The Agronomy and Economy of Turmeric and Ginger

The Agronomy and Economy of Turmeric and Ginger, 1st Edition

The Invaluable Medicinal Spice Crops

The Agronomy and Economy of Turmeric and Ginger, 1st Edition,K.P. Prabhakaran Nair,ISBN9780123948014






229 X 152

Presents a thorough overview of several aspects of production and economy of two medicinal plants, turmeric and ginger.

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Key Features

  • The first book to bring together extensive information about turmeric and ginger
  • Incorporates medicinal, nutritional and agricultural aspects of the two plants
  • Offers a global perspective


Turmeric has been used as a medicine, a condiment, and a dye since at least 600 B.C., while ginger has been used extensively throughout history for its medicinal purposes. The Agronomy and Economy of Turmeric and Ginger brings these two important plants together in one reference book, explaining their history, production techniques, and nutritional and medicinal properties in detail.

This book is intuitively organized by plant and use, allowing quick access to information. It puts the uniquely Indian use and history of turmeric and ginger plants into a global context of production and economic aspects. It explores the plants from a botanical perspective, and goes into details of their chemical composition as well. Rounding out the book are chapters on disease and pest control issues.

The book is a valuable resource for those involved in the production and marketing of these plants, as well as those looking for more information on the medicinal and nutritional properties of turmeric and ginger.


Students and researchers in agriculture, industry, policy planners and those involved in global pharmacopoeia.

K.P. Prabhakaran Nair

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Visiting Scientist, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India

View additional works by K.P. Prabhakaran Nair

The Agronomy and Economy of Turmeric and Ginger, 1st Edition



1. Turmeric: Origin and History

Area and Production

Global Turmeric Scenario


2. The Botany of Turmeric

Origin and Distribution

Turmeric Taxonomy

Taxonomic Investigations in Curcuma

Use of Isoenzymes

Molecular Markers

Morphology of Turmeric

Germination of Seed and Establishment of Seedling Progenies

The Curcuma Cytology

The Curcuma Karyomorphology

The Curcuma Meiotic Investigations

The Curcuma Nuclear DNA Content

Chromosome Number in Curcuma Seedling Progenies

Turmeric Crop Improvement

Clonal Selection in Turmeric

Turmeric Improvement by Seedling Selection

Mutation and Selection Induced Crop Improvement in Turmeric

Hybridization and Selection in Turmeric


3. Genetics of Turmeric

The Diversity of Turmeric Species

Curcuma spp.—Its Characterization

Molecular Characterization

The Diversity in Turmeric Cultivars

Genetic Variability in Turmeric

The Conservation and Management of Turmeric Genetic Resources

Biodiversity and GIS Technology

Turmeric and Intellectual Property Rights

Controversial Patent Cases Involving Turmeric and Traditional Knowledge


4. The Chemistry of Turmeric

Turmeric Oil

Turmeric Oleoresin

Turmeric Turmerones

Turmeric Curcuminoids

Specific Beneficial Properties of Curcuminoids

Extraction and Estimation of Curcumin

Biosynthesis of Curcuminoids


5. The Biotechnology of Turmeric

Tissue Culture

Explants and Media

Callus Induction

In Vitro Screening

Exchange of Turmeric Germplasm and In Vitro Conservation


In Vitro Mutagenesis

In Vitro Pollination


Molecular Markers

Early Flowering

Genetic Transformation


6. The Agronomy of Turmeric

Soil and Climate Suitability

Propagation of the Crop


Crop Season


Plant Geometry

Intercultivation Practices


Storage of Seed Rhizome


7. Nutrition and Nutrient Management in Turmeric

Soil Tests and Nutrient Availability

Nutrient Requirement and Uptake

Manuring of Turmeric

Effect of Micronutrients on Turmeric Production

The Role of Organic Manures in Turmeric Production

Organic Farming


The Role of Growth Regulators in Turmeric Production


8. Turmeric Entomology

Major Insect Pests

Rhizome Scale (Aspidiella hartii Ckll.)

