Veterinary Toxicology, 2nd Edition

Basic and Clinical Principles

 
Veterinary Toxicology, 2nd Edition,Ramesh C. Gupta,ISBN9780123859266
 
 
 

R Gupta   

Academic Press

9780123859266

9780123859273

1456

276 X 216

An authoritative and in-depth look at all facets of veterinary toxicology, including target organ toxicity, melamine and cyanuric acid, toxicogenomics, chemical terrorism and nanoparticles.

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Key Features

  • Selected for inclusion in Doody's Core Titles 2013, an essential collection development tool for health sciences libraries
  • New chapters covering important and timely topics such as melamine and cyanuric acid, toxicogenomics, toxic gases and veterinary medical geology
  • Expanded look at international topics, such as epidemiology of animal poisonings, regulatory guidelines and poisonous plants in Europe
  • Heavily contributed book with chapters written by qualified and well-experienced authorities across all areas of veterinary toxicology
  • Problem solving strategies are offered for treatment as well as in-depth knowledge of the basic mechanisms of veterinary toxicology

Description

Veterinary Toxicology is a unique single reference that teaches the basic principles of veterinary toxicology to any student at the DVM, MS or PhD level and will continue to serve as a clinical reference for practicing veterinary toxicologists, poison control centers, marine biologists, environmentalists, and animal scientists. While most comparable texts are primarily directed toward the field of human toxicology, this is the one text needed to thoroughly prepare future veterinarians on the newest approaches for diagnosing poisoning cases in all animals from chemicals and plants of a diverse nature as a result of inadvertent, accidental, or malicious intents. Many chapters are provided on topics not covered in any previous books such as target organ toxicity, radiation and radioactive materials, FDA regulatory issues, and ethics in veterinary toxicology.

Readership

Practitioners, professors and students of veterinary medicine and veterinary toxicology, poison control centers, marine biologists, environmentalists and animal scientists.

Ramesh C. Gupta

Dr. Ramesh C. Gupta, Professor & Head of Toxicology Department at Murray State university, is engaged in experimental brain research in relation to Alzheimer(s) disease (AD) and pesticide toxicity. He has delivered lectures in Australia, Italy, Japan, Germany, France, Switzerland, Spain, Czech Republic, China, South Korea, and Sweden. He served the panels of NIH, CDC, NIOSH, and NAS. He has >350 publications to his credit, including six major books: (1) Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds, (2) Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles, (3) Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, (4) Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology, (5) Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, and (6) Biomarkers in Toxicology. He is recipient of Murray State University's distinguished researcher award of the year-2006. He is a diplomate of American Board of Toxicology, and fellow of American College of Toxicology, American College of Nutrition, and Academy of Toxicological Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

DVM, MVSc, PhD, DABT, FACT, FACN, FATS, Professor and Head, Toxicology Department, Breathitt Veterinary Center, Murray State University, Hopkinsville, KY, USA

View additional works by Ramesh C. Gupta

Veterinary Toxicology, 2nd Edition

Dedication

Preface

List of Contributors

SECTION I. General

Chapter 1. Veterinary toxicology

The emergence of veterinary toxicology

Professional organization and academic recognition of veterinary toxicology

Published veterinary toxicology literature

…And where will veterinary toxicology go from here?

