Fundamental Neuroscience

Fundamental Neuroscience, 4th Edition

Fundamental Neuroscience, 4th Edition,Larry Squire,Darwin Berg,Floyd E. Bloom,Sascha du Lac,Anirvan Ghosh,Nicholas C. Spitzer,ISBN9780123858702

Squire   &   Berg   &   Bloom   &   du Lac   &   Ghosh   &   Spitzer   

Academic Press




281 X 222

The ideal textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in neuroscience and neurobiology, edited and authored by the foremost leaders in the field, with comprehensive coverage of systems neuroscience.

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Key Features

  • Selected for inclusion in Doody's Core Titles 2013, an essential collection development tool for health sciences libraries
  • 30% new material including new chapters on dendritic development and spine morphogenesis, chemical senses, cerebellum, eye movements, circadian timing, sleep and dreaming, and consciousness
  • Accompanying website for students and instructors
  • Additional text boxes describing key experiments, disorders, methods, and concepts
  • More than 650 four-color illustrations, micrographs, and neuroimages
  • Multiple model system coverage beyond rats, mice, and monkeys
  • Extensively expanded index for easier referencing


The fourth edition of Fundamental Neuroscience reinvents itself as an engrossing and comprehensive presentation of the discipline of neuroscience, from molecules to cognition. Thorough but succinct, and lavishly illustrated, the book builds from an introductory section that includes fundamental neuroanatomy and goes on to cover cellular and molecular neuroscience, development, sensory systems, motor systems, regulatory systems, and behavioral and cognitive neuroscience. The book has been retooled to better serve its audience in the neuroscience and medical communities.

The chapters include more than 100 boxes describing clinical conditions, techniques, and other special topics. Each chapter went through a thorough review process, giving the book an evenness of tone. The chapters are authored by outstanding working scientists who are experts on the topics they cover.


Graduate students in neuroscience, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, and neurobiology. The secondary market for this book is researchers in neuroscience primarily, but also in the related fields of psychology, cell biology, molecular biology, genetics and any other areas of science with cross over into neuroscience research.

Larry Squire

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

Darwin Berg

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

Floyd E. Bloom

Affiliations and Expertise

Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA

View additional works by Floyd E. Bloom

Sascha du Lac

Affiliations and Expertise

The Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA

Anirvan Ghosh

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

Nicholas C. Spitzer

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

Fundamental Neuroscience, 4th Edition

List of Boxes

Preface to the Fourth Edition

About the Editors


I: Fundamental Neuroscience

Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Neuroscience

A Brief History of Neuroscience

The Terminology of Nervous Systems is Hierarchical, Distributed, Descriptive, and Historically Based

Neurons and Glia Are Cellular Building Blocks of the Nervous System

Cellular Organization of the Brain

Organization of this Text

This Book is Intended for a Broad Range of Scholars of the Neurosciences

Clinical Issues in the Neurosciences

The Genomic Inventory is a Giant Step Forward

Neuroscience Today: a Communal Endeavor

The Creation of Knowledge

Responsible Conduct



Chapter 2. Basic Plan of the Nervous System


Evolution Highlights: General Organizing Principles

Development Reveals Basic Vertebrate Parts

The Basic Plan of Nervous System Connectivity

Overview of the Adult Mammalian Nervous System


II: Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Chapter 3. Cellular Components of Nervous Tissue


Specific Examples of Different Neuronal Types


Cerebral Vasculature


Chapter 4. Subcellular Organization of the Nervous System: Organelles and Their Functions

Axons and Dendrites: Unique Structural Components of Neurons

Protein Synthesis in Nervous Tissue

Cytoskeletons of Neurons and Glial Cells

Molecular Motors in the Nervous System

Building and Maintaining Cells of the Nervous System


Chapter 5. Membrane Potential and Action Potential

Membrane Potential

Passive Electrical Properties of the Neuron

Action Potential


Chapter 6. Neurotransmitters

Several Modes of Neuronal Communication Exist

Chemical Transmission

Classical Neurotransmitters

Nonclassical Neurotransmitters

Peptide Transmitters

Unconventional Transmitters

The Expanding Synapse and Gliotransmission


Chapter 7. Release of Neurotransmitters

Transmitter Release is Quantal

Excitation–Secretion Coupling

Molecular Mechanisms of the Nerve Terminal

Quantal Analysis: Probing Synaptic Physiology

Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity


Chapter 8. Neurotransmitter Receptors

Ionotropic Receptors

G-Protein Coupled Receptors


Chapter 9. Intracellular Signaling

Signaling Through G-Protein-Linked Receptors

Modulation of Neuronal Function by Protein Kinases and Phosphatases

Intracellular Signaling Affects Nuclear Gene Expression


Chapter 10. Postsynaptic Potentials and Synaptic Integration

Ionotropic Receptors: Mediators of Fast Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Potentials

