Control System Design Guide

Control System Design Guide, 4th Edition

Using Your Computer to Understand and Diagnose Feedback Controllers

Control System Design Guide, 4th Edition,George Ellis,ISBN9780123859211





Improve machine performance with updated cutting-edge control design scenarios, models and simulations, enabling apps from battlebots to solar collectors.

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Key Features

  • Explains how to model machines and processes, including how to measure working equipment, with an intuitive approach that avoids complex math
  • Includes coverage on the interface between control systems and digital processors, reflecting the reality that most motion systems are now designed with PC software
  • Of particular interest to the practicing engineer is the addition of new material on real-time, remote and networked control systems
  • Teaches how control systems work at an intuitive level, including how to measure, model, and diagnose problems, all without the unnecessary math so common in this field
  • Principles are taught in plain language and then demonstrated with dozens of software models so the reader fully comprehend the material (The models and software to replicate all material in the book is provided without charge by the author at www.QxDesign.com)
  • New material includes practical uses of Rapid Control Prototypes (RCP) including extensive examples using National Instruments LabVIEW


Control Systems Design Guide has helped thousands of engineers to improve machine performance. This fourth edition of the practical guide has been updated with cutting-edge control design scenarios, models and simulations enabling apps from battlebots to solar collectors.

This useful reference enhances coverage of practical applications via the inclusion of new control system models, troubleshooting tips, and expanded coverage of complex systems requirements, such as increased speed, precision and remote capabilities, bridging the gap between the complex, math-heavy control theory taught in formal courses, and the efficient implementation required in real industry settings.

George Ellis is Director of Technology Planning and Chief Engineer of Servo Systems at Kollmorgen Corporation, a leading provider of motion systems and components for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) around the globe. He has designed an applied motion control systems professionally for over 30 years He has written two well-respected books with Academic Press, Observers in Control Systems and Control System Design Guide, now in its fourth edition. He has contributed articles on the application of controls to numerous magazines, including Machine Design, Control Engineering, Motion Systems Design, Power Control and Intelligent Motion, and Electronic Design News.


Mechanical, electrical and industrial design engineers, and students preparing to enter these disciplines.

George Ellis

George Ellis is Vice President European Engineering at Kollmorgen Corporation, a leading provider of precision motion systems around the globe. For 30 years he has worked in product development including leading product development projects, designing development processes, and creating portfolio management systems. He has also written two well-respected books with Elsevier, Control System Design Guide, now in its fourth edition, and Observers in Control Systems. He has contributed articles to numerous magazines, including Electronic Design News, Machine Design, Control Engineering, Motion Systems Design, and Power Control and Intelligent Motion.

