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Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases
 
 

Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases, 1st Edition

Coordinated Agricultural Research through GRACEnet to Address our Changing Climate

 
Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases, 1st Edition,Mark Liebig,A.J. Franzluebbers,Ronald Follett,ISBN9780123868985
 
 
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Liebig   &   Franzluebbers   &   Follett   

Academic Press

9780123868985

576

A stimulating synthesis of research efforts to reduce greenhouse gases from agriculture, including economic and policy considerations, and emerging issues for future research and collaboration.

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Key Features

  • Frames responses to challenges associated with climate change within the geographical domain of the U.S., while providing a useful model for researchers in the many parts of the world that possess similar ecoregions
  • Covers not only soil C dynamics but also nitrous oxide and methane flux, filling a void in the existing literature
  • Educates scientists and technical service providers conducting greenhouse gas research, industry, and regulators in their agricultural research by addressing the issues of GHG emissions and ways to reduce these emissions
  • Synthesizes the data from top experts in the world into clear recommendations and expectations for improvements in the agricultural management of global warming potential as an aggregate of GHG emissions

Description

Global climate change is a natural process that currently appears to be strongly influenced by human activities, which increase atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG). Agriculture contributes about 20% of the world’s global radiation forcing from carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, and produces 50% of the methane and 70% of the nitrous oxide of the human-induced emission. Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases synthesizes the wealth of information generated from the GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) effort with contributors from a variety of backgrounds, and reports findings with important international applications.

Readership

Research scientists working in agricultural and biogeochemical fields, soil scientists, agronomists, agricultural climatologists, scientists in climate science workgroups, conservation scientists, agricultural researchers at federal and state agencies and carbon footprinting consulting firms, advanced undergraduate/graduate students studying agricultural and climate science

Mark Liebig

Affiliations and Expertise

USDA-ARS Northern Great Plains Research Laboratory, Mandan, ND, USA

A.J. Franzluebbers

Affiliations and Expertise

USDA-ARS, Watkinsville, GA, USA

Ronald Follett

Affiliations and Expertise

USDA-ARS Soil-Plant-Nutrient Research Unit, Fort Collins, CO, USA

Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases, 1st Edition

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments

Contributors

Executive Summary

Section 1. Agricultural Research for a Carbon-Constrained World

Chapter 1. Agriculture and Climate Change: Mitigation Opportunities and Adaptation Imperatives

Introduction

Mitigating and Adapting To Climate Change

Summary

References

Chapter 2. GRACEnet: Addressing Policy Needs through Coordinated Cross-location Research

Why GRACEnet?

Clear Objectives, Communication, Organization, Leadership: Elements for Successful Science

Significant Milestones and Impact

Future: New Directions and the Relevance of GRACEnet To Sustainable Agriculture

References

Section 2. Agricultural Management and Soil Carbon Dynamics

Chapter 3. Cropland Management in the Eastern United States for Improved Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration

Introduction

Geographic Regions of the Eastern U.S

Cropland Management in the Eastern U.S.

Synthesis of Published Findings

Carbon Sequestration Potential in the Region

Conclusions and Recommendations

References

Chapter 4. Soil Carbon Sequestration in Central U.S. Agroecosystems

Introduction

Climate, Soil, and Land-Use Characteristics

Management Practices Affecting Carbon Storage

Climate Change and Management Interactions

Conclusions

References

Chapter 5. Agricultural Management and Soil Carbon Dynamics: Western U.S. Croplands

Introduction

Climate, Crop, and Cropping Practice Characteristics

Management Effects On Soil C Storage: Dryland Systems

Management Effects On Soil C Storage: Irrigated Systems

Gaps In Knowledge

Synthesis

References

Chapter 6. Soil Carbon Dynamics and Rangeland Management

Definition and Extent of U.S. Rangelands

Rangeland GHG Mitigation Potential

Rangeland C Distribution: Vegetation and Soils

Rangeland Management Impacts

Interactions Between Management and Climate

Knowledge Gaps and Future Research Needs

References

Chapter 7. Soil Organic Carbon under Pasture Management

Climate and Soils of the Eastern U.S.

