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Enological Chemistry
 
 

Enological Chemistry, 1st Edition

 
Enological Chemistry, 1st Edition,Juan Moreno,Rafael Peinado,ISBN9780123884381
 
 
 

  &      

Academic Press

9780123884381

9780123884398

448

235 X 191

Identify the specific compounds behind enological properties and processes, their chemical equilibria and their influence on the analytical and sensory quality of wine, as well as the physical, chemical and microbiological factors that affect their evolution during the winemaking process.

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Key Features

* Organized according to the winemaking process, guiding reader clearly to application of knowledge

* Describes the most salient compounds involved in each step enabling readers to identify the specific compounds behind properties and processes and effectively work with them

* Provides both theoretical knowledge and practical application providing a strong starting point for further research and development

Description

Enological Chemistry is written for the professional enologist tasked with finding the right balance of compounds to create or improve wine products. Related titles lack the appropriate focus for this audience, according to reviewers, failing either to be as comprehensive on the topic of chemistry, to include chemistry as part of the broader science of wine, or targeting a less scientific audience and including social and historical information not directly pertinent to the understanding of the role of chemistry in successful wine production.

The topics in the book have been sequenced identically with the steps of the winemaking process. Thus, the book describes the most salient compounds involved in each vinification process, their properties and their balance; also, theoretical knowledge is matched with its practical application. The primary aim is to enable the reader to identify the specific compounds behind enological properties and processes, their chemical balance and their influence on the analytical and sensory quality of wine, as well as the physical, chemical and microbiological factors that affect their evolution during the winemaking process.

Readership

Researchers and enologists developing new wine products, some limited potential for advanced students in courses on Enology and Wine Chemistry.

