Amorphous Chalcogenides, 1st Edition

The Past, Present and Future

Amorphous Chalcogenides, 1st Edition,Victor Mikla,Victor Mikla,ISBN9780123884343





Discusses the commercial applications of amorphous semiconductors

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Key Features

  • Provides information on the amorphous semiconductors that are of most commercial interest
  • Presents the history of the commercial applications, the latest developments and future possibilities


Amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors have commercial value and have many uses such as image formation, including x-rays, and high-definition TV pick up tubes. They have widespread application in the microelectronics industry and amorphous metallic alloys also have useful magnetic properties.

This book focuses on their imaging applications and related properties. It examines the two groups of amorphous semiconductors that are of most commercial interest:

  1. the chalcogenide glasses
  2. the tetrahedrally bonded amorphous solids such as amorphous silicon, germanium and related alloys

Both of these groups may be conveniently prepared in the form of thin/thick films which is of considerable importance in applications where large-area coverage of flat or curved surfaces of rigid or flexible materials is desirable such as in photovoltaic arrays, X-Ray sensors, display screens and photocopier drums.


Researchers and postgraduate students in materials science and solid state physics.

Victor Mikla

Victor I. Mikla, PhD, is Chair of Physical & Mathematical Disciplines in the Department of Humanities & Natural Sciences at Uzhhgorod National University, Uzhhorod, Ukraine. Dr. Mikla specializes in photo-electronic materials and devices, and has published research articles widely on a broad range of inter-disciplinary topics including metastable states in amorphous chalcogenides, trap level spectroscopy, medical and non-medical imaging applications of amorphous semiconductors, xerographic spectroscopy, photo-induced & structural changes, and raman scattering.

Affiliations and Expertise

Physical and Mathematical Disciplines, Humanities & Natural Sciences Faculty, Uzhhgorod National University, Uzhhorod, Ukraine

View additional works by Victor I. Mikla

Victor Mikla

Dr. Victor V. Mikla is affiliated with the Physical & Mathematical Disciplines, Department of Humanities & Natural Sciences, Uzhhgorod National University, Uzhhgorod,Ukraine

Affiliations and Expertise

Physical and Mathematical Disciplines, Humanities & Natural Sciences Faculty, Uzhhgorod National University, Uzhhgorod, Ukraine

View additional works by Victor V. Mikla

Amorphous Chalcogenides, 1st Edition

  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • Introduction
    • I.1. Chronology of Commercial Applications
    • I.2. Formation and Stability of Amorphous Solids
    • I.3. Atomic Structure
    • I.4. Electronic Structure
  • 1. Preparation of Amorphous Selenium Photoconductor Films by Vacuum Deposition
    • 1.1. Preparation of Amorphous Se Films for Imaging Applications
    • 1.2. Model for Amorphous–Crystalline Film Boundary
    • 1.3. Influence of Deposition Conditions on Electronic Properties of Amorphous Selenium
    • 1.4. Fractionation Effects in Amorphous Se–Te Films
    • 1.5. Conclusion
  • 2. Molecular Structure of Se-Rich Amorphous Films
    • 2.1. Techniques Exploited in Structural Studies
    • 2.2. Effect of Composition on Structure of AsxSe1-x Amorphous Films—Electron Diffraction Study
    • 2.3. Raman Scattering in Pure and Alloyed Amorphous Selenium: High-Frequency Spectral Region
    • 2.4. Composition Dependence of Raman Bands in Amorphous Se-rich Alloys AsxSe100-x
    • 2.5. Raman Scattering in Pure and Alloyed Amorphous Selenium: Low-Frequency Spectral Region
    • 2.6. Conclusion
  • 3. Effect of Thermal Evaporation Conditions on Structure and Structural Changes in Amorphous Arsenic Sulfides
    • 3.1. Influence of Preparation Conditions
    • 3.2. Samples and Technique to Probe Local Structure
    • 3.3. Local Structure of As2S3 Amorphous Films
    • 3.4. Conclusion
  • 4. The Big Invention of the Twentieth Century—Xerography
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. History of the Big Twentieth-Century Invention and the Greatest Inventor
    • 4.3. Classification of Xerographic Processes
    • 4.4. Logical Steps in Practical Xerography
    • 4.5. Realization of Xerographic Process
    • 4.6. Phenomenological Aspects
    • 4.7. Photoreceptor Material Requirements
  • 5. Xerographic Spectroscopy of Gap States
    • 5.1. Xerographic Technique for Deep State Spectroscopy
    • 5.2. Corona Devices
    • 5.3. Principle of Xerographic Measurements Technique
    • 5.4. Dark Discharge in a-Se
    • 5.5. Photoinduced Changes of Xerographic Characteristics: Dark Discharge
    • 5.6. Residual Voltage in Se-Rich Photoreceptors
    • 5.7. Conclusion
  • 6. Effect of Antimony Alloying on Photoelectronic Properties of a-Se
    • 6.1. Preparation of a-SbxSe1–x and Measurement Techniques
    • 6.2. Fundamental Properties
    • 6.3. Dark Discharge
    • 6.4. Transient Photoconductivity
    • 6.5. PID Characteristics
    • 6.6. Conclusion
  • 7. High-Definition TV Pickup Tubes
    • 7.1. Saticon
    • 7.2. Target Structure and Current–Voltage Characteristics
    • 7.3. Properties of the Multiplicative Phenomenon
    • 7.4. New Super-HARP Pickup Tube
    • 7.5. Conclusion
  • 8. X-Ray Photoconductors for Direct Conversion of Digital Flat-Panel X-Ray Image Detectors
    • 8.1. Principles of the Direct-Conversion Digital X-Ray Image Detector
    • 8.2. The Ideal X-Ray Photoconductor
    • 8.3. Intrinsic Resolution of X-Ray Photoconductors
    • 8.4. Absorption, Photoconductor Thickness, and Carrier Schubwegs
    • 8.5. Medical Applications
    • 8.6. Glance to the Future
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