Stem Cell Regulators, 1st Edition

 
Stem Cell Regulators, 1st Edition,Gerald Litwack,ISBN9780123860163
 
 
 

G Litwack   

Academic Press

9780123860163

520

Cutting-edge review concerning the molecular and cellular biology of vitamins and hormones

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Key Features

  • Longest running series published by Academic Press
  • Contributions by leading international authorities

Description

First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press. The Editorial Board now reflects expertise in the field of hormone action, vitamin action, X-ray crystal structure, physiology and enzyme mechanisms.

Under the capable and qualified editorial leadership of Dr. Gerald Litwack, Vitamins and Hormones continues to publish cutting-edge reviews of interest to endocrinologists, biochemists, nutritionists, pharmacologists, cell biologists and molecular biologists. Others interested in the structure and function of biologically active molecules like hormones and vitamins will, as always, turn to this series for comprehensive reviews by leading contributors to this and related disciplines.

This volume focuses on stem cell regulators.

Readership

Researchers, faculty, and graduate students interested in cutting-edge review concerning the molecular and cellular biology of vitamins, hormones, and related factors and co-factors. Libraries and laboratories at institutes with strong programs in cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, gene regulation, hormone control, and signal transduction are likely to be interested.

Gerald Litwack

Following a liberal arts education with a major in chemistry and biology at Hobart College, Gerald (Gerry) Litwack earned M.S. and PhD degrees in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison where he served as a Lecturer in Enzymology before starting a postdoctoral fellowship from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis at the Biochemical Institute of the Sorbonne in Paris. His first academic position was assistant professor of biochemistry at Rutgers University where he started his work on hormone action for six years. During this period, he did a sabbatical at the University of California, Berkeley, where he concentrated on rapid enzyme kinetics. In 1960 he accepted an offer of an associate professorship at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Medicine. In 1964, he was invited to be full professor of biochemistry at The Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology at Temple Medical School, simultaneously with a Career Development Award from the NIH, where he later was named Deputy Director of the Institute and the Laura H. Carnell Professor in biochemistry. Subsequently, he was given the Faculty Research Award. He co-discovered ligandin, later found to be in the family of glutathione S-transferases, enzymes that protect the body from carcinogens. In 1991, he moved to the Jefferson Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University as Professor of Biochemistry, Chair of the Department of Pharmacology and Deputy Director of the Kimmel Cancer Research Institute. Later, he became chair of the combined Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and concurrently held the position of Vice Dean for Research. In 2003, he moved to Los Angeles and from 2004-2006 was a Visiting Scholar at the University of California, Los Angeles, in the Department of Biological Chemistry of the Geffen School of Medicine and, in this period, wrote “Human Biochemistry and Disease” a volume of 1254 pages. In 2007, he moved to Scranton, Pennsylvania, as Founding Chair of Basic Sciences and Acting Associate Dean for Research to start a new medical school, The Commonwealth Medical College. Having completing his mission in 2010, he moved to The Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Texas A & M Health Science Center, as Professor of Biochemistry and Associate Director. Currently, he is retired and lives in North Hollywood, California, where he continues as an author and as Series Editor of Vitamins and Hormones. He is involved in writing another textbook and has written a first novel, “One-Eighty”.

Affiliations and Expertise

Toluca Lake, North Hollywood, California, USA

View additional works by Gerald Litwack

Stem Cell Regulators, 1st Edition

Preface

Apology

Factors Regulating Pluripotency and Differentiation in Early Mammalian Embryos and Embryo-derived Stem Cells

I. Introduction

II. From Totipotency to Pluripotency

III. Inner Cell Mass (ICM): Pluripotent Cells in the Mammalian Embryo

IV. Embryo-Derived Stem Cells

V. Transcriptional Regulators of Pluripotency in Embryo-Derived Stem Cells

VI. Extrinsic Factors and Signaling Pathways Regulating Pluripotency and Differentiation

VII. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Molecular Mediators of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

I. Introduction

II. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

III. Differentiation of MSCs

IV. Self-Renewal

V. MSC Therapy

VI. Immunomodulatory Properties

VII. MI Therapy

VIII. Molecular Mediators of MSC Biology

IX. Enhancing MSC Survival in the Wound

X. Secreted Frizzled-Related Proteins

XI. Mediating MSC Self-Renewal

XII. Conclusions

Insulin and Germline Proliferation in Caenorhabditis elegans

I. Germline Proliferation in C. elegans: A Model for Developmental, Physiological, and Environmental Control of Cell Proliferation

II. C. elegans Germline Development

III. The C. elegans Germ line “Proliferation Versus Differentiation” Decision Is Mediated from the Soma to the Germ line by a Conserved Notch Signaling Pathway

IV. Evidence for Notch-Independent Soma-Germline Signaling Mechanisms That Modulate Germline Proliferation

V. A Counter-Intuitive Assay to Indentify Potential Notch-Independent Mechanisms That Promote the Expansion of the Larval Germline Progenitor Pool

