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Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers
 
 

Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, 5th Edition

 
Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, 5th Edition,Carl R. Branan,ISBN9780123877857
 
 
 

  

Butterworth-Heinemann

9780123877857

9780123877895

456

276 X 216

For over 15 years chemical engineers have reached for Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers to answer their process engineering problems and to help them get on with the job.

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Key Features

  • Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers brings together solutions, information and work-arounds that engineers in the process industry need to get their job done.
  • New material in the Fifth Edition includes physical properties for proprietary materials, six new chapters, including pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical sector heuristics, process design with simulation software, and guidelines for hazardous materials and processes
  • Now includes SI units throughout alongside imperial, and now accompanied by online calculation tools and a searchable Rules of Thumb library

Description

Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, Fifth Edition, provides solutions, common sense techniques, shortcuts, and calculations to help chemical and process engineers deal with practical on-the-job problems. It discusses physical properties for proprietary materials, pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical sector heuristics, and process design with simulation software, along with closed-loop heat transfer systems, heat exchangers, packed columns, and structured packings. Organized into 27 chapters, the book begins with an overview of formulae and data for sizing piping systems for incompressible and compressible flow. It then moves to a discussion of design recommendations for heat exchangers, practical equations for solving fractionation problems, along with design of reactive absorption processes. It also considers different types of pumps and presents narrative as well as tabular comparisons and application notes for various types of fans, blowers, and compressors. The book also walks the reader through the general rules of thumb for vessels, how cooling towers are sized based on parameters such as return temperature and supply temperature, and specifications of refrigeration systems. Other chapters focus on pneumatic conveying, blending and agitation, energy conservation, and process modeling. Online calculation tools, Excel workbooks, guidelines for hazardous materials and processes, and a searchable Rules of Thumb library are included. Chemical engineers faced with fluid flow problems will find this book extremely useful.

Readership

Chemical Engineers

Carl R. Branan

Carl R. Branan has more than 40 years of worldwide experience in process design and troubleshooting in oil, chemicals, fibers, polymers, coal, natural gas, and LNG. Before retiring from El Paso Natural Gas, he served a process engineer, plant engineer, and project engineer. Mr. Branan is a member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and is the author of several books on process engineering and fractionators, including Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers.

