Safety Culture

Safety Culture, 1st Edition

An Innovative Leadership Approach

Safety Culture, 1st Edition,Nathan Crutchfield,James Roughton,ISBN9780123964960






235 X 191

This book cuts to the heart of how to implement and manage an effective safety culture using innovative networking, communications, and techniques that can be easily implemented.

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Key Features

  • How to develop a foundation to improve the perception of safety, analyze the organizational culture and its impact on the safety management system, and review the importance of developing a influential network
  • Provides a format for establishing goals and objectives, discusses the impact of leadership on the safety management system and the roles and responsibilities needed as well as methods to gain employee participation
  • Tools to enhance the safety management system, the education and training of employees, how to assess the current safety management system, and the process of curation is introduced


Current safety and risk management guidelines necessitate that organizations develop and formally manage their understanding and knowledge of the standards and protocols of risk management. The impact of communication and human performance on the identification and control of hazards and associated risk must be addressed in a structured manner. This core reference provides a complete guide to creating a comprehensive and effective safety culture.

Safety Culture is a reference for safety and risk professionals and a training text for corporate-based learners and students at university level. The book will keep safety and risk management professionals up-to-date and will provide the tools needed to develop consistent and effective organizational safety protocols.


Safety and Loss Prevention Specialists; Industrial Hygienists. Chemical Engineers, Process Engineers, Mechanical Engineers.

Nathan Crutchfield

Masters degree in Business Administration, Georgia State University; Bachelor of Civil Engineering Technology, Southern Technical Institute (now Southern Polytechnic State University, Marietta, Georgia). Professional designations and affiliatio

Nathan Crutchfield CSP, CPCU, ARM, ARP Nathan is an independent consultant whose professional history encompasses a full range of risk control program design, development, implementation and evaluation. He has provided expertise to a broad array of clients that include public entities, associations, and general industry. He was awarded the National Safety Council’s “Distinguished Service to Safety Award” in 2001 and served on the National Safety Council Board of Directors in 1993 to 1995; was a Vice President, with a major risk management and insurance brokerage for over 20 years. He has been a speaker at various risk and safety conferences throughout his career. He has served on the Executive Board of the Georgia Safety, Health, and Environmental Conference. He received the Georgia Safety, Health, and Environmental Conference’s Earl Everett distinguished Service Award, 2014.

Affiliations and Expertise

Risk control consultant in the development of effective safety culture, safety management systems, and job hazard analysis, USA

View additional works by Nathan Crutchfield

James Roughton

Certified Safety Professional (CSP); Canadian Registered Safety Professional (CRSP); Certified Hazardous Materials Manager (CHMM); MS in Safety Science; Past President of the Georgia Chapter of ASSE

James Roughton MS, CSP, CRSP, R-CHMM, CIT, CET, Certified Six Sigma Black Belt James is an experienced Safety Professional with an in-depth knowledge in the use of Social Media to help improve productivity. He is accomplished speaker, author, and writer, develops and manages his own web sites that provide a resource network for small businesses at http://www.safetycultureplusacademy.com. Three of his most notable books include, Safety Culture: An Innovative, Leadership Approach, Developing an Effective Safety Culture: A Leadership Approach, and Job Hazard Analysis and A Guide for Voluntary Compliance and Beyond. He is an active board member and web master for the Georgia Conference - www.georgiaconference.org. He is a past President of the Georgia of the ASSE; Past Chair - Gwinnett Safety Professionals, Past Adjunct Professor Safety Technology Lanier Tech, Georgia Tech, and currently adjunct Professor Columbia Southern University. He has received awards for his efforts and was named the Georgia Chapter ASSE Safety Professional of the Year 1998-1999, Project Safe Georgia Award, 2008, and received the Georgia Safety, Health, and Environmental Conference’s Earl Everett distinguished Service Award, 2014.

Affiliations and Expertise

Safety professional and active member, Project Safe, Georgia Safety Advisory Board, Georgia Department of Labor

View additional works by James Roughton

Safety Culture, 1st Edition



Developing Mission and Intent – Building on the Basics


Part 1 – Laying the Foundation

Part 2, Safety Management Systems Defined

Part 3, How to Handle the Perception of Risk

Part 4, Tools to Enhance Your Safety Management System

About the Authors




Why Understanding Safety Management Systems and Safety Culture Matters

Part 1: Laying the Foundation

Chapter 1. The Perception of Safety


Defining Safety

The Perception of Safety

Changing the Perception

How Are You Perceived?

Personal Branding

What Is Your Mental Model?

Safety—A Multi-Disciplinary Profession

Safety at a Crossroads

Safety Is an Espoused Value

Do You Speak the Same Language?

From Startup to Status Quo


Chapter Review Questions


Chapter 2. Analyzing the Organizational Culture


What Is Organizational Culture?

Three Levels of Culture Defined

Safety Culture Defined

Assessing the Current Safety Culture

Habits as Part of the Culture

Possible Characteristics of a Culture

National and Occupational Cultures

Safety Culture as a Mission-Essential Business Priority

Can You Change a Culture?