Description of Pasture Types, Uses, and Extent

Long-Term Land-Use Effects on Soil Organic C

Pasture Management Effects on Soil Organic C

Spatial Distribution of Soil Organic C

Temporal Changes in Soil Organic C

Impact of Sequestered Soil Organic C in Pastures on Other Environmental Issues

Key Research Issues

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 8. Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production Systems: Integrating Carbon Dynamics, Erosion, Water Quality, and Greenhouse Gas Production

Introduction

Challenges of Historical Bioenergy Feedstocks

Management of Row Crops for Sustainability—Avoiding/Mitigating Risks

Managing for Sustainable Bioenergy with Perennials

Managing For Sustainable Bioenergy with a Novel Amendment

Summary and Research Needs

Acknowledgments

References

Section 3. Agricultural Management and Greenhouse Gas Flux

Chapter 9. Cropland Management Contributions to Greenhouse Gas Flux: Central and Eastern U.S.

Introduction

Factors Controlling N2o and Ch4 Flux From Soils

Proposed GWP Mitigation Options for Croplands

Soil, Climate, and Agricultural Characteristics of Eastern and Central U.S.

Performance of Mitigation Options in Eastern and Central U.S.

N Rate Effects: Synthetic N Fertilizers

N Rate Effects: Animal Manures

N Source Effects: N Fertilizers and Inhibitors

N Source Effects: Synthetic N Fertilizers vs. Animal Manures

N Timing: Fertilizers and Manures

N Placement: Fertilizers and Manures

Cover Crops

Biochar

Tillage Regime

Crop Selection

Cropping Systems

Methane

Carbon Dioxide

Information Gaps and Future Research Needs

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 10. Management to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Western U.S. Croplands

Introduction

Characterization of Climate, Crops, and Management Practices

Management Effects On Greenhouse Gas (CO2, Ch4, N2o) Flux

Synthesis

Gaps In Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Knowledge

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 11. Greenhouse Gas Flux from Managed Grasslands in the U.S.

Introduction

Managed Grasslands in the U.S.: Description, Extent, and Use

Greenhouse Gas Flux from U.S. Grasslands

Conclusions and Recommendations

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 12. Mitigation Opportunities for Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions during Feedstock Production across Heterogeneous Landscapes

Life-Cycle Biofuel Compliance Policy Standards

Review and Analysis

Feedstock Production is a Significant GWI Component of the Fuel Life-Cycle

GWI Size of Life-Cycle Components Vary within and Between Feedstocks

Heterogeneity of N2o Emissions in the Landscape

Mitigation Opportunities to Reduce the GWI of Feedstock Production

Precision Agriculture

Summary and Conclusions

Policy Implications

References

Chapter 13. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes of Drained Organic and Flooded Mineral Agricultural Soils in the United States

Introduction

Organic Soils (Histosols and Peatlands)

Flooded Agriculture on Mineral Soils

Assessment of Flux Amelioration

Conclusions and Recommendations

Acknowledgments

References

Section 4. Modeling to Estimate Soil Carbon Dynamics and Greenhouse Gas Flux from Agricultural Production Systems

Chapter 14. DayCent Model Simulations for Estimating Soil Carbon Dynamics and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Agricultural Production Systems

Introduction

DAYCENT Model History

DAYCENT Model Overview

Recent Model Improvements

Recent Model Testing

Recent Model Applications

Model Limitations and Planned Improvements

References

Chapter 15. COMET2.0—Decision Support System for Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Accounting

Introduction

System Overview

New Modules

System Testing and Applications

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 16. CQESTR Simulations of Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics

Introduction

CQESTR Model Description

Experimental Sites Description

THE CQESTR Model Applications

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 17. Development and Application of the EPIC Model for Carbon Cycle, Greenhouse Gas Mitigation, and Biofuel Studies

Introduction

Description of the Epic Model and its Carbon/Nitrogen Model

Examples of Applications

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 18. The General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) and its Applications to Agricultural Systems in the United States

General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS)

Study Areas and Modeling Design

Results

Discussion

Acknowledgments

References

Section 5. Measurements and Monitoring: Improving Estimates of Soil Carbon Dynamics and Greenhouse Gas Flux

Chapter 19. Quantifying Biases in Non-Steady-State Chamber Measurements of Soil–Atmosphere Gas Exchange

Introduction

Physical Basis for the Chamber Effect

Experimental Approaches

Non-Linear Flux Calculation Schemes

Bias Estimation Techniques

Soil Property Effects

Chamber Bias Correction (CBC)

