Digital Video and HD, 2nd Edition

Algorithms and Interfaces

 
Digital Video and HD, 2nd Edition,Charles Poynton,ISBN9780123919267
 
 
 

  

Morgan Kaufmann

9780123919267

9780123919328

752

235 X 191

A comprehensive, completely updated reference to current video technology for new and practicing video, software, and media engineers by one of the world's leading authorities on digital video and HDTV

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Key Features

With the help of hundreds of high quality technical illustrations, this book presents the following topics:

* Basic concepts of digitization, sampling, quantization, gamma, and filtering
* Principles of color science as applied to image capture and display
* Scanning and coding of SDTV and HDTV
* Video color coding: luma, chroma (4:2:2 component video, 4fSC composite video)
* Analog NTSC and PAL
* Studio systems and interfaces
* Compression technology, including M-JPEG and MPEG-2
* Broadcast standards and consumer video equipment

Description

Digital Video and HD: Algorithms and Interfaces provides a one-stop shop for the theory and engineering of digital video systems. Equally accessible to video engineers and those working in computer graphics, Charles Poynton’s revision to his classic text covers emergent compression systems, including H.264 and VP8/WebM, and augments detailed information on JPEG, DVC, and MPEG-2 systems. This edition also introduces the technical aspects of file-based workflows and outlines the emerging domain of metadata, placing it in the context of digital video processing.

Readership

Engineers, programmers, and computer graphics professionals who work in fields (such as film and software and game design) that encompasses video for entertainment as well as non-broadcast, non-entertainment applications in business, science, and education, including teleconferencing, Web-based training, sales and marketing presentations, and exploration.

Charles Poynton

Charles Poynton is an independent contractor specializing in digital color imaging systems, including digital video, HDTV, and digital cinema. A Fellow of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), Poynton was awarded the Society’s prestigious David Sarnoff Gold Medal for his work to integrate video technology with computing and communications. Poynton is the author of the widely respected book, A Technical Introduction to Digital Video, published in 1996. Engineers (SMPTE), and in 1994 was awarded the Society's David Sarnoff Gold Medal for his work to integrate video technology with computing and communications. He is also the author of A Technical Introduction to Digital Video.

Affiliations and Expertise

is an independent contractor specializing in digital color imaging systems, including digital video, HDTV, and digital cinema. A Fellow of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), Poynton was awarded the Society’s prestigious David Sarnoff Gold Medal for his work to integrate video technology with computing and communications.

Digital Video and HD, 2nd Edition

Dedication

Figures

Tables

Preface

Acknowledgments

About the Book

PART 1

1. Raster images

Aspect ratio

Geometry

Image capture

Digitization

Perceptual uniformity

Colour

Luma and colour difference components

Digital image representation

SD and HD

Square sampling

Comparison of aspect ratios

Aspect ratio

Frame rates

2. Image acquisition and presentation

Image state

EOCF standards

Entertainment programming

Acquisition

Consumer origination

Consumer electronics (CE) display

3. Linear-light and perceptual uniformity

Contrast

Contrast ratio

Perceptual uniformity

The “code 100” problem and nonlinear image coding

Linear and nonlinear

4. Quantization

Linearity

Decibels

Noise, signal, sensitivity

Quantization error

Full-swing

Studio-swing (footroom and headroom)

Interface offset

Processing coding

Two’s complement wrap-around

5. Contrast, brightness, , and

Perceptual attributes

History of display signal processing

Digital driving levels

Relationship between signal and lightness

Algorithm

Black level setting

Effect of contrast and brightness on contrast and brightness

An alternate interpretation

Brightness and contrast controls in LCDs

Brightness and contrast controls in PDPs

Brightness and contrast controls in desktop graphics

6. Raster images in computing

Symbolic image description

Raster images

Conversion among types

Image files

“Resolution” in computer graphics

7. Image structure

Image reconstruction

Sampling aperture

Spot profile

Box distribution

Gaussian distribution

8. Raster scanning

Flicker, refresh rate, and frame rate

Introduction to scanning

Scanning parameters

Interlaced format

Twitter

Interlace in analog systems

Interlace and progressive

Scanning notation

Motion portrayal

Segmented-frame (24PsF)

Video system taxonomy

Conversion among systems

9. Resolution

Magnitude frequency response and bandwidth

Visual acuity

Viewing distance and angle

Kell effect

Resolution

Resolution in video

Viewing distance

Interlace revisited

10. Constant luminance

The principle of constant luminance

Compensating for the CRT

Departure from constant luminance

Luma

“Leakage” of luminance into chroma

11. Picture rendering

Surround effect

Tone scale alteration

Incorporation of rendering

Rendering in desktop computing

12. Introduction to luma and chroma

Luma

Sloppy use of the term luminance

Colour difference coding (chroma)