Metabotropic Receptors: Mediators of Slow Synaptic Potentials

Integration of Synaptic Potentials

Synaptic Plasticity


Chapter 11. Information Processing in Dendrites and Spines


Synaptic Integration in Passive Dendrites

Synaptic Integration in Active Dendrites

Structure and Function of Dendritic Spines

Computations Performed by Dendrites



Chapter 12. Brain Energy Metabolism

Energy Metabolism of the Brain as a Whole Organ

Tight Coupling of Neuronal Activity, Blood Flow, and Energy Metabolism

Energy-Producing and Energy-Consuming Processes in the Brain

Glutamate Metabolism: A Coordinated Shuttle Between Astrocytes and Neurons

Brain Energy Metabolism at the Cellular Level

The Astrocyte-Neuron Metabolic Unit


III: Nervous System Development

Chapter 13. Neural Induction and Pattern Formation

Neural Induction

Early Neural Patterning

Regionalization of the Central Nervous System



Chapter 14. Cellular Determination



The Proneural and Neurogenic Genes

Transcriptional Hierarchies and Networks

Asymmetric Cell Division and Cell Fate

Neurons and Glia

Sensory Neurons of the Peripheral Nervous System

The Retina

The Spinal Cord

Motor Neurons

The Cerebral Cortex



Chapter 15. Neurogenesis and Migration


Development of the Peripheral Nervous System

Segmental Migration of Neural Crest Cells

Cell Migration in the CNS


Chapter 16. Growth Cones and Axon Pathfinding

Growth Cones are Actively Guided

Guidance Cues for Developing Axons

Guidance Cues and the Control of Cytoskeletal Dynamics

Guidance at the Midline: Changing Responses to Multiple Cues

Topographic Mapping


Chapter 17. Synapse Formation

Development of the Neuromuscular Synapse

Synapse Formation in the Central Nervous System


Chapter 18. Programmed Cell Death and Neurotrophic Factors

Cell Death and the Neurotrophic Hypothesis

The Origins of Programmed Cell Death and its Widespread Occurrence in the Developing Nervous System

Functions of Neuronal Programmed Cell Death

Modes of Cell Death in Developing Neurons

The Mode of Neuronal Cell Death Reflects the Activation of Distinct Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms

Nerve Growth Factor: the Prototype Target-Derived Neuronal Survival Factor

The Neurotrophin Family

Neurotrophin Receptors

Secretion and Axonal Transport of Neurotrophins and Pro-Neurotrophins

Signal Transduction Through TRK Receptors

Multiple Cytokines and Growth Factors Implement Neurotrophic Activities

Programmed Cell Death is Regulated by Interactions with Targets, Afferents, and Nonneuronal Cells

The Role of Trophic Factors and Programmed Cell Death in Neuropathology


Chapter 19. Synapse Elimination


The Purpose of Synapse Elimination

A Structural Analysis of Synapse Elimination at the Neuromuscular Junction

A Role for Interaxonal Competition and Activity

Is Synapse Elimination Strictly a Developmental Phenomenon?


