Digital Control Engineering, 2nd Edition

Analysis and Design

Digital Control Engineering, 2nd Edition,M. Sami Fadali,Antonio Visioli,ISBN9780123943910


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Key Features

Extensive Use of computational tools: Matlab sections at end of each chapter show how to implement concepts from the chapter.
Frees the student from the drudgery of mundane calculations and allows him to consider more subtle aspects of control system analysis and design.

An engineering approach to digital controls: emphasis throughout the book is on design of control systems. Mathematics is used to help explain concepts, but throughout the text discussion is tied to design and implementation. For example coverage of analog controls in chapter 5 is not simply a review, but is used to show how analog control systems map to digital control systems.

Review of Background Material: contains review material to aid understanding of digital control analysis and design. Examples include discussion of discrete-time systems in time domain and frequency domain (reviewed from linear systems course) and root locus design in s-domain and z-domain (reviewed from feedback control course).

Inclusion of Advanced Topics
In addition to the basic topics required for a one semester senior/graduate class, the text includes some advanced material to make it suitable for an introductory graduate level class or for two quarters at the senior/graduate level. Examples of optional topics are state-space methods, which may receive brief coverage in a one semester course, and nonlinear discrete-time systems.

Minimal Mathematics Prerequisites
The mathematics background required for understanding most of the book is based on what can be reasonably expected from the average electrical, chemical or mechanical engineering senior. This background includes three semesters of calculus, differential equations and basic linear algebra. Some texts on digital control require more mathematical maturity and are therefore beyond the reach of the typical senior.


Digital controllers are part of nearly all modern personal, industrial, and transportation systems. Every senior or graduate student of electrical, chemical or mechanical engineering should therefore be familiar with the basic theory of digital controllers. This new text covers the fundamental principles and applications of digital control engineering, with emphasis on engineering design.

Fadali and Visioli cover analysis and design of digitally controlled systems and describe applications of digital controls in a wide range of fields. With worked examples and Matlab applications in every chapter and many end-of-chapter assignments, this text provides both theory and practice for those coming to digital control engineering for the first time, whether as a student or practicing engineer.


Undergraduate and graduate students in digital controls. Control engineers.

Information about this author is currently not available.
Information about this author is currently not available.

Digital Control Engineering, 2nd Edition




New to this edition

Organization of text

Supporting material


Chapter 1. Introduction to Digital Control


1.1 Why digital control?

1.2 The structure of a digital control system

1.3 Examples of digital control system


Chapter 2. Discrete-Time Systems


2.1 Analog systems with piecewise constant inputs

2.2 Difference equations

2.3 The z-transform

2.4 Computer-aided design

2.5 z-Transform solution of difference equations

2.6 The time response of a discrete-time system

2.7 The modified z-transform

2.8 Frequency response of discrete-time systems

2.9 The sampling theorem


Chapter 3. Modeling of Digital Control Systems


3.1 ADC model

3.2 DAC model

3.3 The transfer function of the ZOH

3.4 Effect of the sampler on the transfer function of a cascade

3.5 DAC, analog subsystem, and ADC combination transfer function

3.6 Systems with transport lag

3.7 The closed-loop transfer function

3.8 Analog disturbances in a digital system

3.9 Steady-state error and error constants

3.10 MATLAB commands


Chapter 4. Stability of Digital Control Systems


4.1 Definitions of stability

4.2 Stable z-domain pole locations

4.3 Stability conditions

4.4 Stability determination

4.5 Jury test

4.6 Nyquist criterion


Chapter 5. Analog Control System Design


5.1 Root locus

5.2 Root locus using MATLAB

5.3 Design specifications and the effect of gain variation

5.4 Root locus design

5.5 Empirical tuning of PID controllers


Chapter 6. Digital Control System Design


6.1 z-Domain root locus

6.2 z-Domain digital control system design

6.3 Digital implementation of analog controller design

6.4 Direct z-domain digital controller design

6.5 Frequency response design

6.6 Direct control design

6.7 Finite settling time design


Chapter 7. State–Space Representation


7.1 State variables

7.2 State–space representation

7.3 Linearization of nonlinear state equations

7.4 The solution of linear state–space equations

7.5 The transfer function matrix

7.6 Discrete-time state–space equations

7.7 Solution of discrete-time state–space equations

7.8 z-Transfer function from state–space equations

7.9 Similarity transformation


Chapter 8. Properties of State–Space Models


8.1 Stability of state–space realizations

8.2 Controllability and stabilizability

8.3 Observability and detectability

8.4 Poles and zeros of multivariable systems

8.5 State–space realizations

8.6 Duality

8.7 Hankel realization


Chapter 9. State Feedback Control


9.1 State and output feedback

9.2 Pole placement

9.3 Servo problem

9.4 Invariance of system zeros

9.5 State estimation

9.6 Observer state feedback

9.7 Pole assignment using transfer functions


Chapter 10. Optimal Control


10.1 Optimization

10.2 Optimal control

10.3 The linear quadratic regulator

10.4 Steady-state quadratic regulator

10.5 Hamiltonian system


Chapter 11. Elements of Nonlinear Digital Control Systems


11.1 Discretization of nonlinear systems

11.2 Nonlinear difference equations

11.3 Equilibrium of nonlinear discrete-time systems

11.4 Lyapunov stability theory

11.5 Stability of analog systems with digital control

11.6 State plane analysis

11.7 Discrete-time nonlinear controller design

11.8 Input-output stability and the small gain theorem


Chapter 12. Practical Issues


12.1 Design of the hardware and software architecture

12.2 Choice of the sampling period

12.3 Controller structure

12.4 PID control

12.5 Sampling period switching


APPENDIX I: Table of Laplace and z-Transforms*

APPENDIX II: Properties of the z-Transform

APPENDIX III: Review of Linear Algebra

A.1 Matrices

A.2 Equality of matrices

A.3 Matrix arithmetic

A.4 Determinant of a matrix

A.5 Inverse of a matrix

A.6 Trace of a matrix

A.7 Rank of a matrix

A.8 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

A.9 Partitioned matrix

A.10 Norm of a vector

A.11 Matrix norms

A.12 Quadratic forms

A.13 Singular value decomposition and pseudoinverses

A.14 Matrix differentiation/integration

A.15 Kronecker product



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