Chapter 2. Concepts in veterinary toxicology

Introduction

Historical perspective

Evolution of veterinary toxicology

A framework for acquiring information

Sources of information

Toxicologic descriptors

Conclusions and summary

Dedication

Acknowledgments

Chapter 3. Toxicokinetics

Introduction

Underlying physiology

Traditional (compartmental) toxicokinetic models

Physiologically based toxicokinetics

Conclusions

Chapter 4. Factors affecting chemical toxicity

Introduction

Individual factors

Non-individual factors

Conclusion

Chapter 5. Toxicological testing

Introduction

In vivo models in toxicity testing

In vitro models of toxicity testing

General summary and conclusions

Chapter 6. Epidemiology of animal poisonings in the United States

Introduction

Background

Demographics

Dogs

Cats

Other species

Agents involved

Signs and outcomes

Conclusions

Chapter 7. Epidemiology of animal poisonings in Europe

Introduction

Species involved

Toxic classes

Non-metals and metalloids

Metals

Pesticides

Oil

Feed associated toxicants

Drugs and related compounds

Household products

Toxins

Conclusions

Chapter 8. Chemicals of terrorism

Introduction

Chlorine gas

Phosgene

Mustard gas

Lewisite

Phosgene oxime

Cyanide and hydrogen cyanide

Military nerve agents

Chapter 9. Regulatory considerations in veterinary toxicology

Introduction

Section I Food and Drug Administration and the Center for Veterinary Medicine

Section II Environmental Protection Agency

Section III U.S. Department of Agriculture

Section IV Drug Enforcement Administration

Section V Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Section VI Statutes, Regulations and Guidelines

Chapter 10. Regulatory aspects for the drugs and chemicals used in food-producing animals in the European Union

Introduction

Veterinary medicinal products legislation

Human health risks from drug residues in foods

Biocidal substances used in animal husbandry

Feed additives legislation

Comparative setting toxicological standards for food safety

Industrial chemicals

Conclusions

Chapter 11. Safety evaluation of new molecular entities for pharmaceutical development

Introduction

Nonclinical safety evaluation

Estimation of the first dose in humans

Concluding remarks and future directions

Chapter 12. Statistics in veterinary toxicology

Introduction

Objective of the analysis

Types of data

Identifying constraints

Graphing and summarizing data

Choosing appropriate techniques

Performing the analysis

Interpreting and displaying the results

Learning more

Chapter 13. Toxicology and the law

Introduction

Reasons for conducting toxicology analyses

Jurisdiction – What are the rules in this fight and who decides the winner?

Standard of proof – How sure do I need to be?

Evidence

Admissibility of expert testimony

Specific causation – the differential diagnosis

Application of Daubert in toxicology cases

Some questions to consider when using laboratory results in a legal case

Acknowledgment

Further Reading

SECTION II. Organ Toxicity

Chapter 14. Nervous system toxicity

Introduction

Structural toxicoses

Functional toxicoses

Ion channels

Other mechanisms of neurotoxicity

Conclusions

Chapter 15. Respiratory toxicity

Introduction

The upper airways

The gas exchange region

General principles in the pathogenesis of lung damage caused by chemicals

Lung to injury

Chapter 16. Cardiovascular toxicity

Introduction

Plant-related cardiotoxicity

Glycoside-containing plants (See Table 16.1)

Cyanide-containing plants

Alkaloid-containing plants (See Table 16.2)

Oxalates

Gousiekte

Mushrooms

Xenobiotics that may cause cardiac toxicity

Ancillary causes of cardiac toxicity

Conclusions and future directions

Chapter 17. Liver toxicity

Introduction

Structural and functional organization of the liver

Factors Influencing Toxic Liver Injury

Types of toxicant-induced liver injury

Mechanisms of liver damage

Idiosyncratic reactions

Concluding remarks and future directions

Chapter 18. Renal toxicity

Introduction

Functional anatomy

Toxic effects on the kidney

Nephrotoxic agents

Conclusions

Chapter 19. Reproductive toxicity and endocrine disruption

Introduction

Important definitions and concepts

Normal animal reproduction

The Mechanisms and effects of reproductive toxicants

Concluding remarks

Chapter 20. Placental toxicity

Introduction

Role of the placenta

Types of placenta

Metabolism in placenta

Placental susceptibility to toxicants

Placental barrier for chemical toxicants

Factors that may influence the placental toxicity

Placental toxicity of metals

Placental toxicity of insecticides

Tobacco

Conclusions and future directions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 21. Dermal toxicity

Introduction

Absorption

Plants causing dermal toxicity in animals

Photosensitization

Topical chemicals causing dermal toxicity in animals

PAHs

VOCs

Pesticides

Detergents, solvents, corrosives and other household preparations

Systemic compounds causing dermal toxicity in animals

Assessment methods

Chapter 22. Blood and bone marrow toxicity

Introduction

Bone marrow

Hematopoietic stem cells

Blood components

Biochemical basis of hematopoietic toxicity

Toxicity-induced alterations of hematopoietic elements

Conclusions and future directions

Chapter 23. Immunotoxicity

Introduction

Immune system

Immunotoxic agents

Testing for immunotoxicity

Conclusions and future directions

SECTION III. Nanoparticles, Radiation and Carcinogens

Chapter 24. Toxicity of nanomaterials

Introduction

Nanomaterials characterization

Animal or tissue exposures

Epidemiological data

Emerging challenges

Chapter 25. Ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in health and disease