Limitations of the CBC Method

Bias Versus Precision

Current Recommendations

Ultimate Solutions

References

Appendix: Steps and Calculations Used in CBC Method

Chapter 20. Advances in Spectroscopic Methods for Quantifying Soil Carbon

Introduction

Chemometrics

Calibration Development

Calibration Transfer

Instrumentation

Particle Size Considerations

Scale and Sampling Intensity

Prediction Accuracy

Proximal and Remote Sensing

Water Effects and Spectroscopy

Present Status and Future Research Needs

Advances In Instrumentation

References

Chapter 21. Micrometeorological Methods for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Flux

Introduction

Methods Based on Flux-Gradient Theory

Eddy Covariance Method

Issues Affecting Flux Measurements

Micrometeorological Measurements of Nitrous Oxide Fluxes

Micrometeorological Measurements of CO2 Flux

Conclusions

References

Chapter 22. Remote Sensing of Soil Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics across Agricultural Landscapes

Introduction

Historical Background

Fundamental Spectral Properties of Vegetation and Soils

Remote Sensing Products for Assessing Soil Organic Carbon and Greenhouse Gases

Synergies of Remote Sensing and Process Models to Determine Soil Carbon Dynamics

Case Study: South Fork Watershed

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Section 6. Economic and Policy Considerations Associated with Reducing Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture

Chapter 23. Economic Outcomes of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options

Introduction

Management Alternatives for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Impact of Bioenergy Markets

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 24. Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Trading Markets in North America

Introduction

Historical Background

Current Status

Future Outlook

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 25. Eligibility Criteria Affecting Landowner Participation in Greenhouse Gas Programs

Introduction

Eligibility Criteria for GHG Mitigation Programs

Simulating Eligibility Criteria

Simulation Results

Summary

References

Section 7. Looking Ahead: Opportunities for Future Research and Collaboration

Chapter 26. Potential GRACEnet Linkages with Other Greenhouse Gas and Soil Carbon Research and Monitoring Programs

Introduction

Soil-Based Networks

Greenhouse Gas Networks

General Ecological Networks

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 27. Elevated CO2 and Warming Effects on Soil Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Agroecosystems: A Review

Methods

The Effect of eCO2 On Soil C

The Effect of eCO2 On Soil Respiration

The Effect of eCO2 On N2o Emission

The Effect of eCO2 On Ch4 Exchange

Warming Effects On Soil C, Soil Respiration, N2o Emission and Ch4 Exchange

Interactive eCO2 × Warming Effects On Soil C, Soil Respiration, N2o Emission, and Ch4 Exchange

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 28. Mitigation Opportunities from Land Management Practices in a Warming World: Increasing Potential Sinks

Changing Climate

Soil Management Practices

Soil Water Changes

CO2 Fluxes from Soil

Climate Impacts on Soil and Plant

Mitigation Opportunities

Mitigation of CO2 from Soil

Mitigation of N2o Fluxes from Soil

Conclusions

References

Chapter 29. Beyond Mitigation: Adaptation of Agricultural Strategies to Overcome Projected Climate Change

Climate and Climate Change

The Role of Agriculture

References

Index

Color Plates

Quotes and reviews

"...extremely well written and should be of interest to professionals as well as to advanced graduate students interested in agricultural GHG dynamics." --Journal of Environmental Quality

"Whichever discipline the reader may originate from, this book will provide a more holistic viewpoint of managing greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration in agriculture. For researchers, industry professionals, and regulators, Liebig et al., who are associated with the US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), synthesize research findings from about 30 ARS locations participating in the GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) project. Contributed by USDA and other agricultural researchers mostly from the US, the 29 chapters describe the evaluation of agricultural carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas management, measurement, and modeling; economic and policy considerations for the short-term future; and long-term opportunities and the need for research collaborations. They discuss current trends in greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural contributions to those emissions, and risks associated with global climate change; background on the GRACEnet initiative; soil organic carbon dynamics for prevalent agroecosystmes in the US (cropland, rangeland, pasture, and biofeedstock production systems); the responses of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide fluxes to management; five common ecosystem models for estimating SOC dynamics and greenhouse gas flux; key attributes of analytical methods used to estimate carbon change in soil and greenhouse gas flux; economic outcomes, incentive programs, and policy scenarios associated with reducing greenhouse gas emissions; and networks worldwide involved in climate change-related research." --Reference & Research Book News

 
 
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