Other Insect Pests

Storage Pests of Turmeric

Other Insect Pests


9. Turmeric Nematology

Nematode Pests of Turmeric

Symptoms of Nematode Infestation

Economic Consequences of Nematode Infestation

Field Management of Nematode Infestation

Preventive Measures

Planting Nematode-Resistant Lines

Chemical Control of Nematodes

Biological Control of Turmeric Nematodes


10. Diseases of Turmeric

Major Diseases of Turmeric

Minor Diseases of Turmeric

Bacterial Diseases of Turmeric

Storage Diseases of Turmeric


11. Harvesting and Postharvest Management of Turmeric

Harvesting of Turmeric

Washing the Rhizomes

Processing of the Rhizomes

Grading of Turmeric

Storage of Turmeric Rhizomes

General Composition

Quality Specifications of Turmeric

Value Additions in Turmeric

Newer Methods of Value Addition to Turmeric


12. Neutraceutical Properties of Turmeric

The Principal Compounds in Turmeric

Medicinal Properties of Turmeric

Antioxidant Property

Chemopreventive and Bioprotectant Properties

Additional Therapeutic Properties of Turmeric

Additional Curative Properties of Turmeric


13. The Ornamental Curcuma

Description of Species

Genetic Diversity


Cultural Investigations in Curcuma

Growth Regulators

Photoperiodic Studies

Nutrition of Ornamental Curcuma

Tissue Culture in Ornamental Curcuma

Storage of Ornamental Curcuma Rhizome

Postharvest Physiology of Ornamental Curcuma


14. Turmeric in Ayurveda

Nomenclature of Turmeric

Turmeric Varieties Used in Ayurveda

Pharmacological Properties of Turmeric

Use of Turmeric in Ayurveda

Excellent Turmeric-Based Ayurvedic Formulations

The Multifaceted Uses of Turmeric in Ayurveda

Corroboration with Scientific Evidence


15. The Agronomy and Economy of Ginger

Introduction—A Peek into the History of Ginger

India and Ginger

Global Centers of Ginger Cultivation

Uses of Ginger

Botany of Ginger

The Morphology and Anatomy of Ginger

Rhizome Anatomy

Root Apical Organization

Ontogeny of Buds, Roots, and Phloem

Anatomical Features of Ginger in Comparison to Related Taxa

Microscopic Features of Ginger Powder

Floral Anatomy

Floral Biology



Cytology, Cytogenetics, and Palynology

Physiology of Ginger

Genetic Resources

Crop Improvement

Evaluation and Selection for Quality

Breeding Strategies


16. The Chemistry of Ginger

The Composition of Ginger Rhizome

Extraction, Separation, and Identification Methods

Analytical and Isolation Methods

Chemical Ionization Technique

Miscellaneous Methods

Oleoresins: Gingerols, Shogaols, and Related Compounds

Synthesis and Biosynthesis of Pungent Compounds of Ginger Rhizomes

Essential Oils of Ginger

Characteristic Flavor and Odor in Ginger

Properties of Ginger

Processing of Ginger

Formulations and Uses


17. Ginger Physiology


Carbon Assimilation and Photosynthesis

Light and Physiological Processes

Water Stress and Mulching

Growth Regulators


18. Cropping Zones and Production Technology

Climatic Requirements

Soil Requirements

Cropping Zones

Production Technology


19. The Biotechnology of Ginger

Tissue Culture

Direct Regeneration for Aerial Stem

Anther Culture

Inflorescence Culture and In Vivo Development of Fruit


Plant Regeneration from Callus Culture

Suspension Culture

Protoplast Culture

In Vitro Selection/Induction of Systemic Resistance

Somaclonal Variation

Production of Secondary Metabolites

In Vitro Polyploidy

Field Evaluation of Tissue-Cultured Plants

Germplasm Conservation

Synthetic Seeds

Molecular Markers and Diversity Studies

Molecular Phylogeny of Zingiber

Application of Molecular Markers

Genetic Transformation


20. Ginger Nutrition

Uptake and Requirement

Organic and Integrated Nutrient Management


21. The Diseases of Ginger

Diseases Caused by Oomycetes and True Fungi

Diseases Caused by Bacterial Pathogens

Diseases Caused by Viruses

Diseases Caused by Nematodes


22. The Insect Pests of Ginger and Their Control

Shoot Borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guen.)

Rhizome Scale (Aspidiella hartii Ckll.)

White Grubs (Holotrichia spp.)

Minor Insect Pests

Nematode Pests of Ginger


23. The Postharvest and Industrial Processing of Ginger

Harvest Maturity


The Incidence of Aflatoxin

Chemical Composition of Ginger

Ginger Powder

Distillation of the Volatile Oil

Composition of ginger oil

Organoleptic Properties

Oil of Green (Fresh) Ginger

Ginger Oil from Scrapings

Oleoresin Ginger

Preserved Ginger

Uses of Ginger and Ginger Products

Uses of Ginger Oil and Oleoresin


24. Production, Marketing, and Economics of Ginger

Area Expansion







World Trade



Market Opportunities

Competitiveness of Indian Ginger Industry

Risks and Uncertainty


25. Pharmacology and Nutraceutical Uses of Ginger

Antimicrobial Property of Ginger

Antifungal Activity of Ginger

Larvicidal Activity of Ginger

Anthelmintic Activity of Ginger

Insecticidal Property of Ginger

Pharmacological Studies on Ginger Extracts and Active Components

Medicinal Uses of Ginger

Ginger in Indian System of Medicine

Experimental and Clinical Investigations

Other Properties

Ginger in Chinese and Japanese Systems of Medicine

Ginger in Traditional Medical Care in Other Countries


26. Ginger as a Spice and Flavorant

Forms of Ginger Used in Cooking

Ginger as a Flavorant

Ginger as a Deodorizing Agent

Frequency Patterning Analysis of Ginger

Ginger as a Flavorant

Ginger as an Antioxidant

Antimicrobial Activity


27. Additional Economically Important Ginger Species

General Features

Wild Ginger


Quotes and reviews

"This volume examines the spice crops of turmeric and ginger. It delves into the origin, history, botany, genetics, chemistry, biotechnology, agronomy, nutrition and nutrient management, entomology, nematology, diseases, harvesting and postharvest management, and nutraceutical properties…"--Reference and Research Book News, August 2013

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