Chroma subsampling

Chroma subsampling notation

Chroma subsampling filters

Chroma in composite NTSC and PAL

13. Introduction tocomponent SD

Scanning standards

Widescreen (16:9) SD

Square and nonsquare sampling

Resampling

14. Introduction to composite NTSC and PAL

NTSC and PAL encoding

NTSC and PAL decoding

S-video interface

Frequency interleaving

Composite analog SD

15. Introduction to HD

HD scanning

Colour coding for BT.709 HD

16. Introduction to video compression

Data compression

Image compression

Lossy compression

JPEG

Motion-JPEG

JPEG 2000

Mezzanine compression

MPEG

Picture coding types (I, P, B)

Reordering

MPEG-1

MPEG-2

Other MPEGs

MPEG-4

H.264

AVC-Intra

WM9, WM10, VC-1 codecs

Compression for CE acquisition

HDV

AVCHD

Compression for IP transport to consumers

VP8 (“WebM”) codec

Dirac (basic)

17. Streams and files

Historical overview

Physical layer

Stream interfaces

IEEE 1394 (FireWire, i.LINK)

HTTP live streaming (HLS)

18. Metadata

Metadata Example 1: CD-DA

Metadata Example 2: .yuv files

Metadata Example 3: RFF

Metadata Example 4: JPEG/JFIF

Metadata Example 5: Sequence display extension

Conclusions

19. Stereoscopic (“3-D”) video

Acquisition

S3D display

Anaglyph

Temporal multiplexing

Polarization

Wavelength multiplexing (Infitec/Dolby)

Autostereoscopic displays

Parallax barrier display

Lenticular display

Recording and compression

Consumer interface and display

Ghosting

Vergence and accommodation

PART 2

20. Filtering and sampling

Sampling theorem

Sampling at exactly 0.5fS

Magnitude frequency response

Magnitude frequency response of a boxcar

The sinc weighting function

Frequency response of point sampling

Fourier transform pairs

Analog filters

Digital filters

Impulse response

Finite impulse response (FIR) filters

Physical realizability of a filter

Phase response (group delay)

Infinite impulse response (IIR) filters

Lowpass filter

Digital filter design

Reconstruction

Reconstruction close to 0.5fS

“(sin x)/x” correction

Further reading

21. Resampling, interpolation, and decimation

2:1 downsampling

Oversampling

Interpolation

Lagrange interpolation

Lagrange interpolation as filtering

Polyphase interpolators

Polyphase taps and phases

Implementing polyphase interpolators

Decimation

Lowpass filtering in decimation

22. Image digitization and reconstruction

Spatial frequency domain

Comb filtering

Spatial filtering

Image presampling filters

Image reconstruction filters

Spatial (2-D) oversampling

23. Perception and visual acuity

Retina

Adaptation

Contrast sensitivity

Contrast sensitivity function (CSF)

24. Luminance and lightness

Radiance, intensity

Luminance

Relative luminance

Luminance from red, green, and blue

Lightness (CIE L*)

25. The CIE system of colorimetry

Fundamentals of vision

Definitions

Spectral power distribution (SPD) and tristimulus

Spectral constraints

CIE XYZ tristimulus

CIE [x, y] chromaticity

Blackbody radiation

Colour temperature

White

Chromatic adaptation

Perceptually uniform colour spaces

CIE L*u*v*

CIE L*a*b* (CIELAB)

CIE L*u*v* and CIE L*a*b* summary

Colour specification and colour image coding

Further reading

26. Colour science for video

Additive reproduction (RGB)

Characterization of RGB primaries

BT.709 primaries

Leggacy SD primaries

sRGB system

SMPTE Free Scale (FS) primaries

AMPAS ACES primaries

SMPTE/DCI P3 primaries

CMFs and SPDs

Normalization and scaling

Luminance coefficients

Transformations between RGB and CIE XYZ

Noise due to matrixing

Transforms among RGB systems

Camera white reference

Display white reference

Gamut

Wide-gamut reproduction

Free Scale Gamut, Free Scale Log (FS-Gamut, FS-Log)

Further reading

27. Gamma

Gamma in CRT physics

The amazing coincidence!

Gamma in video

Opto-electronic conversion functions (OECFs)

BT.709 OECF

SMPTE 240M OECF

sRGB transfer function

Transfer functions in SD

Bit depth requirements

Gamma in modern display devices

Estimating gamma

Gamma in video, CGI, and Macintosh

Gamma in computer graphics

Gamma in pseudocolour

Limitations of 8-bit linear coding

Linear and nonlinear coding in CGI

28. Luma and colour differences

Colour acuity

RGB and R′G′B′ colour cubes

Conventional luma/colour difference coding

Luminance and luma notation

Nonlinear red, green, blue (R′G′B′)

BT.601 luma

BT.709 luma

Chroma subsampling, revisited

Luma/colour difference summary

SD and HD luma chaos

Luma/colour difference component sets

PART 3

29. Component video colour coding for SD

B’-Y’, R’-Y’ components for SD

PBPR components for SD

CBCR components for SD

Y’CBCR from studio RGB

Y’CBCR from computer RGB

“Full-swing” Y’CBCR

Y’UV, Y’IQ confusion

30. Component video colour coding for HD

B’–Y’, R’–Y’ components for BT.709 HD

PBPR components for BT.709 HD

CBCR components for BT.709 HD

CBCR components for xvYCC

Y’CBCR from studio RGB

Y’CBCR from computer RGB

Conversions between HD and SD

Colour coding standards

31. Video signal processing

Edge treatment

Transition samples

Picture lines

Choice of SAL and SPW parameters

Video levels

Setup (pedestal)

