measurement and control circuit collection (32)

Circuit collection, volume I (33)

Video circuit collection (34)

Practical circuitry for measurement and control problems (35)

Circuit collection, volume III: data conversion, interface and signal processing (36)

Part Three

Circuit collection, volume V: data conversion, interface and signal conditioning products (38)

Signal sources, conditioners and power circuitry (39)

Current sense circuit collection (40)

Power conversion, measurement and pulse circuits (41)

Chapter 31. Circuit techniques for clock sources

Noncrystal clock circuits

Chapter 32. Measurement and control circuit collection: Diapers and designs on the night shift

Introduction

Low noise and drift chopped bipolar amplifier

Low noise and drift-chopped FET amplifier

Stabilized, wideband cable driving amplifier with low input capacitance

Voltage programmable, ground referred current source

5V Powered, fully floating 4mA to 20mA current loop transmitter

Transistor ΔVBE based thermometer

Micropower, cold junction compensated thermocouple-to-frequency converter

Relative humidity signal conditioner

Inexpensive precision electronic barometer

1.5V Powered radiation detector

9ppm Distortion, quartz stabilized oscillator

1.5V Powered temperature compensated crystal oscillator

90μA Precision voltage-to-frequency converter

Bipolar (AC) input V-F converter

1.5V Powered, 350ps rise time pulse generator

A simple ultralow dropout regulator

Cold cathode fluorescent lamp power supply

References

Chapter 33. Circuit collection, volume I

Introduction

A-to-D converters

Interface

Power

Filters

Miscellaneous circuits

Chapter 34. Video circuit collection

Introduction

Video cable drivers

Video processing circuits

Multiplexer circuits

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Conclusion

Chapter 35. Practical circuitry for measurement and control problems: Circuits designed for a cruel and unyielding world

Introduction

Appendix A

Appendix B

References

Chapter 36. Circuit collection, volume III: Data conversion, interface and signal processing

Introduction

Data conversion

Interface

Filters

Instrumentation

Noise generators for multiple uses

Noise generators for multiple uses

Video/op amps

Miscellaneous circuits

Chapter 37. Circuitry for signal conditioning and power conversion: Designs from a once lazy sabbatical

Introduction

Micropower voltage-to-frequency converters

Micropower a/d converters

10-bit, micropower a/d converter

Differential input, 10mhz rms/dc converter

Nanosecond coincidence detector

15 nanosecond waveform sampler

5.5μA powered, 0.05μv/°c chopped amplifier

Pilot light flame detector with low-battery lockout

Tip-acceleration detector for shipping containers

32.768khz “watch crystal” oscillator

Complementary output, 50% duty cycle crystal oscillator

Nonoverlapping, complementary output crystal oscillator

High power ccfl backlight inverter for desktop displays

Ultralow noise power converters

Low noise boost regulator

Low noise bipolar supply

Ultralow noise off-line power supply

Appendix A

Appendix B

References

Chapter 38. Circuit collection, volume V: Data conversion, interface and signal conditioning products

Introduction

Data converters

Interface circuits

Operational amplifiers/video amplifiers

Telecommunications circuits

Comparators

Instrumentation circuits

Filters

Miscellaneous

Chapter 39. Signal sources, conditioners and power circuitry

Introduction

Voltage controlled current source—ground referred input and output

Stabilized oscillator for network telephone identification

Micro-mirror display pulse generator

Simple rise time and frequency reference

850 picosecond rise time pulse generator with <1% pulse top aberrations

20 picosecond rise time pulse generator

Nanosecond pulse width generator

Single rail powered amplifier with true zero volt output swing

Milliohmmeter

0.02% accurate instrumentation amplifier with 125vcm and 120db cmrr

Wideband, low feedthrough, low level switch

5V powered, 0.0015% linearity, quartz-stabilized v→f converter

Basic flashlamp illumination circuit for cellular telephones/cameras

0V to 300v output dc/dc converter

Low ripple and noise 0v to 300v output dc/dc converter

5V to 200v converter for apd bias

Wide range, high power, high voltage regulator

5V to 3.3V, 15a paralleled linear regulator

Appendix A

Appendix B

References

Chapter 40. Current sense circuit collection: Making sense of current

Introduction

Current sense basics

Low side current sensing (Figure 40.1)

High side current sensing (Figure 40.2)

Full-range (high and low side) current sensing (Figure 40.3)

High side

Low side

Negative voltage

Monitor current in positive or negative supply lines (Figure 40.40)

Unidirectional

Bidirectional

AC

DC

Level shifting

High voltage

Low voltage

High current (100mA to Amps)

Low current (picoamps to milliamps)

Motors and inductive loads

Batteries

High speed

Fast compact −48V current sense (Figure 40.149)

Fault sensing

Digitizing

Current control

Precision

Wide range

Chapter 41. Power conversion, measurement and pulse circuits: Tales from the laboratory notebook

Introduction

JFET-based dc/dc converter powered from 300mv supply

Bipolar transistor-based 550mv input dc/dc converter

5V to 200v converter for apd bias

Battery internal resistance meter

Floating output, variable potential battery simulator

40nvp-p noise, 0.05μv/°c drift, chopped fet amplifier

Wideband, chopper stabilized fet amplifier

Submicroampere rms current measurement for quartz crystals

Direct reading quartz crystal-based remote thermometer

1Hz–100mhz v→f converter

Delayed pulse generator with variable time phase, low jitter trigger output

References

Index

Quotes and reviews

"Analog electronic designers will find this handbook an essential reference source. It contains a broad range of analog circuit design ideas and practical tips for ensuring proper circuit implementation, and more importantly, it provides the reader with the basis for good circuit and board design techniques." --IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, May/June 2014

"The writing is clear, and for such detailed technique descriptions, the language is delightfully readable…expect elegant design and timeless analogue wisdom on every page." --Electronics Weekly, May 2013

"Newnes Press, an imprint of Elsevier, announced the publication of Analog Circuit Design, Volume 2, Immersion in the Black Art of Analog Design. The book is a companion volume to Analog Circuit Design: A Tutorial Guide to Applications and Solutions." --EDA BLOG and EETimes

 
 
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