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Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease
 
 

Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease, 1st Edition

Bioactive Foods in Chronic Disease States

 
Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease, 1st Edition,Ronald Ross Watson,Victor Preedy,ISBN9780123971548
 
 
 

Watson   &   Preedy   

Academic Press

9780123971548

9780123977649

802

240 X 197

Explores the dietary impact of bioactive foods on the advancing study of gastrointestinal diseases

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Key Features

  • Addresses the most positive results from dietary interventions using bioactive foods to impact diseases of the liver and gastrointestinal system, including reduction of inflammation, improved function, and nutritional efficiency
  • Presents a wide range of liver and gastrointestinal diseases and provides important information for additional research
  • Associated information can be used to understand other diseases, which share common etiological pathways

Description

Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease provides valuable insights for those seeking nutritional treatment options for those suffering from liver and/or related gastrointestinal disease including Crohn’s, allergies, and colitis among others. Information is presented on a variety of foods including herbs, fruits, soy and olive oil. This book serves as a valuable resource for researchers in nutrition, nephrology, and gastroenterology.

Readership

Nutritionists, dieticians, and biomedical researchers who focus on identifying the causes of gastrointestinal and related liver diseases; food scientists targeting health-related product development

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson PhD is a professor of Health Promotion Sciences in the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. He was one of the founding members of this school serving the mountain west of the USA. He is a professor of Family and Community Medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of Arizona. He began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and USA which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring at a Lt. Colonel. He published 450 papers, and presently directs or has directed several NIH funded biomedical grants relating to alcohol and disease particularly immune function and cardiovascular effects including studying complementary and alternative medicines. Professor Ronald Ross Watson was Director of a National Institutes of Health funded Alcohol Research Center for 5 years. The main goal of the Center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. He is an internationally recognized alcohol-researcher, nutritionist and immunologist. He also initiated and directed other NIH-associated work at The University of Arizona, College of Medicine. Dr. Watson has funding from companies and non-profit foundations to study bioactive foods’ components in health promotion. Professor Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in Chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Professor Watson is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Overall his career has involved studying many foods for their uses in health promotion. He has edited 120 biomedical reference books, particularly in health and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research in foods, nutrition and bacterial disease also prepare him to edit this book. He has 4 edited works on nutrition in aging. He has extensive experience working with natural products, alcohol, exercise, functional foods and dietary extracts for health benefits and safety issues, including getting 12 patents. Dr. Watson has done laboratory studies in mice on immune functions that decline with aging and the role of supplements in delaying this process as modified by alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Affiliations and Expertise

Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

View additional works by Ronald Ross Watson

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a senior member of King's College London. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine. Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well being. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Drug and Alcohol Dependence and a founding member of the Editorial Board of Addiction Biology. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is Editor of the influential works The Handbook Of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse and The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies (all published by Academic Press-Elsevier). Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctoral degree (DSc). Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Biology in 1995 and also as a Fellow to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. He was then elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Dietetics, King's College London, UK

View additional works by Victor R. Preedy

Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease, 1st Edition

Acknowledgments for Bioactive Foods in Chronic Disease States

Preface: Liver and Gastrointestinal Health

Contributors

Chapter 1. The Alkaline Way in Digestive Health

1 Dietary Factors in Metabolism

2 Glycemic Load as a Tool for Better Digestive and Cardiovascular Management

3 Native Whey-Based Meals and Gastrointestinal Health

4 Food Allergies and Sensitivities

5 The Role of Specific Nutrients in Digestive Health

6 Conclusion

References

Relevant Websites

Chapter 2. Functional Assessment of Gastrointestinal Health

1 Physiology of Digestion

2 Clinical Issues in Digestive Health

3 Systemic Influences on GI Health

References

Relevant Websites

Chapter 3. Antioxidants in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Ulcerative Colitis, and Crohn Disease

1 The Pathogenesis of Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn Disease

2 ROS in UC and CD

3 Oxidants and Antioxidants in the Experimental Colitis

4 Antioxidanta in Human IBD

References

Chapter 4. Omega-6 and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 PUFAs: Structure, Nomenclature, Sources, and Interconversion

