Distributed Renewable Energies for Off-Grid Communities

Distributed Renewable Energies for Off-Grid Communities, 1st Edition

Strategies and Technologies toward Achieving Sustainability in Energy Generation and Supply

Distributed Renewable Energies for Off-Grid Communities, 1st Edition,Nasir El Bassam,Preben Maegaard,Marcia Schlichting,ISBN9780123971784

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Renewable energy can provide green, clean, inexpensive power to the 2 billion people without access to grid-connected electricity. This book demonstrates how!

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Key Features

  • Case studies provide you with solutions to for future decentralized energy supply
  • Expanded coverage over previous work in the field to include coverage of rural and urban communities
  • Provides new solutions for future decentralized energy supply


Energy is directly related to the most critical economic and social issues which affect sustainable development such as mobility, food production, environmental quality, regional and global security issues. Two-thirds of the new demand will come from developing nations, with China accounting for 30%. Without adequate attention to the critical importance of energy to all these aspects, the global, social, economic and environmental goals of sustainability cannot be achieved. Indeed the magnitude of change needed is immense, fundamental and directly related to the energy produced and consumed nationally and internationally. Today, it is estimated that more than two billion people worldwide lack access to modern energy resources. Distributed Renewable Energies for Off-Grid Communities provides various options and case studies related to the potential of renewable energies along with their environmental, economic and social dimensions.


Energy Engineering Professionals

Nasir El Bassam

Dr. El Bassam is Director, International Research Center for Renewable Energy in Germany in close cooperation with UN, EU and other national and international organizations. Its mission is the integration and application of renewable energy resources for electricity, water and food supply and development of renewable energy management strategies. Dr. El Bassam has won several awards for his work in this area including the World Pioneer in Renewable Energies award in 2003 from UNESCO and the Award in Science and Technology for Sustainable Rural Development of Energy and Water Supply from the Chinese Science Academy. He is currently the Editor of Springer’s Journal “Sustainability Science” and American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (AJEAS).

Affiliations and Expertise

International Research Center for Renewable Energy (IFEED)

Preben Maegaard

Dr. Maegaard is Director of the Nordic Folkecenter for Renewable Energy, an institute for the development and implementation of renewable energies located in Denmark. The center has, under his leadership, provided transfer of renewable energy technology to many countries. Dr. Maegaard was appointed the first president of the World Wind Energy Institute, first president of the World Wind Energy Association, and has served as a Renewable Energy Adviser to the President of Mali. For over three decades, Dr. Maegaard has been a director, organizer, and speaker at numerous international seminars, workshops and conferences. He has authored numerous reports, books, and articles in Danish, English, German and Japanese on renewables and sustainable development.

Affiliations and Expertise

Danish Center for Renewable Energy, Hurup Thy, Denmark

Marcia Schlichting

Ms. Schlichting is Editor for the International Research Centre for Renewable Energy. Ms. Schlichting has an Associate Degree in Applied Science, Water, and Wastewater Technology and has conducted laboratory research in the field of filtration and purification.

Affiliations and Expertise

Editor, International Research Centre for RE

Distributed Renewable Energies for Off-Grid Communities, 1st Edition


List of Figures

List of Tables

Chapter One. Scope of the Book

1.1 Distributed Energy Generation

1.2 Distributed Energy Supply

1.3 Community Power

1.4 Off-Grid Systems


Chapter Two. Restructuring Future Energy Generation and Supply

2.1 Basic Challenges

2.2 Current Energy Supplies

2.3 Peak Oil

2.4 Availability of Alternative Resources


Chapter Three. Road Map of Distributed Renewable Energy Communities

3.1 Energy and Sustainable Development

3.2 Community Involvement

3.3 Facing the Challenges

3.4 The Concept of FAO, UN Integrated Energy Communities (IEC)

3.5 Global Approach

3.6 Basic and Extended Needs

3.7 Typical Electricity Demands

3.8 Single and Multiple-Phase Island Grid

3.9 Regional Implementation


Further Reading

Chapter Four. Planning of Integrated Renewable Communities

4.1 Scenario 1

4.2 Scenario 2

4.3 Case Study I: Implementation of Ief Under Climatic Conditions of Central Europe

4.4 Case study II: Arid and semi-arid regions


Chapter Five. Determination of Community Energy and Food Requirements

5.1 Modeling Approaches

5.2 Data Acquisition

5.3 Determination of Energy and Food Requirements

5.4 Energy Potential Analysis

5.5 Data Collection and Processing for Energy Utilization

5.6 Wind Energy

5.7 Biomass


Chapter Six. Energy Basics, Resources, Global Contribution and Applications

6.1 Basics of Energy

6.2 Global Contribution

6.3 Resources and Applications


Chapter Seven. Solar Energy

7.1 Photovoltaic

7.2 Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP)

7.3 Solar Thermal Collectors

7.4 Solar Cookers and Solar Ovens


Chapter Eight. Wind Energy

8.1 Global Market

8.2 Types of Wind Turbines

8.3 Small Wind Turbines

8.4 Google Superhighway, USA


Chapter Nine. Biomass and Bioenergy

9.1 Characteristics and Potentials

9.2 Solid Biofuels

9.3 Charcoal

9.4 Briquettes

9.5 Pellets

9.6 Biogas

9.7 Ethanol

9.8 Bio-oils

9.9 Conversion Systems to Heat, Power and Electricity

9.10 Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

9.11 Steam Technology

9.12 Gasification

9.13 Pyrolysis

9.14 Methanol

9.15 Synthetic Oil

9.16 Fuel Cells

9.17 The Stirling Engine

9.18 Algae

9.19 Hydrogen


Further Reading

Chapter Ten. Hydropower

10.1 Hydroelectricity

10.2 Microhydropower Systems

10.3 Turbine Types

10.4 Potential for Rural Development


Chapter Eleven. Marine Energy

11.1 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

11.2 Technologies

11.3 Ocean Tidal Power

11.4 Ocean Wave Power

11.5 Environmental and Economic Challenges


Chapter Twelve. Geothermal Energy

12.1 Origin of Geothermal Heat

12.2 Geothermal Electricity

12.3 Types of Geothermal Power Plants


Chapter Thirteen. Energy Storage, Smart Grids and Electric Vehicles

13.1 Energy Storage

13.2 Smart Grids

13.3 Electric Vehicles


Chapter Fourteen. Current Distributed Renewable Energy Rural and Urban Communities

14.1 Rural Community Jühnde

14.2 Wildpoldsried, the 100% Emissions Free Town

14.3 Roadmap to Renewable Energy in Remote Communities in Australia

14.4 “Iraq Dream” Homes

14.5 Danish Distributed Integrated Energy Systems for Communities

14.6 Renewables in Africa

14.7 Renewables in India

14.8 Distributed Renewable Energy and Solar Oases for Deserts and Arid Regions: Desertec Concept

14.9 The Vatican City


Further Reading

Chapter Fifteen. Ownership, Citizens Participation and Economic Trends

15.1 Community Ownership

15.2 The Danish Ownership Model

15.3 Economic Trends


Appendix 1: Glossary

Regional Definitions

Appendix Two: Abbreviations and Acronyms

Appendix Three: Conversion Factors

Units and Conversions

Appendix Four: Inventory of PV systems for sustainable rural development

Appendix Five: Project “SOLARTECH SUD,” Solar Eco-Village Zarzis - Djerba Tunisia

Appendix Six: Solar Park Vechelde (Kraftfeld Vechelde GmbH & Co. KG)

Appendix Seven: Solar Laundry, Eternal University, Baru Sahib, India

Appendix Eight: Manual and/or solar powered water treatment system



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