Chapter 20. Dendritic Development

Dynamics of Dendritic Arbor Development

Transcriptional Control of Dendrite Development

Extracellular Regulation of Dendritic Development

Dendritic Development and Circuit Formation in Mammalian Retina

Laminar Specificity in the Inner Plexiform Layer

Activity-Dependent Dendritic Development

The Synaptotrophic Model Of Dendrite Development

Branch Retraction and Synapse Elimination

Calcium-Dependent Mechanisms That Mediate Dendritic Growth

Protein Synthesis Dependent Regulation of Dendrite Development

Convergence And Divergence



Chapter 21. Early Experience and Sensitive Periods

Birdsong: Learned by Experience

Sound Localization: Calibrated by Early Experience in the Owl

Binocular Processing in the Mammalian Visual Cortex Depends on Early Experience

A Sensitive Period for Shaping the Temperament of Rats

Principles of Sensitive Period Learning


IV: Sensory Systems

Chapter 22. Fundamentals of Sensory Systems

Sensation and Perception


Peripheral Organization and Processing

Central Pathways and Processing

Sensory Cortex



Chapter 23. Chemical Senses: Taste and Olfaction



Different Odors Activate Different Combinations of Glomeruli

Pheromone Detection


Chapter 24. The Somatosensory System

Peripheral Mechanisms of Somatic Sensation


CNS Components of Somatic Sensation

Thalamic Mechanisms of Somatic Sensation

The Path from Nociception to Pain

Cortical Representation of Touch


Chapter 25. Audition

External and Middle Ear

The Cochlea

The Auditory Nerve

Central Nervous System


Chapter 26. Vision


Sensory Systems Detect Contrast or Change

The Eye and the Retina

The Retinogeniculocortical Pathway


V: Motor Systems

Chapter 27. Fundamentals of Motor Systems

Basic Components of the Motor System

Motor Programs Coordinate Basic Motor Patterns

Roles of Different Parts of the Nervous System in the Control of Movement


Suggested Readings

Chapter 28. The Spinal and Peripheral Motor System

Locomotion is A Cycle

Connecting the Spinal Cord to the Periphery

Spinal Interneuron Networks

Descending Control of Spinal Circuits

Sensory Modulation


Chapter 29. Control of Movement

The Medial Postural System

The Lateral Voluntary System



Chapter 30. The Basal Ganglia

Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia

Signaling in Basal Ganglia

The Effect of Basal Ganglia Damage on Behavior

Principles of Basal Ganglia Operation for Motor Control

Basal Ganglia Participation in Nonmotor Functions


Chapter 31. Cerebellum

Cerebellar Anatomy and Circuit

Cellular and Synaptic Performance of the Cerebellar Circuit

Cerebellar Function


Chapter 32. Eye Movements

Eye Movements are Used to Stabilize Gaze or to Redirect Gaze

The Mechanics of Moving the Eyes

The Fundamental Circuits for Stabilizing Gaze

The Commands for Redirecting Gaze are Formed in the Brainstem

Gaze Movements are Controlled by the Midbrain and Forebrain

The Control of Gaze Movements Involves Higher-Order Processes



VI: Regulatory Systems

Chapter 33. The Hypothalamus: An Overview of Regulatory Systems

Historical Perspective

Hypothalamic Cytoarchitecture

Functional Organization of the Hypothalamus

Effector Systems of the Hypothalamus are Hormonal and Synaptic


Chapter 34. Central Control of Autonomic Functions: Organization of the Autonomic Nervous System

Sympathetic Division: Organized to Mobilize the Body for Activity

Parasympathetic Division: Organized for Energy Conservation

The Enteric Division of the Ans: The Nerve Net Found in the Walls of Visceral Organs

Ans Pharmacology: Transmitter and Receptor Coding

Autonomic Coordination of Homeostasis

Hierarchically Organized ANS Circuits in the CNS

Perspective: Future of the Autonomic Nervous System


Chapter 35. Neural Control of Respiratory and Cardiovascular Functions


Where are the Neurons Generating the Respiratory Pattern?

Discharge Patterns of Respiratory Neurons

Models for Respiratory Pattern Generation

Mechanoreceptors in the Lungs Adjust Breathing Pattern and Initiate Protective Reflexes


Sensory Regulation of Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems

Modulation and Plasticity of Respiratory Motor Output


Chapter 36. Food Intake and Metabolism

Caloric Homeostasis

Role of Caloric Homeostasis in Control of Food Intake

Central Control of Food Intake

Neuropeptides and the Control of Food Intake


Chapter 37. Water and Salt Intake and Body Fluid Homeostasis

Body Fluid Physiology

Osmotic Homeostasis

Volume Homeostasis


Chapter 38. Neuroendocrine Systems

The Hypothalamus is the Central Neuroendocrine Organ

Hypothalamic Control of Anterior Pituitary Hormones and their Regulated Functions

Hypothalamic Control of Posterior Pituitary Hormones and their Regulated Functions