3 Intake of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs and Risk of Developing IBD

4 Lipid Mediators: Biosynthesis, Roles in IBD, and the Impact of n-3 PUFAs

5 Influence of Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Inflammatory Cytokines

6 Influence of Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on T Cells

7 Efficacy of n-3 PUFAs in Animal Models of IBD

8 Human Studies of Marine n-3 PUFAs in IBD

9 Conclusions

References

Chapter 5. Alcohol and Gastrointestinal Tract Function

1 Acute and Chronic Ingestion of Alcohol

2 Absorption of Alcohol

3 Alcohol Consumption and GI Tract

4 Consequences of Alcohol Abuse

5 Effect of Alcohol on Immune, Cardiovascular, and Skeletal System

References

Chapter 6. Dangerous Herbal Weight-Loss Supplements

1 Introduction

2 The Surge of Herbal Product Use Within Complementary and Alternative Medicine

3 Herbal Supplement Identity, Efficacy, and Safety: Chaos in the Cyber Marketplace

4 Identity of Herbal Products

5 The Internet as a Source of Information About Herbal Weight-Loss Supplements

6 Yellow Oleander or ‘Codo de Fraile’

7 Toxicity of Thevetia spp.

8 Safety Issues

9 Candle Nut Tree (‘Nuez de la India’)

10 Parts of the Plant Used in Traditional Medicine

11 Weight Loss and Other Health Claims Made on the Internet for Candle Nut Tree Seeds

12 Safety Issues

13 Conclusion

References

Chapter 7. Milk Bacteria: Role in Treating Gastrointestinal Allergies

Abbreviation

1 Introduction

2 Colonization and Succession of Human Intestinal Microbiota with Age

3 Probiotics as a Practical Way in the Management of Allergy

4 Selection and Evaluation of Probiotic for Possibility in Allergic Management

References

Chapter 8. Nutritional Functions of Polysaccharides from Soy Sauce in the Gastrointestinal Tract

1 Introduction

2 Brewing of Japanese Soy Sauce

3 Polysaccharides from Soy Sauce

4 Iron Absorption

5 Lipid Absorption

6 Conclusion

References

Chapter 9. Nutrition, Dietary Fibers, and Cholelithiasis: Cholelithiasis and Lipid Lowering

1 Introduction

2 How Cholelithiasis Is Originated and Complicated?

3 Symptoms of Cholelithiasis

4 Diagnosis of Cholelithiasis

5 Pathophysiology

6 Role of Diet Therapy and Challenges in Cholelithiasis Treatment

7 Cholelithiasis Enzyme Assay Development to Test Diets

8 Future Prospectives on Cholelithiasis and Nutrition

9 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 10. Indian Medicinal Plants and Spices in the Prevention and Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Ayurvedic Plants and IBD

3 Phytochemicals and Indian Medicinal Plants with Anti-IBD Effects

4 Indian Medicinal Plants with Anti-IBD Effects

5 Ayurvedic-Based Polyherbal Formulation

6 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 11. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): An Ancient Remedy and Modern Drug in Gastrointestinal Disorders

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Ginger and Health of Gastrointestinal System

3 Ginger in Oral Health

4 Ginger Prevents Epigastric Discomfort and Dyspepsia

5 Ginger Is Effective Against Various Gastric Ulcerogens

6 Ginger is an Effective Antiemetic Agent

7 Ginger Alters Gastrointestinal Motility

8 Ginger Is Effective on Digestive Enzymes

9 Ginger Increases Antioxidant Enzymes in the GIT

10 Ginger Alters the Brush-Border Membrane Fluidity and Increases the Surface Area of the Brush-Border Membrane

11 Effect of Ginger on the Intestinal Pathogens

12 Ginger Is Effective in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

13 Ginger Prevents Diarrhea

14 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 12. The Role of Microbiota and Probiotics on the Gastrointestinal Health: Prevention of Pathogen Infections