Introduction

Historical perspective

Types of ionizing radiation

Measuring ionizing radiation

Devices for measuring ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation: Risks and benefits

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 26. Carcinogenesis

Introduction

Terminology

Cancer epidemiology

Agents causing carcinogenesis

Epigenetic basis of carcinogenesis

Classification of carcinogens

Assays for carcinogens

Conclusions

Chapter 27. Oxidative stress and chemical toxicity

Introduction

Oxidative stressors: heavy metals and environmental toxicants

Mycotoxins, oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis

Conclusions

SECTION IV. Drugs of Use and Abuse

Chapter 28. Toxicity of over-the-counter drugs

Introduction

Suspected OTC Drug Reactions

Analgesics

Cold, Cough and Allergy Medications

Drugs Used to Treat Gastrointestinal Symptoms

Topical Drugs

Conclusions

Chapter 29. Toxicity of drugs of abuse

Introduction

Stimulants

Hallucinogens and dissociative drugs

Conclusions

SECTION V. Metals and Micronutrients

Chapter 30. Aluminum

Introduction

Background

Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 31. Arsenic

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions

Chapter 32. Cadmium

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of Action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding Remarks/Future Directions

Chapter 33. Chromium, iodine and phosphorus

Chromium

Iodine

Phosphorus

Chapter 34. Copper

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics

Mechanism of Action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusion

Chapter 35. Fluoride

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding remarks

Chapter 36. Iron

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding remarks

Chapter 37. Lead

Introduction

Background

Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding remarks

Chapter 38. Manganese

Introduction and background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Diagnosis

Treatment

Concluding remarks and future directions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 39. Mercury

Introduction

Background

Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions

Acknowledgment

Chapter 40. Molybdenum

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding remarks and future directions

Chapter 41. Selenium

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding remarks and future directions

Chapter 42. Sodium chloride (salt)

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding remarks

Chapter 43. Sulfur

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding remarks and future directions

Chapter 44. Zinc

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions

SECTION VI. Insecticides and Molluscicides

Chapter 45. Organophosphates and carbamates

Introduction

Background

OP pesticides

OP nerve agents/gases

Carbamates

Pharmacokinetics of OPs and CMs

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment of acute poisoning

OP-induced intermediate syndrome

Chronic toxicity

Tolerance development

Conclusions and future directions

Chapter 46. Organochlorines

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of Action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 47. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of Action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 48. Neonicotinoids

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of Action

Treatment

Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Chapter 49. Amitraz

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of Action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 50. Fipronil

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of Action

Toxicity

Diagnosis

Treatment

Conclusions

Chapter 51. Macrocyclic lactone endectocides

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of Action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 52. Rotenone

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of Action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 53. Metaldehyde

Introduction

Background

Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of Action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

SECTION VII. Herbicides and Fungicides

Chapter 54. Toxicity of herbicides

Introduction

Background

Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Endocrine disruption

Treatment

Conclusions

Chapter 55. Toxicity of fungicides

Introduction

Background

Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Endocrine disruption

Treatment

Conclusions and future directions

SECTION VIII. Rodenticides and Avicides

Chapter 56. Anticoagulant rodenticides

Introduction

Background

Target species

Non-Target species

Mechanism of action

Toxicokinetics

Toxicity

Diagnosis

Treatment

Conclusions

Chapter 57. Non-anticoagulant rodenticides

Strychnine

Bromethalin

Cholecalciferol

Red squill

Fluoroacetate

Alpha-naphthyl thiourea

Zinc phosphide

Thallium

Chapter 58. Avitrol

Introduction

Background

Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

SECTION XI. Gases, Solvents and Other Industrial Toxicants

Chapter 59. Toxic gases

Introduction

General principles

Specific toxic gases

Chapter 60. Alcohols and glycols

Introduction

Background

Alcohol toxicoses

Glycol toxicoses

Conclusions

Chapter 61. Petroleum

Introduction

Oil and gas well drilling and completing

Coal bed methane and shale gas

Sources of toxic substances

Grease and motor oil

Toxicology of crude and refined petroleum

Veterinary medical and pesticide uses of petroleum

Sour gas

Hydrogen sulfide

Exposure to environmental sulfur

Toxicology of sulfur dioxide in cattle

Pathology of petroleum and oil field chemicals

Epidemiological studies: cattle

Wildlife

Analytical toxicology

Differential diagnosis

Conclusions and future directions

Chapter 62. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo--dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