Hormones, the Brain, and Behavior


Chapter 39. Circadian Timekeeping


Overview of the Mammalian Circadian Timing System

A Hierarchy of Cell-Autonomous Circadian Oscillators

The Molecular Basis for Circadian Oscillation is A Transcriptional Feedback Loop

Circadian Photoreception in Mammals

Circadian Output Mechanisms

Diversity of Output Pathways Leading to Physiological Rhythms

General Summary


Chapter 40. The Neurobiology of Sleep and Dreaming

The Two States of Sleep: Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and Non–Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) Sleep

Neural Control of the Sleep–Wake and REM/NREM Cycles

Systems Neuroscience of Sleep and Dreaming

Development and Phylogeny of Sleep

Sleep Disorders

The Purpose of Sleep


Chapter 41. Reward, Motivation, and Addiction

Reward and Motivation



VII: Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience

Chapter 42. Human Brain Evolution

Human Brain Evolution

The Brains of Early Mammals

Evolution of Primate Brains



Chapter 43. Cognitive Development and Aging

Brain Development

Cognitive Development and Aging: A Life Span Perspective

Cognitive Aging

Pathological Processes in Cognitive Development and Aging

Pathological Manifestations of Cognitive Aging: Dementia


Suggested Readings

Chapter 44. Visual Perception of Objects

The Problem of Object Recognition

Substrates for Object Perception and Recognition: Early Evidence from Brain Damage

Visual Pathways for Object Processing in Nonhuman Primates

Neuronal Properties within the Object Recognition Pathway

Functional Neuroimaging of Object Recognition

Perception and Recognition of Specific Classes of Objects

Overall Summary


Chapter 45. Spatial Cognition

Neural Systems for Spatial Cognition

Parietal Cortex

Frontal Cortex

Medial Temporal Lobe

Spatial Cognition and Spatial Action


Chapter 46. Attention


Definitions and Varieties of Attention

Neglect Syndrome: A Deficit of Spatial Attention

Attention Affects Neural Activity in the Human Visual Cortex in the Presence and Absence of Visual Stimulation

Single Unit Recording Studies in Nonhuman Primates Provide Convergent Evidence for A Fronto-Parietal Attentional Control System

Attention Increases Neuronal Responses and Boosts the Clarity of Signals Generated by Neurons in Parts of the Visual System Devoted to Processing Information about Objects

Attention Modulates Neural Responses in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

The Visual Search Paradigm has been used to Study the Role of Attention in Selecting Relevant Stimuli from within A Cluttered Visual Environment

Where is the Computational Bottleneck as Revealed by Search Tasks?

Neuronal Receptive Fields are A Possible Neural Correlate of Limited Capacity

Filtering of Unwanted Information in Humans

Competition can be Biased by Nonspatial Feedback



Chapter 47. Learning and Memory: Basic Mechanisms

Paradigms have been Developed to Study Associative and Nonassociative Learning

Invertebrate Studies: Key Insights from Aplysia into Basic Mechanisms of Learning

Vertebrate Studies: Long-Term Potentiation

Long-Term Depression

How Does a Change in Synaptic Strength Store a Complex Memory?


Chapter 48. Learning and Memory: Brain Systems


Behavior Supported by Multiple Memory Systems



Chapter 49. Language

Animal Communication

Human Language

Neural Organization for Language



Chapter 50. The Prefrontal Cortex and Executive Brain Functions


Anatomy and Organization of the Prefrontal Cortex

Effects of Damage to the Prefrontal Cortex in Humans

Neuroimaging Studies and PFC

Effects of Damage to the Prefrontal Cortex in Monkeys

Neurophysiology of the Prefrontal Cortex

Theories of Prefrontal Cortex Function


Chapter 51. The Neuroscience of Consciousness

What Phenomena does Consciousness Encompass?

The Neurobiology of Free Will

Consciousness in other Species

Arousal and States of Consciousness

The Neuronal Correlates of Consciousness

The Neuronal Basis of Perceptual Illusions

Perceptual Puzzles of Contemporary Interest

Forward Versus Feedback Projections

An Information-Theoretical Theory of Consciousness




Quotes and reviews

"Here in the fourth edition of this textbook, editors Squire, Berg, Bloom, du Lac, Ghosh, and Spitzer, all working scientists with backgrounds in various specialties in neuroscience, present extensive new material with all chapters updated and rewritten. The book is organized into seven sections with numerous chapters in each encompassing a comprehensive view of 21st century neuroscience…"--Reference & Research Book News, December 2013

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