1 Gastrointestinal Tract and Gut Microbiota

2 Gut Microbiota and Health

3 Gut Microbiota and Therapeutic Action of Probiotics

4 Probiotics and Gastrointestinal Health

5 Mechanisms of Action of Probiotic

6 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 13. Probiotics and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

1 Introduction

2 Pathophysiology of IBS

3 Evidence of Intestinal Flora Alterations in IBS

4 Probiotic Organisms and IBS

5 Discussion

Glossary

References

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 14. Antioxidant, Luteolin Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Effect in In Vitro Gut Inflammation Model

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Luteolin Suppresses IL-8 mRNA Expression of Caco-2 Cells in In Vitro Gut Inflammation Model

3 Luteolin Suppresses TNF-α Secretion from RAW264.7 Cells in In Vitro Gut Inflammation Model

4 Luteolin Suppresses Nuclear Factor-KappaB Translocation into the Nucleus of RAW264.7 Cells in In Vitro Gut Inflammation Model

5 Luteolin Is Transported Across the Caco-2 Cell Monolayer in In Vitro Gut Inflammation Model

6 Discussion

References

Chapter 15. Human Microbiome and Diseases: A Metagenomic Approach

Abbreviations

1 Human Microbiota

2 Microbiome and Human Health

3 Microbiome and Probiotics

4 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 16. Folate Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Folate Metabolism and Bioavailability

3 Folate Deficiency: Implications in Health and Disease

4 Folic Acid Fortification and Supplementation

5 Folate Biosynthesis and Lactic Acid Bacteria

6 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Further Reading

Chapter 17. Probiotics against Digestive Tract Viral Infections

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Viruses That Infect the Gastrointestinal Tract

3 Possible Mechanisms of Probiotics Action Against Intestinal Viruses

4 Laboratory Evidence of Probiotics-Conferred Resistance to Gastrointestinal Viral Infections

5 Clinical Evidence

6 Conclusions and Perspectives

References

Chapter 18. Probiotic Bacteria as Mucosal Immune System Adjuvants

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Effect of PROBIOTICS on the Systemic Immune Response

3 Action of Probiotics on the Mucosal Immune Response in Normal or Immunosuppressed Host

4 Mechanisms Involved in the Antitumor Activity Exerted by Probiotics and Fermented Milks

5 Mechanisms Involved in the Immunostimulation by Probiotic Bacteria

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 19. Medicinal Plants as Remedies for Gastrointestinal Ailments and Diseases: A Review

1 Introduction

2 Herbal Drugs in Gastrointestinal Ailments/Diseases

3 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 20. Review on the Protective Effects of the Indigenous Indian Medicinal Plant, Bael (Aegle marmelos Correa), in Gastrointestinal Disorders

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Medicinal Uses of Bael

3 Bael Possesses Gastroprotective Effects

4 Bael Prevents Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

5 Bael Possesses Antibacterial Effects on Certain Enteric Bacteria

6 Bael Possesses Antiviral Effects on Coxsackieviruses

7 Bael Reduces the Chemical-Induced Diarrhea

8 Bael Prevents Radiation-Sickness and Gastrointestinal Damage

9 Bael Leaf and Fruit Prevent Carbon Tetrachloride and Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity

10 Mechanism/s of Action

11 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 21. Gastrointestinal and Hepatoprotective Effects of Ocimum sanctum L. Syn (Holy Basil or Tulsi): Validation of the Ethnomedicinal Observation

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Traditional Uses

3 Tulsi Possesses Hepatoprotective Effects

4 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 22. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) the Golden Curry Spice as a Nontoxic Gastroprotective Agent: A Review

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Plants as Gastroprotective Agent

3 Turmeric the Indian Culinary Gold in Gastroprotection

4 Phytochemistry

5 Traditional Uses

6 Validated Studies

7 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 23. Nutrition, Dietary Fibers, and Cholelithiasis: Apple Pulp, Fibers, Clinical Trials