Nine Warning Flag Factors That Defeat Control


Chapter Review Questions


Chapter 3. Analyzing and Using Your Network


The Importance of Networking

Analyzing the Organizational Chart to Assess Your Network

Defining the Organizational Network

Reality Check Indicator

Defining the Basics of Networking Theory

The Safety Information Packet

Changing Reality versus Perception

Social Networking Analysis

Social Network Mapping

Defining the Roles Identified by the Network Map


Chapter Review Questions


Chapter 4. Setting the Direction for the Safety Culture


Charting Your Course—The Planning Process

Vision/Mission, a Major Trait of Leadership

Organizational Scope Drift

Personal Scope Drift

The Safety Policy Statement

Communicating Your Safety Policy Statement

Communicate by Action

Aligning the Organization

Defining Goals and Objectives

Defining Goals That Improve the Safety Management System

Defining Objectives

Writing Your Objectives

Communicating Your Goals and Objectives

Reviewing Your Objectives

Resistance to Goals and Objectives

The Plan

The Critical Part of Planning

Communicate Your Plan


Chapter Review Questions


Part 2: Safety Management Systems Defined

Chapter 5. Overview of Basic Safety Management Systems


The Common Link between Safety Management Systems

Management Leadership

Employee Involvement

Defining Roles and Responsibilities

Hazard and Risk Assessment Identification and Analysis

Hazard Prevention and Control

Information and Training

Training Programs

Evaluation of Program Effectiveness


Chapter Review Questions


Chapter 6. Selecting Your Process


What Do All Safety Management Systems Have in Common?

The PDCA Cycle

Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control

Benefits of Using a Standardized Safety Management System

Pros and Cons of a Standardized Safety Management System

Government- and Voluntary-Related Safety Management Systems

Program Evaluation Profile

Examples of Advanced Safety Management Systems


Chapter Review Questions


Chapter 7. Leadership and the Effective Safety Culture


Leadership Defined

Leadership Impact on the Safety Management System

Leadership and Organization Structure

Leadership Expectations

Establishing Organizational Priorities

Management by Walking Around

You Are Directly Responsible for Establishing Purpose

Open Door Policy

Defining Roles, Responsibility, Delegation, Authority, and Accountability

Review Your Organization to Determine Safety-Related Tasks for Each Role

The Value of Developing and Implementing Written Job Descriptions

Writing the Basic Job Description

Defining Clear Goals and Assigning Responsibilities

Get in Agreement on Objectives

Writing Your Objectives for Each Job Position

Nonsupervisory Employees

Review Assigned Activities Regularly

Elements of Delegation

Relationship between Responsibility, Authority, and Accountability

Assigning Authority

Defining Accountability

Assigning Specific Responsibilities

The Leadership Team




Establish Consequences for Performance


Chapter Review Questions


Chapter 8. Getting Your Employees Involved in the Safety Management System


Reasons Employees Are Not Involved in the Safety Process

Why Should All Employees Be Involved?

Listen to Your Employees

Getting Employees Involved in the Safety Process

Guidelines for Employee Involvement

“Just Ask” Your Employees to Get Involved

Simple Beginnings Can Generate Major Impact

Safety Committees

Establishing the Team Charter

Choosing Your Safety Committee Members

The Central Safety Committee

Permanent Subcommittees

Publicity Committee

Inspections and Walk-Throughs

Loss-Producing Incident Reports

Job Hazard Analysis

Rules and Procedures

Education and Training

Follow-up Team

Ad-hoc Committees


Chapter Review Questions


Part 3: How to Handle the Perception of Risk

Chapter 9. Risk Perception—Defining How to Identify Personal Responsibility


Why Do We Take Unnecessary Risk?

Shifting the Thought Process to Risk

Building the Foundation for Risk Perception

Hazard Recognition Tools

Risk Assessment Tool Defined

Changing Perceptions

Meeting and Getting to Sustainability

Implementing the Risk Assessment Tool

Hazard and Risk Defined

Why Are Risk Analysis and Risk Reduction Important?

Personal Risk Tolerance—How Do We Decide What Is a Risk?

The Risk Assessment Tool Process—The Risk Guidance Card

Risk Scoring


Chapter Review Questions


Chapter 10. Risk Management Principles


What Is Risk?

Confusion over Definitions of Risk

Obstacles to Risk Management

Risk Assessment

Acceptable Risk

Management of Risk

Example of Risk Acceptance

Consider a Risk Spectrum


Chapter Review Questions


Chapter 11. Developing an Activity-Based Safety System


Activity-Based Safety System

Advantage of Using ABSS

How ABSS Works

Safety Meetings

Daily Preshift Review

Multishift Operation

Weekly Meetings

Monthly Meetings

One-on-One Discussions with Employees

Safety Walk-through Tour

Machine/Equipment-Specific Checklist

Follow-up Team

ABSS Roles and Responsibilities Defined


Middle Management

Upper Management

Senior Management

Site Safety Professionals

Measuring the Success of ABSS

Basic Tips for Using ABSS


Chapter Review Questions


Chapter 12. Developing the Job Hazard Analysis


Beginning the Job Hazard Analysis Process

Why Is a JHA Important?