Juan Moreno

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain

Rafael Peinado

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain

Enological Chemistry, 1st Edition

Dedication

Preface

About the Authors

Chapter 1. The Vine

1 Biological Cycles of the Vine

2 Morphology of the Grape Clusters

3 Chemical Composition of the Fruit

Chapter 2. Composition of Grape Must

1 Grape Must

2 Chemical Families Present in Must

Chapter 3. Must Aromas

1 Introduction

2 Terpenes

3 Carotenoids

4 Pyrazines

5 Substances Derived from Treatments Prior to Fermentation

6 Substances Released During Fermentation: Mercaptans

7 The Importance of Volatile Compounds in Aroma

Chapter 4. Composition of Wine

1 The Transformation of Must into Wine

2 Alcoholic Fermentation and the Composition of Wine

Chapter 5. Polyphenols

1 Introduction

2 Non-Flavonoid Phenols

3 Flavonoid Phenols

4 Profile of Tannins and Anthocyanins During Ripening

5 Extraction of Phenolic Compounds During Vinification

6 Vinification Strategies and Polyphenol Content

7 Modification of Phenolic Compounds During Vinification

8 Biosynthesis of Phenolic Compounds

Chapter 6. Sugars

1 Introduction

2 Structure of Carbohydrates

3 The Glycosidic Bond: Polymerization

4 Polysaccharides

5 Glycosides

6 The Importance of Glycosides in Winemaking

Chapter 7. Sugars in Must

1 Introduction

2 Profile of Fermentable Hexoses

3 Physical Properties of Glucose and Fructose

4 Chemical Properties of Sugars

5 Non-Fermentable Monosaccharides and Derivatives

Chapter 8. Carboxylic Acids

1 Introduction

2 The Carboxyl Group: Basic Concepts

3 Monocarboxylic Acids

4 Dicarboxylic Acids

5 Hydroxy Acids

6 Keto Acids

Chapter 9. Grape Acids

1 Introduction

2 Tartaric Acid

3 Malic Acid

4 Citric Acid

5 Changes in Acid Content and Acidity During Grape Ripening

6 Other Grape Acids

7 Analysis of Acids

Chapter 10. The Relationship Between Must Composition and Quality

1 The Harvest

2 Phenolic Compounds and Sampling

3 Ripeness

4 Factors Affecting the Quality and Ripening of the Grape

5 Correction of the Harvest

Chapter 11. The Transformation of Must into Wine

1 Introduction

2 The Pasteur and Crabtree Effects

3 Glycolysis

4 Alcoholic Fermentation

5 Glyceropyruvic Fermentation

6 Changes in Grape Acids During Fermentation

7 Factors Affecting Alcoholic Fermentation

8 Formation of Lactic Acid by Lactic Acid Bacteria

9 Maloalcoholic Fermentation

10 Residual Sugars and Type of Wine

Chapter 12. Nitrogen Compounds

1 Introduction

2 Total Nitrogen and Assimilable Nitrogen

3 Nitrogen Compounds in Grapes and Must

4 Changes in Nitrogen Content during Grape Ripening

5 Changes in Nitrogen Content during Fermentation

6 Proteins

7 Other Nitrogen Compounds

Chapter 13. Acid-Base Equilibria in Wine

1 Introduction

2 Law of Mass Action

3 Dissociation Constants: Strength of Acids and Bases

4 Activity and Thermodynamic Constant

5 Mixed and Thermodynamic Dissociation Constants

6 Dissociation State of Organic Acids

7 Changes in Degree of Dissociation and Molar Fraction with pH

8 Proportion of Neutralized Acids in Wine

Chapter 14. Buffering Capacity of Wines

1 Introduction

2 Buffering Capacity of Weak Acid Solutions

3 Buffering Capacity of Wine

4 Effect of Malolactic and Maloalcoholic Fermentation on the Acid-Base Equilibrium of Wine

5 Dry Extract Determined by Densitometry

6 Relationship Between Total and Titratable Acidity

7 Acidity and Organoleptic Characteristics

8 Correction of Acidity

9 Final Considerations

Chapter 15. Precipitation Equilibria in Wine

1 Introduction

2 Tartrate Solubility

3 Factors That Influence Solubility

4 Factors That Affect Tartrate Precipitation

5 Tartrate Stability

6 Protection Against Precipitation

7 Appendix

Chapter 16. Changes in Acidity after Fermentation

1 Introduction

2 Physical Treatments for Tartrate Stabilization of Wine

3 Chemical Treatments for Tartrate Stabilization

4 Assessment of Treatment Efficacy

5 Spoilage Processes That Affect Acids

Chapter 17. Redox Phenomena in Must and Wine

1 Introduction

2 Redox Reactions: Basic Concepts

3 Redox Potential

4 Measuring Redox Potential in Wine

5 Oxygen and Winemaking

6 Oxidation of Polyphenols in Must and Wine

Chapter 18. The Colloidal State

1 Introduction to Dispersed Systems

2 General Characteristics of Colloids

3 Classification of Colloids

4 Approaches to the Analysis of Sols and Gels

5 Properties of Colloids

6 Sols

7 Stability of Sols

8 Gels

9 Foams

Chapter 19. Wine Colloids

1 Introduction

2 Isolation and Classification of Colloids in Wine

3 Natural Clarification and Stabilization

4 Clarification with Proteins: Fining

5 The Polyphenol-Protein Complex

6 Protein Casse

7 Clarification with Bentonite

8 Clarification with Colloidal Silica

9 Other Clarifying Agents

10 Protective Colloids

Chapter 20. Inorganic Material and Metal Casse

1 Introduction

2 Anions

3 Cations

4 Heavy Metals

5 Metal Casse

6 Treatments to Prevent Ferric Casse

7 Treatments to Prevent Copper Casse

Chapter 21. Chemical Aging

1 Introduction: Aging and Storage

2 Aging in Oak Barrels

3 Compounds Contributed to Wine by Wood

4 Influence of Oxygen on Aging

5 Factors that Influence the Composition of the Wood

Chapter 22. Aging

1 Introduction

2 Effects on Volatile Compounds

3 Effect on Nonvolatile Phenolic Compounds

Chapter 23. Biological Aging

1 Introduction

2 Biological Aging: The Process

3 Changes Induced by Flor Yeasts

4 Factors That Affect Biological Aging

Index

Quotes and reviews

"Moreno and Peinado draw material from lectures and laboratory sessions in a course on wine chemistry they have taught to enology students for over 10 years. The textbook synthesizes the considerable scientific knowledge that has been acquired about making wine, much of which has not been widely disseminated."--Reference and Research Book News, December 2012

 
 
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