Affiliations and Expertise

Retired El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso, TX, USA

Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, 5th Edition

Dedication

Publisher’s Note

1. Fluid Flow

Introduction

Data Required

General Procedure

Recommended Velocity

Equivalent Length

Shortcut Equation for Pressure Drop Due to Friction

Reynolds Number

Friction Factor

Incompressible Flow

Compressible Flow – Isothermal

Compressible Flow – Transmission Equations

Compressible Flow – Adiabatic

Visual Basic Subroutines for Pressure Drop Due to Friction

Orifices

Control Valves

Partially Full Horizontal Pipes

Two-Phase Flow

References

2. Heat Exchangers

Introduction

TEMA

Selection Guides

Design Recommendations

Process Data

Heat Exchanger Configuration and Area

Determining the LMTD Configuration Correction Factor

Tubeside Pressure Drop

Tube Side Film Coefficient

Shell Diameter

Ideal Shell Side Film Coefficient

Shell Side Film Coefficient Correction Factors

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Shell Side Pressure Drop

Heat Transfer Coefficients

Fouling Resistances

Installation Recommendations

Thermal Conductivity of Metals

Vacuum Condensers

Air-cooled Heat Exchangers: Forced vs. Induced Draft

Air-cooled Heat Exchangers: Air Data

Air-cooled Heat Exchangers: Thermal Design

Air-cooled Heat Exchangers: Pressure Drop, Air Side

Air-cooled Heat Exchangers: Temperature Control

References

3. Fractionators

Introduction

Separation Factor

Relative Volatility

Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium

Activity Coefficients

Establishing the Column Pressure

Minimum Reflux – Binary

Minimum Reflux−Multicomponent

Minimum Stages

Relationship of Theoretical Stages to Reflux Ratio

Feed Location

Reflux-to-Feed Ratio

Actual Trays

Graphical Methods – The McCabe-Thiele Diagram

Plotting With Murphree Tray Efficiency

Tray Efficiency Rules of Thumb

Using the McCabe-Thiele Plot

Column Internals – Trays and Packing

Column Tray Spacing

Tower Diameter – Souders-Brown Correlation

Pressure Drop – Trays

Control Schemes

Reboilers

Packed Columns

References

4. Absorbers

Introduction

Hydrocarbon Absorber Design

Inorganic Absorbers

Packing Height for Mass Transfer in Packed Columns

Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient

References

5. Pumps

Introduction

Pump Types and Selection

Pump Testing

System Curves

Operating Point and Pump Selection

Flow Control with Throttling Valve

Charting Control Characteristics

Flow Control by Changing the Pump Speed

Affinity Laws

Power

Minimum Flow

Temperature Rise

Suction System NPSH Available

Suction System NPSH for Studies

Multiple Centrifugal Pumps in Parallel or in Series

References

6. Fans, Blowers, and Compressors

Introduction

Rules of Thumb

Fans

Fan Noise

Blower Types

Compressor Types

Surge Control

Performance Calculations

Affinity Laws

Power – Fan

Power – Reciprocating Compressor

Power – Centrifugal Compressor

Comparison with Manufacturer’s Data

Power with P-E Diagram

Cost of Compressed Air

Receiver Volume

Time to Pump System to Pressure

References

7. Drivers

Introduction

Electric Motors

Motor Voltages

Motors: Efficiency

Motors: Starter Sizes

Motors: Useful Equations

Motors: Overloading

Air-Driven Motors

Hydraulic Motors

Steam Turbines: Steam Rate

Steam Turbines: Efficiency

Gas Turbines: Performance

Internal Combustion Engines: Fuel Rates

Gas Expanders: Available Energy

References

8. Vessels

Introduction

General Rules of Thumb for Vessels

Tank Dimensions

Liquid Volume at Any Fill Height

Time to Drain a Tank

Emissions from Storage Tanks

Load Cells

Liquid-Liquid Separators

Vapor-Liquid Separators

Liquid Surge Volume

Vapor Velocity in the Disengagement Section

Vapor-Liquid Separator Size

Vessel Specifications

Good Engineering Practices for Storage Tank and Vent Relief Design

References

9. Boilers

Introduction

Boiler Horsepower

Types of Packaged Boilers

Power Plants

Controls

Thermal Efficiency

Stack Gas Enthalpy

Steam Drum Stability

Deaerator Venting

Water Alkalinity

Source Water Impurities

Conductivity versus Dissolved Solids

Silica in Steam

Caustic Embrittlement

Waste Heat

Boiler Feedwater

Blowdown Control

Best Practices – Burner System Piping

References

10. Cooling Towers

Introduction

Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers

Material and Energy Balance Calculations

Rating Nomenclature

Performance Calculations

Operations and Accessories

Water Quality Guidelines

Scale Prevention

References

11. Refrigeration

Introduction

Specifications

Indirect and Direct System Design