Introduction

Background

Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions and future directions

Chapter 63. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Introduction

Exposure of farm animals to PAHs

Uptake, disposition, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability of PAHs in farm animals

Biotransformation of PAHs in farm animals

Health effects of PAHs in farm animals

Treatment

Conclusion and future directions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 64. Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals

Introduction

Background

Physicochemical properties

Pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action and toxicity

Conclusion and future directions

Acknowledgments

SECTION X. Environmental Toxicology

Chapter 65. Veterinary geology

Introduction

Medical geology

Veterinary geology

Problems in animals associated with geochemistry

Problems associated with water

Conclusions

Chapter 66. Principles of ecotoxicology

Introduction and core concepts

Ecotoxicants in concert with other mechanisms of ecosystem disease

Direct toxicity of nutrients, stimulation of harmful algal blooms, and facilitation of lethal outbreaks of botulism

Petroleum disasters, wildlife toxicology, and human impacts

Aromatic hydrocarbons

Persistent organic pollutants

Contaminants from e-wastes

Pesticides

Endocrine-disrupting mixtures in surface waters

Metals, minerals, and mining

Oxides of nitrogen and sulfur and their interactions with metals

Radiation/radionuclides

The future of ecotoxicology

Chapter 67. Avian toxicology

Introduction

General comments about diagnosing avian intoxications

Natural toxicants

Metals

Environmental toxicants

Toxic gases

Concluding remarks and future directions

Chapter 68. Aquatic toxicology

Introduction

Background

Water safety

Feed

Toxicology investigations

Concluding remarks and future directions

Chapter 69. Toxicology and diversity of marine toxins

Introduction

Saxitoxins

Tetrodotoxin

Ciguatoxins and maitotoxins

Ciguatoxins

Maitotoxins

Domoic acid and analogs

Brevetoxins

Palytoxin and its analogs

Okadaic acid and its derivatives

Azaspiracids

Other lipophilic toxins

Pectenotoxins

Cyclic imine toxins

SECTION XI. Bacterial and Cyanobacterial Toxins

Chapter 70. Botulinum neurotoxins

Introduction

Background

Mechanism of action

Clinical botulism

Laboratory diagnosis

Species-specific disease

Chapter 71. Enterotoxins

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding remarks

Chapter 72. Cyanobacterial (blue-green algae) toxins

Introduction

Background

Microcystins

Anatoxins

Miscellaneous freshwater cyanobacterial toxins

Concluding remarks and future directions

SECTION XII. Poisonous and Venomous Organisms

Chapter 73. Terrestrial zootoxins

Introduction

Arthropoda

Amphibia, anura: toads

Reptilia

Aves

Mammalia

Conclusions

Chapter 74. Mare reproductive loss syndrome

Introduction

Clinical manifestations

Mechanism of action

Treatment and prevention

Conclusions

SECTION XIII. Estrogenic Toxicants

Chapter 75. Chemical-induced estrogenicity

Introduction

Estrogens play a role in normal physiological function and disease

Estrogens as risk factors for male reproductive tract problems

Estrogenic chemicals of concern

Mechanisms of estrogen-induced transactivation

Xenoestrogens and phytoestrogens as selective ER modulators

Xenoestrogens and phytoestrogens as SERMs and implications for risk assessment

Acknowledgments

Chapter 76. Phytoestrogens

Introduction

Historical background

Pharmacokinectics/toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Adverse health effects

Risk assessment

Treatment

Concluding remarks and future directions

SECTION XIV. Poisonous Plants

Chapter 77. Poisonous plants of the United States

Introduction

Astragalus and oxytropis species (locoweeds, nitro spp., and selenium spp.)

Larkspurs (delphinium spp.)

Lupines (lupinus spp.)

Poison hemlock (conium maculatum)

Water hemlock (cicuta spp.)