VI. Identification of the Insulin/IGF-Like Receptor (IIR) Pathway Role in Germline Proliferation

VII. IIR Signaling in C. elegans

VIII. Insulin Signaling Promotes the Larval Germline Cell Division Cycle

IX. C. elegans Insulins

X. Many Target Tissues for IIR Signaling

XI. Other Germline Roles for the IIR Pathway

XII. IIR Role in Larval Germline Proliferation: A Reproductive Timing and Lifespan Connection?

XIII. A Current Model and Future Directions

Acknowledgments

Generating Mature ß-Cells From Embryonic Stem Cells

I. Introduction

II. Signaling Pathways in ß-Cell Differentiation

III. Summary and Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Activation and Regulation of Reserve Liver Progenitor Cells

I. Introduction

II. Activation and Regulation of Mature Hepatocytes in Normal Liver Regeneration

III. Reserve Liver Progenitor Cells

IV. Hierarchical Responses in Liver Disease and Regeneration

Adult Cardiac-Derived Stem Cells

I. Introduction

II. c-kit-Positive Cardiac Cells

III. Conclusions and Future Prospects

Acknowledgments

TGF-ß1 Regulates Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

I. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

II. The Role of TGF-ß1 in Differentiation of Bone Marrow MSCs

III. Summary

Acknowledgments

Maternal Intake of Folic Acid and Neural Crest Stem Cells

I. Introduction

II. Role of FA in Human Health

III. Mouse Models of NTD

IV. Neural Crest Development and Neural Crest Stem Cells

V. Role of FA in Neural Crest Development

VI. Folate Nonresponsive Genetic Mouse Models

VII. Conclusions and Future Directions

Acknowledgments

Modulation of the Generation of Dopaminergic Neurons from Human Neural Stem Cells by Bcl-XL

I. Introduction

II. Sources of Human DAn for Cell Replacement in PD

III. Epigenetic Cues and Genetic Manipulations to Improve hNSCs Differentiation Toward the A9 DA Phenotype

IV. Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

Glucocorticoid Hedgehog Agonists in Neurogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Select Glucocorticoids as Smoothened Agonists: Potential Effects for Neurogenesis

III. Mechanism of Action

IV. Structure–Activity Relationships (SAR) of Glucocorticoid Smoothened Agonists

V. Conclusion

Effect of Progesterone on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

I. Introduction

II. Biological Roles of Progesterone

III. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

IV. Multipotent MSCs in Human Endometrium

V. Interaction Between Progesterone and MSCs

VI. Conclusions and Future Directions

Acknowledgments

Regulation of Muscle Stem Cells Activation

I. Cells Participating in Muscle Growth and Repair: Mechanisms of Activation

II. The Unique Ability of Skeletal Muscles to Regenerate

III. Muscle Stem Cells Activation: The Importance of Satellite Cell Niche

IV. The Interactions with ECM

V. Growth Factors Regulating Activation of Satellite Cells: The Case of HGF

VI. Other ECM-bound Growth Factors Regulating Myoblast Proliferation and Differentiation

VII. Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

Thymosins and Muscle Regeneration

I. Introduction

II. Basic Properties of Thymosins

III. Physiological Activities of Tß4

IV. Roles of Tß4 in Skin Tissue Regeneration

V. Roles of Tß4 in Heart Regeneration

VI. Roles of Tß4 in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

VII. Signaling Mechanism Involved in the Chemotactic Activity of Tß4

VIII. Concluding Remarks

MicroRNAs and Mesenchymal Stem Cells

I. Introduction

II. MicroRNAs

III. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

IV. miRNAs and Stem Cells

V. Role of miRNAs in MSC Differentiation

VI. The Role of miRNAs in Cell-to-Cell Communication

VII. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

MicroRNA and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

I. Introduction

II. miRNA Biogenesis and Mechanism

III. miRNA and VSMC Differentiation

IV. miRNA and VSMC Phenotypic Switch

V. miRNA and VSMC Neointima Hyperplasia

VI. miRNA and VSMC-Related Diseases

VII. Prospective Application of miRNAs as Therapeutics for Vascular Disease

Acknowledgments

Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Superfamily in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal

I. Introduction

II. Overview of TGF-Beta-Related Signaling

III. ES Cell Regulation by the BMP Pathway

IV. ES Cell Regulation by the Nodal Pathway

V. Interactions of TGF-Beta Signaling with Other Pluripotency Pathways

VI. TGF-Beta Signaling in Other Pluripotent Cells

VII. Conclusions and Future Directions

Acknowledgment

The Biology of HIFa Proteins in Cell Differentiation and Disease

I. Introduction

II. HIF and Cancer

III. HIF and Stem

IV. HIF and Neurodegenerative Diseases

V. HIFs in Cardiac Ischemic Diseases

VI. HIFs as Target

VII. Conclusion

Regulatory Role of Klf5 in Early Mouse Development and in Embryonic Stem Cells

I. Klf5: A Krüppel-Like Transcription Factor

II. Multiple Functions of Klf5

III. Klfs in Reprogramming

IV. Gene Expression Network for the Maintenance of ESC Pluripotent State

V. Klf5 Function in ESCs

VI. Klf5 Role in Early Embryonic Development

VII. Klf5 Targets

VIII. Klf5 Connection to the Core Pluripotency Network

IX. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Bam and Bgcn in Drosophila Germline Stem Cell Differentiation

I. Introduction

II. Bam Repression of Stem Cell Maintenance Factors

III. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

The Effects of Mechanical Loading on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Matrix Production

I. Introduction

II. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

III. Mechanical Loading

IV. Experimental Results

V. Conclusions and Future Directions

Acknowledgments

 
 
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