1 Introduction

2 Present Status of Cholesterol Saturation and Dietary Fibers

3 Nutrition Treatment of Cholelithiasis

4 Prevalence of Cholelithiasis and Gall Stones in India: A Perspective

5 Future Prospectives on Cholelithiasis and Nutrition

6 Conclusion

References

Chapter 24. Gastrointestinal Protective Effects of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Black Plum) and Its Phytochemicals

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Traditional Uses

3 Anticariogenic Effects

4 Gastroprotective Effects

5 Jamun Prevents Gastric Carcinogenesis

6 Antidiarrheal Effects

7 Antibacterial Activity

8 Radioprotective Effects

9 Hepatoprotective Effects

10 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 25. Preventing the Epidemic of Non-Communicable Diseases: An Overview

Abbreviations

1 Introduction to the World’s Biggest Problem

2 Human Diet

3 Epidemic of Non-Communicable Diseases

4 Inflammation

5 Energy Density and Nutrient Density

6 Acid–Base Balance, NaCl Salt, and Fiber Content of the Diet

7 Roadmapping the Future

8 Conclusion

References

Relevant Websites

Chapter 26. Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Bioactive Foods: From Biotechnology to Health Promotion

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Health

3 Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Biotechnology

4 Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Nutraceuticals

5 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Relevant Websites

Chapter 27. Carotenoids: Liver Diseases Prevention

1 Oxidative Stress and Carotenoids

2 Alcoholic Liver Disease and Carotenoids

3 Nonalcoholic Liver Disease and Carotenoids

4 Liver Cancer and Carotenoids

5 Conclusions

References

Chapter 28. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Early Life Nutritional Programming: Lessons from the Avian Model

1 Essential Omega-3 Fatty Acids

2 Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Dietary Supply, Synthesis, and Need

3 What Is Early Life Programming?

4 Animal Models for Early Life Programming Research

5 Avian Model: A Unique Research Tool

6 Early Exposure to n-3 Fatty Acids: Studies with the Avian Model

7 Research on Avian Model: Extrapolation of Information

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 29. Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Health Promotion:: An Overview

Abbreviations

1 Definitions

2 The GIT Ecosystem

3 Mechanisms of Beneficial Effects

4 Prebiotics

5 Probiotics

6 Health Benefits

7 Summary Statement

References

Chapter 30. Gastroprotective Effects of Bioactive Foods

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Oral Diseases

3 Esophageal and Gastric Diseases

4 Intestinal Diseases

5 GI Cancer

6 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Relevant Websites

Chapter 31. Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanins in Common Legume Grains

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Free Radicals and Antioxidants

3 Anthocyanins

4 Summary

References

Chapter 32. Antioxidant Capacity of Pomegranate Juice and Its Role in Biological Activities

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Pomegranate Juice

3 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 33. Dietary Bioactive Functional Polyphenols in Chronic Lung Diseases

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Dietary Polyphenols

3 Resveratrol

4 Curcumin

5 Catechins

6 Sulforaphane

7 Conclusions

References

Further reading

Chapter 34. Antioxidant Capacity of Medicinal Plants

1 Introduction

2 Antioxidant Capacity of Medicinal Plants of the North Central Region of Argentina

3 Results and Discussion

4 Conclusion

References

Chapter 35. Chinese Herbal Products in the Prevention and Treatment of Liver Disease

1 Introduction

2 Prevalence of ALD

3 Alcoholic Fatty Liver: Metabolic Changes

4 Steatohepatitis: Oxidative Stress

5 Chinese Medicine in the Prevention of ALD

6 Prevalence of NAFLD

7 Pathogenesis of NAFLD

8 Chinese Herbal Treatment of NAFLD

9 Fibrosis and HCC

10 Liver Cirrhosis and HCC

11 Chinese Medical Treatment of Liver Fibrosis

12 Chinese Medical Treatment of HCC

13 Liver Toxicity due to Herbal medicine

14 Conclusion

Glossary

References

Further Reading

Relevant websites

Chapter 36. Bioactive Foods and Supplements for Protection against Liver Diseases

