Forest Fires

Forest Fires, 1st Edition

Behavior and Ecological Effects

Forest Fires, 1st Edition,Edward Johnson,Kiyoko Miyanishi,ISBN9780123866608

Johnson   &   Miyanishi   

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Even before the myth of Prometheus, fire played a crucial ecological role around the world. Numerous plant communities depend on fire to generate species diversity in both time and space. Without fire such ecosystems would become sterile monocultures. Recent efforts to prohibit fire in fire dependent communities have contributed to more intense and more damaging fires. For these reasons, foresters, ecologists, land managers, geographers, and environmental scientists are interested in the behavior and ecological effects of fires. This book will be the first to focus on the chemistry and physics of fire as it relates to the ways in which fire behaves and the impacts it has on ecosystem function. Leading international contributors have been recruited by the editors to prepare a didactic text/reference that will appeal to both advanced students and practicing professionals.


Advanced undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, researchers and policy makers in forestry, ecology, geography, plant sciences, environmental sciences, and land management.

Edward Johnson

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Calgary, Canada

Kiyoko Miyanishi

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Forest Fires, 1st Edition

Contributors Preface Acknowledgments 1 Strengthening Fire Ecology's Roots I. Introduction II. Processes III. Transfer Rates and Budgets IV. Examples of Traditional vs. Proposed Approach References 2 Flames I. Introduction II. Basic Aspects of Combustion in Forest Fires III. Temperature, Velocity, Species Concentration, and Flame Height IV Premixed and Diffusion Flames V. Extinction of Diffusion Flames VI. Diffusion Flames and Scaling Analysis VII. Spreading Flames VIII. Structure of Flame Base IX. Conclusions Notation References 3 Combustion Chemistry and Smoke I. Introduction II. Fuel Chemistry and Combustion III. Smoke Production IV. Minimizing Smoke Production V. Conclusions References 4 Water Relations of Forest Fuels I. Introduction II. Forest Fuels III. Fuel Moisture Relationships IV. Moisture Content Estimation Notation Additional Reading References 5 Wildland Fire Spread Models I. Introduction II. Head Fire Rate of Spread (Physical Principles and their Mathematical Embodiment) III. Head Fire Rate of Spread: Australia IV. Head Fire Rate of Spread: United States V. Head Fire Rate of Spread: Canada VI. Smoldering VII. Whole Fire Modeling-Fire Shape Notation References 6 Wind-Aided Fire Spread I. Introduction II. Laboratory-Scale Setup III. Fire Spread Model IV. Preliminary Testing of the Model V. Test Results for the Effect of Wind Speed and Fuel Loading on the Rate of Fire Spread VI. Conclusions Notation Recommended Reading References 7 Fire Plumes I. Introduction II. Modeling Fire Temperature Maxima III. Plumes above Fires in a Cross Wind Notation References 8 Coupling Atmospheric and Fire Models I. Introduction II. Vorticity Dynamics in a Fire III. Coupling between Atmosphere and Fire IV. The Elements of Fire Modeling V. Modeling the Atmosphere VI. The Coupled Fire-Atmosphere Modeling Approach VII. Idealized Studies of Wildfire Behavior VIII. Infrared Observations of Fires IX. Conclusions and Future Work Appendix I. Circulation and Vorticity Appendix II. Development of Vertical Rotation in a Frictionless Fluid Appendix III. Generation of Vertical Motion in Rotating Convective Cells Notation References 9 Surface Energy Budget and Fuel Moisture I. Introduction II. Evapotranspiration Processes and the Meteorological Controlling Factors III. Estimation of Potential Evapotranspiration Rates IV. Functional Dependence of PET and AET V. Characteristics of PET VI. Near-Surface Environment VII. Models of Land-Surface Interactions VIII. Remote Sensing of the Surface Energy Budget IX. Fire Weather Rating Systems Notation Suggested Reading List References 10 Climate, Weather, and Area Burned I. Introduction II. Weather and Area Burned-Synoptic Surface Features III. Weather and Area Burned-Upper Air Features IV. Teleconnections V. Future Warming and Area Burned VI. Summary References 11 Lightning and Forest Fires I. Introduction II. Lightning III. Previous Studies of Lightning-Initiated Fire IV. Interaction between Lightning and Fuels V. How Ignition Occurs VI. Ignition Experiments with Real Forest Fuels VII. Generating Models for Operational Use VIII. Smoke, Lightning, and Cloud Microphysics IX. Global Implications of Lightning Ignition Characteristics X. Conclusion References 12 Statistical Inference for Historical Fire Frequency Using the Spatial Mosaic I. Introduction II. Graphical Analysis III. Statistical Inference with Prespecified Change Points IV. The Efficiency of Sample vs. Map Data V. Determining Epochs of Constant Fire Frequency References 13 Duff Consumption I. Introduction II. Characteristics of Duff III. Empirical Studies of Duff Consumption IV. Flaming Combustion V. Smoldering Combustion and Pyrolysis VI. Models of Smoldering Combustion VII. Contribution of Smoldering Combustion Models to Understanding of Duff Consumption Notation References 14 Fire Effects on Trees I. Introduction II. Effects of Fire on the Tree Bole III. Effects of Fire on Canopy Components IV. Root Necrosis V. Tree Mortality VI. Discussion Notation Additional Readings References 15 Forest Fire Management I. Introduction II. The Relationship between Fire and Forest Land Management Objectives III. Assessing Fire Impacts IV. Forest Fire Management Organizations V. Level of Fire Protection Planning VI. Some Challenges Further Reading References Index

Quotes and reviews

@qu:"...a rich summary of our current knowledge of several important aspects of forest fire science, from fuel dynamics to coupled atmosphere-fire modelling. ...The book's strength is as a state-of-the-art review of research on pyrolysis, flames, lightening, fuel-moisture dynamics, smoke, combustion chemistry, and more. ...My fire science students and colleagues use Forest Fires as a reference."
@source:—Daniel Nepstad, Woods Hole Research Center, in NATURE (January 2002)
@qu:"...a primary strength of this book is that you can find a larger number of state-of-the-art fire behavior and combustion topics covered in a single source. ...the book is an unmitigated success...a very strong book that will benefit most scientists interested in fire, including ecologists. ...Overall, I compliment the editors and authors for a job well done."
@source:—-Marc D. Abrams, Pennsylvania State University, School of Forest Resources, in ECOLOGY (November 2001)
@qu:"This book is authoritative, well written and abundantly referenced. ...a valuable resource on all the topics covered and is likely to remain so for many years. ...It is a book that researchers in fire ecology should be aware of and have access to."
@source:—-John Ogden in ANNALS OF BOTANY (2001)
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