Ponderosa Pine Needles (pinus spp.)

Broom Snakeweed (gutierrezia spp.)

Rayless Goldenrod (haplopappus heterophyllus)

Halogeton (halogeton glomeratus)

Oak poisoning

Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants

Photosensitizing plants

Death camas

Veratrum spp.

Bracken Fern (pteridium and aquilinum)

Milkweeds: asclepias spp.

Nightshades

Knapweeds: centaurea spp.

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 78. Poisonous plants of Europe

Introduction

Poisonous plants affecting animals

Treatment

Supportive therapy

Conclusions

Chapter 79. Poisonous plants of Australia and New Zealand

Introduction

Reducing livestock losses associated with poisonous plants in australia and new zealand

Conclusions

Chapter 80. Cyanogenic plants

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding remarks and future directions

Chapter 81. Nitrate and nitrite accumulating plants

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding remarks

Chapter 82. Toxicity of yew ( spp.) alkaloids

Introduction

Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

Physiology/mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions

Chapter 83. Oxalate-containing plants

Introduction

Oxalate chemistry

Eating behavior and gastrointestinal anatomy

Clinical toxicosis categories

Species-specific toxicity

Treatment

Prophylaxis/adaptation

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 84. Mushroom toxins

Introduction

Background

Hepatotoxic cyclopeptides

Hydrazines

Muscarinic agents

Isoxazoles

Psilocin and psilocybin

Gastrointestinal irritants

Renal toxic mushrooms

Ramaria flavo-brunnescens

Concluding remarks and future directions

Chapter 85. species and related plants

Introduction

Chemistry

Toxicity as related to the plant part

Toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics of tropane alkaloids from datura spp.

Clinical signs of poisoning

Treatment

Conclusions and future directions

Chapter 86. Cottonseed toxicity

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding remarks

Chapter 87. Fescue toxicosis

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

Mechanisms of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Prevention

Concluding remarks

SECTION XV. Mycotoxins

Chapter 88. Aflatoxins

Introduction

Background

Provenance of aflatoxins in feedstuffs and foods

Sampling and analysis

Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

Toxicodynamics

Clinicopathology

Macroscopic and microscopic pathology

Differential diagnosis

Treatment and outcomes

Prevention of aflatoxins

Aflatoxin interactions

Concluding remarks and future directions

Chapter 89. Ergot

Introduction

Background

Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Concluding remarks

Chapter 90. Fumonisins

Introduction

Background

Pharmcokinetics/toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Diagnosis and treatment

Concluding remarks and future directions

Chapter 91. Ochratoxins and citrinin

Introduction

Background

Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 92. Slaframine

Introduction

Background

Chemistry and toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Diagnosis and treatment

Conclusions

Chapter 93. Tremorgenic mycotoxins

Introduction

Background

Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicodynamics

Clinical aspects of tremorgenic mycotoxicoses

Conclusions

Chapter 94. Trichothecenes

Introduction

Background

Sources

Toxicokinetics

Microbial metabolism

Mechanism of action and toxicity

Protein synthesis inhibition

Lipid peroxidation

Neurotransmitter effects

Immunotoxicity

Apoptosis

Cell membrane function

Reproductive toxicity

Genotoxicity and teratogenesis

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions

Chapter 95. Zearalenone

Introduction

Background

Toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions

SECTION XVI. Feed and Water Contaminants

Chapter 96. Melamine and cyanuric acid

Introduction

Source

Pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Clinical signs

Clinical pathology

Pathology

Diagnosis

Treatment and prognosis

Conclusions

Chapter 97. Ionophores

Introduction

Background

Pharmacology/pharmacokinetics

Mechanism of action

Toxicity

Treatment

Conclusions

Chapter 98. Nonprotein nitrogen (urea) and hyperammonemia

Introduction and background

Toxicity

Clinical signs

Diagnostic criteria

Treatment

Ammonia

Conclusions

Chapter 99. Water quality and contaminants

Introduction

The assessment of water quality

Water quality standards for animals

Drinking water quality standards for humans

Water consumption tables

Rationale for livestock recommendations

Health effects of cyanotoxins from water

Conclusions

SECTION XVII. Diagnostic Toxicology

Chapter 100. Basic concepts of analytical toxicology

Introduction

History of chemical analysis

Trueness (accuracy) of chemical analytical results

Analytical method validation

An example of an SLV for the gas chromatographic determination of selenium (Se) in blood and liver