Affiliations and Expertise

Kollmorgen Corporation, USA

View additional works by George Ellis

Control System Design Guide, 4th Edition


Praise for the new edition


Section I Applied Principles of Controls

Important Safety Guidelines for Readers

Chapter 1. Introduction to Controls

1.1 Visual ModelQ Simulation Environment

1.2 The Control System

1.3 The Controls Engineer

Chapter 2. The Frequency Domain

2.1 The Laplace Transform

2.2 Transfer Functions

2.3 Examples of Transfer Functions

2.4 Block Diagrams

2.5 Phase and Gain

2.6 Measuring Performance

Chapter 3. Tuning a Control System

3.1 Closing Loops

3.2 A Detailed Review of the Model

3.3 The Open-Loop Method

3.4 Margins of Stability

3.5 A Zone-Based Tuning Procedure

3.6 Variation in Plant Gain

3.7 Multiple (Cascaded) Loops

3.8 Power Converter Saturation and Synchronization

3.9 Phase vs. Gain Plots

Chapter 4. Delay in Digital Controllers

4.1 How Sampling Works

4.2 Sources of Delay in Digital Systems

4.3 Experiment 4A: Understanding Delay in Digital Control

4.4 Selecting the Sample Time

Chapter 5. The -Domain

5.1 Introduction to the z-Domain

5.2 z Phasors

5.3 Aliasing

5.4 Experiment 5A: Aliasing

5.5 From Transfer Function to Algorithm

5.6 Functions for Digital Systems

5.7 Reducing the Calculation Delay

5.8 Quantization

Chapter 6. Four Types of Controllers

6.1 Tuning in this Chapter

6.2 Using the Proportional Gain

6.3 Using the Integral Gain

6.4 Using the Differential Gain

6.5 PD Control

6.6 Choosing the Controller

6.7 Experiments 6A–6D

Chapter 7. Disturbance Response

7.1 Disturbances

7.2 Disturbance Response of a Velocity Controller

7.3 Disturbance Decoupling

Chapter 8. Feed-Forward

8.1 Plant-Based Feed-Forward

8.2 Feed-Forward and the Power Converter

8.3 Delaying the Command Signal

8.4 Variation in Plant and Power Converter Operation

8.5 Feed-Forward for the Double-Integrating Plant

Chapter 9. Filters in Control Systems

9.1 Filters in Control Systems

9.2 Filter Passband

9.3 Implementation of Filters

Chapter 10. Introduction to Observers in Control Systems

10.1 Overview of Observers

10.2 Experiments 10A–10C: Enhancing Stability with an Observer

10.3 Filter Form of the Luenberger Observer

10.4 Designing a Luenberger Observer

10.5 Introduction to Tuning an Observer Compensator

Section II Modeling

Chapter 11. Introduction to Modeling

11.1 What is a Model?

11.2 Frequency-Domain Modeling

11.3 Time-Domain Modeling

Chapter 12. Nonlinear Behavior and Time Variation

12.1 LTI Versus Non-LTI

12.2 Non-LTI Behavior

12.3 Dealing with Nonlinear Behavior

12.4 Ten Examples of Nonlinear Behavior

Chapter 13. Model Development and Verification

13.1 Seven-Step Process to Develop a Model

13.2 From Simulation to Deployment: RCP and HIL1

Section III Motion Control

Chapter 14. Encoders and Resolvers

14.1 Accuracy, Resolution, and Response

14.2 Encoders

14.3 Resolvers

14.4 Position Resolution, Velocity Estimation, and Noise

14.5 Alternatives for Increasing Resolution

14.6 Cyclic Error and Torque/Velocity Ripple

14.7 Experiment 14B: Cyclical Errors and Torque Ripple

14.8 Choosing a Feedback Device

Chapter 15. Basics of the Electric Servomotor and Drive

15.1 Definition of a Drive

15.2 Definition of a Servo System

15.3 Basic Magnetics

15.4 Electric Servomotors

15.5 Permanent-Magnet (PM) Brush Motors

15.6 Brushless PM Motors

15.7 Six-Step Control of Brushless PM Motor

15.8 Induction and Reluctance Motors

Chapter 16. Compliance and Resonance

16.1 Equations of Resonance

16.2 Tuned Resonance vs. Inertial-Reduction Instability

16.3 Curing Resonance

Chapter 17. Position-Control Loops

17.1 P/PI Position Control

17.2 PI/P Position Control

17.3 PID Position Control

17.4 Comparison of Position Loops

17.5 Position Profile Generation

17.6 Bode Plots for Positioning Systems

Chapter 18. Using the Luenberger Observer in Motion Control

18.1 Applications Likely to Benefit from Observers

18.2 Observing Velocity to Reduce Phase Lag

18.3 Acceleration Feedback

Chapter 19. Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) for a Motion System

19.1 Why Use RCP?

19.2 Servo System with Rigidly-Coupled Load

19.3 Servo System with Compliantly-Coupled Load

APPENDIX A. Active Analog Implementation of Controller Elements



Lag Compensator

Lead Compensator

Lead-Lag Compensator

Sallen-and-Key Low-Pass Filter

Adjustable Notch Filter

APPENDIX B. European Symbols for Block Diagrams

Part I. Linear Functions

Part II. Nonlinear Functions

APPENDIX C. The Runge—Kutta Method

The Runge–Kutta Algorithm

Basic Version of the Runge–Kutta Algorithm

C Programming Language Version of the Runge–Kutta Algorithm

H-File for C Programming Language Version

APPENDIX D. Development of the Bilinear Transformation

Bilinear Transformation


Factoring Polynomials

Phase Advancing

APPENDIX E. The Parallel Form of Digital Algorithms

APPENDIX F. Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 16

Chapter 17

Chapter 18



Quotes and reviews

"…the new addition in this edition, rapid control prototyping for a motion system, [is] both timely and useful in smoothing the transition from simulation to an embedded, hardware solution."  -Zhiqiang Gao, Associate Professor and Director, Center for Advanced Control Technologies, Cleveland State University

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