Benefits of Developing JHAs

Drawbacks of the JHA

Why Is It Important to Get Employees Involved in the Process?

Selecting a Team

Building the Case for a JHA Process

Selecting the Jobs for Analysis


Chapter Review Questions


Part 4: Tools to Enhance Your Safety Management System

Chapter 13. Education and Training—Assessing Safety Training Needs


Education and Safety Performance

Conducting Education and Training Needs Assessment

Understand the Direction of Training

The Concepts of Education and Safety Training

Course Development Process

Developing Learning Activities

Performance Deficiency

Establishing Learning Objectives

Guidelines for Writing Learning Objectives

Target Audience

Conducting Site-Specific Education and Training



Chapter Review Questions


Chapter 14. Assessing Your Safety Management System


Planning for Your Safety Management System Assessment

Avoiding a “Blame the System” Mentality

Types of Safety Management Assessments

Selecting the Assessment Team

Preassessment Activities

Opening Meeting

Safety Management Safety System Assessment Activities

Initial Location Tour

Document Reviews

Leadership and Employee Interviews

Communication and Feedback

Review of Site Conditions

Presenting Results of the Safety Management System Assessment

Developing the Action Plan

Communicating the Assessment and the Action Plans

Example Assessment and Action Plan


Chapter Review Questions


Chapter 15. Becoming a Curator for the Safety Management System


The Importance of Becoming an Information Curator

Function of a Safety Management System

Researching and Curating Information

New Concepts for Organizing Information

Managing Safety Management System Data

Step 1—Evaluate Your Data Needs

Step 2—Establish a Plan

Technology and the Safety Management System


Chapter Review Questions


Final Words: Organizing and Sharing

An Approach to Organizing Information



Appendix A Safety-Related Job Descriptions

Example 1

Example 2

Example 3: Adapted from an Internet-Posted Safety Manager Job Description



Appendix B Assessing the Perception about How You Are Perceived in the Organization

Appendix C Safety Culture Traits and Indicators

Appendix D 25 Ways to Know Your Safety Culture Is Awesome

Appendix E NASA Culture as an Organizational Flaw

Appendix F Sample Safety Policy (Managing Worker Safety and Health, n.d.)

Appendix G Numerical and Descriptive Goals

Numerical Goals

Descriptive Goals

Appendix H Comparison of Safety Management System Process Elements

Appendix I Sample Safety Responsibilities Worksheet (Managing Worker Safety and Health, Illinois, Public Domain, Adapted for Use, n.d.; Roughton & Mercurio, 2002)

Appendix J Sample Responsibilities for the Leadership Team (Managing Worker Safety and Health, Appendix 5.2, Sample Assignment of Safety And Health Responsibilities, Public Domain, Adapted for Use, n.d.; Roughton & Mercurio, 2002)

Appendix K Sample Responsibilities for Plant/Site Superintendents/Managers (Managing Worker Safety and Health, Illinois, Public Domain, Adapted for Use, n.d.; Roughton & Mercurio, 2002)

Appendix L Sample Responsibilities for Supervision (“Managing Worker Safety and Health, Illinois, Public Domain, Adapted for Use”, n.d.; Roughton & Mercurio, 2002)

Appendix M Sample Responsibilities for Employees (“Managing Worker Safety and Health, Illinois, Public Domain, Adapted for Use”, n.d.; Roughton & Mercurio, 2002)

Appendix N Example of a Safety Committee Team Charter (“Managing Worker Safety and Health, Illinois, Public Domain, Adapted for Use”, n.d.; Roughton & Crutchfield, 2008)

Appendix O Sample Activities and Results Measurements

The Leadership Team

Employee Involvement

Hazard Recognition and Control

Education and Training

Appendix P

Appendix Q Sample Manager/Supervisor Daily/Weekly/Monthly Safety Activity Report

Appendix R Characteristics of Good Training Programs





Appendix S Instructions for Using the Safety Management System Assessment Worksheet

Attributes or Subelements in Each Category


Rating Instructions

Rating Cues


Safety Management System Assessment Worksheet

Appendix T Attributes of a Safety Management System (“58 Attributes of Excellence of a Safety, Health and Ergonomic Program”, n.d.; “Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program”, n.d.)

Other Program Review Elements

Appendix U

Safety Management Perception Questionnaire


Appendix V Example Safety Management System Assessment and Action Plan

Measurement and Analysis

Core Hazard and Risk Control Activities

Tools for Use in Safety Management System

Appendix W Google Search—Narrowing the Search Terms

Explicit Phrase

Exclude Words

Site Specific Search

Similar Words and Synonyms

Specific Document Types

This OR That

Word Definitions




Quotes and reviews

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