BT.601 to computing

Enhancement

Median filtering

Coring

Chroma transition improvement (CTI)

Mixing and keying

32. Frame, field, line, and sample rates

Field rate

Line rate

Sound subcarrier

Addition of composite colour

NTSC colour subcarrier

576i PAL colour subcarrier

4fSC sampling

Common sampling rate

Numerology of HD scanning

Audio rates

33. Timecode

Introduction

Dropframe timecode

Editing

Linear timecode (LTC)

Vertical interval timecode (VITC)

Timecode structure

Further reading

34. 2-3 pulldown

2-3-3-2 pulldown

Conversion of film to different frame rates

Native 24 Hz coding

Conversion to other rates

35. Deinterlacing

Spatial domain

Vertical-temporal domain

Motion adaptivity

Further reading

36. Colourbars

SD colourbars

SD colourbar notation

PLUGE element

Composite decoder adjustment using colourbars

-I, +Q, and PLUGE elements in SD colourbars

HD colourbars

PART 4

37. Reference display and viewing conditions

Introduction

Signal interface

Reference primaries, black, and white

Reference EOCF

Reference viewing conditions

38. SDI and HD-SDI interfaces

Component digital SD interface (BT.601)

Serial digital interface (SDI)

Component digital HD-SDI

SDI and HD-SDI sync, TRS, and ancillary data

TRS in 4:2:2 SD-SDI

TRS in HD-SDI

Analog sync and digital/analog timing relationships

Ancillary data

SDI coding

HD-SDI coding

Interfaces for compressed video

SDTI

Switching and mixing

Timing in digital facilities

ASI

Summary of digital interfaces

39. 480 component video

Frame rate

Interlace

Line sync

Field/frame sync

R′G′B′ EOCF and primaries

Luma (Y′)

Picture center, aspect ratio, and blanking

Halfline blanking

Component digital 4:2:2 interface

Component analog R′G′B′ interface

Component analog Y′PBPR interface, EBU N10

Component analog Y′PBPR interface, industry standard

40. 576 component video

Frame rate

Interlace

Line sync

Analog field/frame sync

R′G′B′ EOCF and primaries

Luma (Y′)

Picture center, aspect ratio, and blanking

Component digital 4:2:2 interface

Component analog 576i interface

41. 280 ×720 HD

Scanning

Analog sync

Picture center, aspect ratio, and blanking

R’G’B’ EOCF and primaries

Luma (Y’)

Component digital 4:2:2 interface

42. 1920 ×1080 HD

Scanning

Analog sync

Picture center, aspect ratio, and blanking

R’G’B’ EOCF and primaries

Luma (Y’)

Component digital 4:2:2 interface

43. HD videotape

D-5 HD (HD-D5, D-15)

D-6

HDCAM (D-11)

DVCPRO HD (D-12)

HDCAM SR (D-16)

44. Component analog HD interface

Pre- and postfiltering characteristics

PART 5

45. JPEG and motion-JPEG (M-JPEG) compression

JPEG blocks and MCUs

JPEG block diagram

Level shifting

Discrete cosine transform (DCT)

JPEG encoding example

JPEG decoding

Compression ratio control

JPEG/JFIF

Motion-JPEG (M-JPEG)

Further reading

46. DV compression

DV chroma subsampling

DV frame/field modes

Picture-in-shuttle in DV

DV overflow scheme

DV quantization

DV digital interface (DIF)

Consumer DV recording

Professional DV variants

47. MPEG-2 video compression

MPEG-2 profiles and levels

Picture structure

Frame rate and 2-3 pulldown in MPEG

Luma and chroma sampling structures

Macroblocks

Picture coding types – I, P, B

Prediction

Motion vectors (MVs)

Coding of a block

Frame and field DCT types

Zigzag and VLE

Refresh

Motion estimation

Rate control and buffer management

Bitstream syntax

Transport

48. H.264 video compression

Algorithmic features, profiles, and levels

Baseline and extended profiles

High profiles

Hierarchy

Multiple reference pictures

Slices

Spatial intra prediction

Flexible motion compensation

Quarter-pel motion-compensated interpolation

Weighting and offsetting of MC prediction

16-bit integer transform

Quantizer

Variable-length coding

Context adaptivity

CABAC

Deblocking filter

Buffer control

Scalable video coding (SVC)

Multiview video coding (MVC)

AVC-Intra

49. VP8 compression

Algorithmic features

PART 6

50. MPEG-2 storage and transport

Elementary stream (ES)

Packetized elementary stream (PES)

MPEG-2 program stream

MPEG-2 transport stream

System clock

51. Digital television broadcasting

Japan

United States

ATSC modulation

Europe

A. and considered harmful

Cement vs. concrete

True CIE luminance

The misinterpretation of luminance

The enshrining of luma

Colour difference scale factors

Conclusion: A plea

B. Introduction to radiometry and photometry

Further reading

Glossary

index

About the author

 
 
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