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Hepatoprotective Food Ingredients and Supplements

3 Conclusions

References

Chapter 37. The Role of Prebiotics in Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases

1 Definition and Classification of Prebiotics

2 Effects of Prebiotics on GI Function

3 Prebiotics and Functional Intestinal Disorders

4 Prebiotics and Inflammatory GI Diseases

5 Prebiotics and Infectious Intestinal Diseases

6 Prebiotics and Liver Disease

References

Chapter 38. The Role of Curcumin in Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases

1 Effects of Curcumin on Gastrointestinal Diseases

2 Curcumin and Functional Bowel Disorders

3 Inflammatory GI Diseases

4 Liver Diseases

5 GI and Liver Tumors

References

Relevant Website

Chapter 39. Toll-Like Receptors and Intestinal Immune Tolerance

1 Introduction

2 Intestinal Tolerance

3 Bacterial Recognition

4 TLRs and Tolerance

5 Conclusions and New Perspectives

References

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chapter 40. Psychological Mechanisms of Dietary Change in Adulthood

1 Introduction

2 Development of Dietary Behavior

3 Psychological Mechanisms of Dietary Change in Adulthood

4 Conclusion

References

Chapter 41. Biochemical Mechanisms of Fatty Liver and Bioactive Foods: Fatty Liver, Diagnosis, Nutrition Therapy

1 Fatty Liver is Health Hazard

2 Mechanism of Fatty Liver Disease

3 Diagnosis of Fatty Liver Disease

4 Differential Diagnosis

5 Nutrition Therapy in Hepatic Fibrosis

6 Nutrition Elements in Nonalcoholic Liver Disease

7 Antihepatotoxicity Properties of Bioactive Foods: Less Known Herbs

8 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 42. Hepatoprotective Effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger): A Review

1 Introduction

2 Liver Diseases

3 Plants as Hepatoprotective Agents

4 The Myriad Uses of Ginger

5 Ginger as a Hepatoprotective Agent

6 Ginger Prevents Liver Cancer

7 Ginger Corrects the Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

8 Mechanisms Responsible for Hepatoprotective Effects

9 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 43. Betel Leaf (.0Piper betel Linn): The Wrongly Maligned Medicinal and Recreational Plant Possesses Potent Gastrointestinal and Hepatoprotective Effects

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Phytochemicals

3 Traditional Uses

4 P. betel and Its Phytochemicals in Various Gastrointestinal Ailments and Diseases

5 Mechanisms Responsible for the Protective Effects

6 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 44. Hepatoprotective Effects of Picroliv: The Ethanolic Extract Fraction of the Endangered Indian Medicinal Plant Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 45. Scientific Validation of the Hepatoprotective Effects of the Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn): A Review

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Phytochemicals

3 Traditional Uses

4 Scientifically Validated Studies

5 Effect of Amla on Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Metabolic Syndrome

6 Mechanism of Action/s Responsible for the Hepatoprotective Effects

7 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 46. Biochemical Mechanisms of Fatty Liver and Bioactive Foods: Wild Foods, Bioactive Foods, Clinical Trials in Hepatoprotection

1 Introduction

2 What Are Hepatocellular Protective Bioactive Foods?

3 What Remains Still to Solve the Hepatocellular Protection by Bioactive Foods?

4 Wild Foods

5 Present State of Art

6 What Are the Unresolved Challenges?

7 Treatment Recommendations for Bioactive Foods in Hepatobiliary Prevention

8 Policy on Bioactive Foods and Nutrition Therapy in Hepatobiliary Prevention

9 Bioactive Foods and Nutraceuticals in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Disease: A Survey

10 Challenges, Hypes, Hopes and Futuristic Role of Nutrition Therapy in Hepatocellular Protection

11 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 47. Phytochemicals Are Effective in the Prevention of Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Preclinical Observations

Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Phytochemicals in the Protection of Alcohol-Induced Hepatotoxicity

3 Mechanisms

4 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Index

 
 
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