Horsepower per Ton

Refrigerants

Refrigerant Containment

Steam Jet Ejectors

Ammonia Absorption Utilities Requirements

References

12. Closed Loop Heat Transfer Systems

Introduction

Selecting the Heat Transfer Fluid

Types of Heat Transfer Fluids

Heat Transfer Coefficient

System Design

Temperature Control

Physical Properties of Commercial Heat Transfer Fluids

References

13. Biopharmaceutical Systems

Introduction

Contamination Root Causes

Contamination Investigation and Recovery

Microbiology Investigation

Risk Assessment

Validation

References

14. Vacuum Systems

Introduction

Vacuum Units

Conversion between Mass Flow, Actual Volume Flow, and Standard Volume Flow

Comparison of Vacuum Equipment

Vacuum Jets

Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps

Dry Vacuum Pumps

Typical Jet Systems

Steam Supply

Measuring Air Leakage

Time to Evacuate

Instrumentation and Controls

References

15. Pneumatic Conveying

Introduction

Flow Regimes

Types of Systems

System Design Procedure

Saltation Velocity

Pressure Drop

Prime Movers

Feed Systems

Conveyor Piping

Disengagement

References

16. Blending and Agitation

Introduction

Basics

Impeller Types

Dimensional Analysis

Blending

Solids Suspension

Gas Dispersion

In-Line Mixers

High Shear Mixers

Mixing Solids

Mechanical Design

Impeller Weight

References

17. Process Evaluation

Introduction

Accuracy of Cost Estimates

User Requirements

Block Diagrams

Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs)

Basis of Design

Block-Sequential Diagrams

Piping & Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs)

Data Sheets and Specifications

Capital Cost Estimates

Organization of a Cost Estimate

Engineering

References

18. Reliability

Introduction

Initial Design

Risk Analysis

Sustainable Practices

References

19. Metallurgy

Introduction

Cost Comparison

Embodied Energy

Embrittlement

Stress-Corrosion Cracking

Hydrogen Attack

Pitting Corrosion

Creep and Creep-Rupture Life

Naphthenic Acid Corrosion

Thermal Fatigue

Abrasive Wear

Pipeline Toughness

Common Corrosion Mistakes

References

20. Safety

Introduction

Process Safety Management (PSM)

Process Hazard Analysis (PHA)

Safe Design Practices

Emergency Vent Systems

Flash Point of Binary Mixtures

Deflagration Prevention or Control

Prevent Backflow

Equipment Purging

Electrical Area Classification

Causes for Loss of Containment

Dust Explosion Hazards

References

21. Controls

Introduction

Basic Nomenclature

Definitions of Control Modes

Cascade Control

Specifying Instruments to Measure Values

Control Ranges

Drawing Conventions

Artistic Expression

Safety Instrumented Systems

Enclosures: NEMA and IP

References

22. Troubleshooting

Introduction

General Troubleshooting Approach

Diagnostic Tools

Instruments

Control Valves (Process Control)

Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers

Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers

Fractionation Towers

Fractionation Case Histories

Centrifugal Pumps

Compressors

Steam Jet Vacuum Systems

Refrigeration

References

23. Startup

Introduction

Startup Management

Change Control During Startup

Startup Cost

Systems Approach

Construction Quality

Startup Checklists

Operating Modes

References

24. Energy Conservation

Introduction

Calculating Steam Cost

Steam System Rules of Thumb

Equivalent Cost of Fuels

Steam Traps

Energy Efficient Design for Fractionators

Pinch Analysis

Insulation

References

25. Process Modeling

Introduction

Concepts and Terminology

Equipment Design

Mass and Energy Transfer

Flowsheet Simulation – Continuous Process

Flowsheet Simulation – Dynamic Process

Discrete Process Simulation

General Purpose Simulation Environments

References

26. Conversion Factors and Constants

Significant Figures and Rounding

Gas Constant

Standard Gas Volume

Atmospheric Pressure

Irrigation Conversion

References

27. Properties

Introduction

Approximate Physical Properties

Vapor Pressure Equation

Liquid Viscosity

Relative Humidity

Surface Tension

Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam

Gas Diffusion Coefficients

Bulk Modulus

Water and Hydrocarbons

Compressibility Factor

Inorganic Gases in Petroleum

Foam Density

Equivalent Diameter

Properties Data Sheet

References

APPENDIX A. Resources

APPENDIX B. Tank Cleaning

Index

Quotes and reviews

"Branan's useful and convenient handbook for chemical and process engineers (at a bargain price) will be much appreciated by students and practitioners..."
American Reference Books Annual
 
 
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