Calibration curve: how to measure a quantity of interest

Goodness of linearity of calibration curve

Example of an interlaboratory (collaborative) study for the validation of the semi-quantitative method

Laboratory quality management

Conclusions

Acknowledgment

Chapter 101. Sample submission for toxicological analysis

Introduction

Required information for sample submission

Sample collection and submission for toxicological analysis

Shipping regulations for diagnostic specimens

Conclusions

Chapter 102. Toxicoproteomics in diagnostic toxicology

Introduction

Analytical tools for proteomic analyses

Proteomics applications in diagnostic toxicology

Conclusions

Chapter 103. Microscopic analysis of toxic substances in feeds and ingesta

Introduction

The search for clues

Background: principles of feed microscopy

The applications of feed microscopy

Classification of feed ingredients by sources

Classification of finished formula feeds by processing

Classification of forages by points of contact or potential toxicants

Identification of ingesta particles

The role of the attending veterinarian

Feed microscopy training and available literature

The feed microscopy laboratory

The equipment

Conclusions and future expectations

SECTION XVIII. Prevention and Treatment

Chapter 104. Prevention and treatment of poisoning

Prevention of poisoning

Stabilization and monitoring

Decontamination

Antidotal therapies

Conclusion

Index

Quotes and reviews

Praise for the 2nd Edition:

"The stated purpose of the second edition of Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles is to serve as a comprehensive, expert-authored resource for toxicologists and other scientists and for use as a textbook in the classroom. The book covers the wide breadth of veterinary toxicology with exceptional depth. Topics range from the history of veterinary toxicology to nanoparticles, pesticides, metals, laws, regulatory considerations, diagnostic testing, and plant and environmental toxicology. The authors do an exceptional job of addressing pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of action in detail. Principles of analytic toxicology and sample submission are adequately covered.

 

Agents encountered as a result of natural and man-made disasters are a key focus of the reference.  The text does not contain in-depth information in the area of human pharmaceuticals, which is a common source of exposure for family pets.  Treatment details and differential diagnosis lists are limited.  Clearly, the book delivers on its purpose as a key reference for scientists and students, covering the complex topic of veterinary toxicology in a comprehensive, well-designed format.  Although this book is a tremendous addition to any library, veterinarians, other scientists, and students who seek details on the varied and complex topic of veterianry toxicology will find this reference a must-have book." -Reviewed by Steven Hansen, DVM, MS, MBA, DABVT, in the Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association

 

Praise for the 1st Edition:

"A unique single reference that teaches the basic principles of veterinary toxicology to any student at the DVM, MS or PhD level and will continue to serve as a clinical reference for practicing veterinary toxicologists, poison control centers, marine biologists, environmentalists, and animal scientists. While most comparable texts are primarily directed toward the field of human toxicology, this is the one text needed to thoroughly prepare future veterinarians on the newest approaches for diagnosing poisoning cases in all animals from chemicals and plants of a diverse nature as a result of inadvertent, accidental, or malicious intents. Many chapters are provided on topics not covered in any previous books such as target organ toxicity, radiation and radioactive materials, FDA regulatory issues, and ethics in veterinary toxicology...many newer topics including chemicals of terrorism, estrogenic toxicants, and nanoparticles are included. Overall, the information provided is well organized and comprehensive...generous and relevant references at the end of each chapter allow the opportunity to further pursue each topic.

This book can be considered a cornerstone upon which a deeper understanding of the issues and individual toxicants in veterinary toxicology can be based. The topics covered are of interest to not only toxicologists and researchers, but also to clinicians who do not have an extensive background in toxicology. This book is a fine addition to any veterinary professional's library, but it is important to realize that after becoming familiar with this material, the readers' interests will then determine if more focused, additional resources are needed."
- Paul A. Eubig, DVM, MS, DABT (University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine), in DOODY'S REVIEWS

"The book is reasonably priced, rich and rewarding and I can warmly recommend it as a useful reference book to all practicing toxicologists."
- Roy Forster, CIT, France - The British Toxicology Society Newsletter

 
 
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