The Definitive Guide to the ARM Cortex-M0

The Definitive Guide to the ARM Cortex-M0, 1st Edition

The Definitive Guide to the ARM Cortex-M0, 1st Edition,Joseph Yiu,ISBN9780123854773






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Gain expertise and insight into how to develop applications using the new ARM CORTEX-M0 microcontroller architecture, from a leading engineer at ARM who was involved in its development

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Key Features

  • The first and definitive book on the new ARM Cortex-M0 architecture targeting the large 8-bit and 16-bit microcontroller market
  • Explains the Cortex-M0 architecture and how to program it using practical examples
  • Written by an engineer at ARM who was heavily involved in its development


The Definitive Guide to the ARM Cortex-M0 is a guide for users of ARM Cortex-M0 microcontrollers. It presents many examples to make it easy for novice embedded-software developers to use the full 32-bit ARM Cortex-M0 processor. It provides an overview of ARM and ARM processors and discusses the benefits of ARM Cortex-M0 over 8-bit or 16-bit devices in terms of energy efficiency, code density, and ease of use, as well as their features and applications. The book describes the architecture of the Cortex-M0 processor and the programmers model, as well as Cortex-M0 programming and instruction set and how these instructions are used to carry out various operations. Furthermore, it considers how the memory architecture of the Cortex-M0 processor affects software development; Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC) and the features it supports, including flexible interrupt management, nested interrupt support, vectored exception entry, and interrupt masking; and Cortex-M0 features that target the embedded operating system. It also explains how to develop simple applications on the Cortex-M0, how to program the Cortex-M0 microcontrollers in assembly and mixed-assembly languages, and how the low-power features of the Cortex-M0 processor are used in programming. Finally, it describes a number of ARM Cortex-M0 products, such as microcontrollers, development boards, starter kits, and development suites. This book will be useful to both new and advanced users of ARM Cortex devices, from students and hobbyists to researchers, professional embedded- software developers, electronic enthusiasts, and even semiconductor product designers.


Embedded software developers, Embedded Product Designers, Students taking an
embedded systems design course where the Arm Cortex- M0 is used, electronics

Joseph Yiu

Joseph Yiu has been working in ARM for over 12 years and has been involved in a wide range of projects including development of ARM Cortex-M processors and various on-chip system level and debug components. In addition to in depth knowledge of the processors and microcontroller system design, Joseph also has extensive knowledge in related areas including software development for the ARM Cortex-M microcontrollers, FPGA development and System-on-Chip design technologies.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Embedded Technology Specialist, ARM Ltd., Cambridge, UK

View additional works by Joseph Yiu

The Definitive Guide to the ARM Cortex-M0, 1st Edition

Foreword Preface Acknowledgments Conventions terms and Abbreviations Chapter 1 Introduction     Why Cortex-M0?          Energy Efficiency          Code Density          Ease of Use     Application of the Cortex-M0 Processors     Background of ARM and ARM processors     Cortex-M0 Processor Specification and ARM Architecture     ARM Processors and the ARM Ecosystem     Getting Started with the Cortex-M0 Processor     Organization of This Book and Resources Chapter 2 Cortex-M0 Technical Overview     General Information on the Cortex-M0 Processor     The ARM Cortex-M0 Processor Features          System Features          Implementation Features          Debug Features          Others     Advantages of the Cortex-M0 Processor          Energy Efficiency          Limitations in 8-Bit and 16-Bit Architectures          Easy to Use, Software Portability          Wide Range of Choices     Low-Power Applications          Small Gate Count          High Efficiency          Low-Power Features          Logic Cell Enhancement     Cortex-M0 Software Portability Chapter 3 Architecture     Overview     Programmer’s Model          Operation Modes and States          Registers and Special Registers          R0?R12          R13, Stack Pointer (SP)          R14, Link Register (LR)          R15, Program Counter (PC)          xPSR, Combined Program Status Register          Behaviors of the Application Program Status Register (APSR)          PRIMASK: Interrupt Mask Special Register          CONTROL: Special Register     Memory System Overview     Stack Memory Operations     Exceptions and Interrupts     Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC)          Flexible Interrupt Management          Nested Interrupt Support          Vectored Exception Entry          Interrupt Masking     System Control Block (SCB)          Debug System     Program Image and Startup Sequence Chapter 4 Introduction to Cortex-M0 Programming     Introduction to Embedded System Programming          What Happens When a Microcontroller Starts?          Designing Embedded Programs     Inputs and Outputs     Development Flow     C Programming and Assembly Programming     What Is in a Program Image?          Vector Table          C Startup Code          Program Code          C Library Code          Data in RAM     C Programming: Data Types     Accessing Peripherals in C     Cortex Microcontroller Software Interface Standard (CMSIS)          Introduction of CMSIS          What Is Standardized in CMSIS          Organization of the CMSIS          Using CMSIS     Benefits of CMSIS Chapter 5 Instruction Set     Background of ARM and Thumb Instruction Set     Assembly Basics          Quick Glance at Assembly Syntax          Use of a Suffix          Thumb Code and Unified Assembler Language (UAL)          Instruction List          Moving Data within the Processor          Memory Accesses          Stack Memory Accesses          Arithmetic Operations          Logic Operations          Shift and Rotate Operations          Extend and Reverse Ordering Operations          Program Flow Control          Memory Barrier Instructions          Exception-Related Instructions          Sleep Mode Feature?Related Instructions          Other Instructions     Pseudo Instructions Chapter 6 Instruction Usage Examples     Overview     Program Control          If-Then-Else          Loop          More on the Branch Instructions          Typical Usages of Branch Conditions          Function Calls and Function Returns          Branch Table     Data Accesses          Simple Data Accesses          Example of Using Memory Access Instruction     Data Type Conversion          Conversion of Data Size          Endian Conversion     Data Processing          64-Bit/128-Bit Add          64-Bit/128-Bit Sub          Integer Divide          Unsigned Integer Square Root          Bit and Bit Field Computations Chapter 7 Memory System     Overview     Memory Map          Code Region (0x00000000e0x1FFFFFFF)          SRAM Region (0x20000000e0x3FFFFFFF)          Peripheral Region (0x40000000e0x5FFFFFFF)          RAM Region (0x60000000e0x9FFFFFFF)          Device Region (0xA0000000e0xDFFFFFFF)          Internal Private Peripheral Bus (PPB) (0xE0000000e0xE00FFFFF)          Reserved Memory Space (0xE0100000e0xFFFFFFFF)     Program Memory, Boot Loader, and Memory Remapping     Data Memory     Little Endian and Big Endian Support          Data Type          Effect of Hardware Behavior to Programming          Data Alignment          Access to Invalid Addresses          Use of Multiple Load and Store Instructions     Memory Attributes Chapter 8 Exceptions and Interrupts     What Are Exceptions and Interrupts?     Exception Types on the Cortex-M0 Processor          Nonmaskable Interrupt (NMI)          Hard Fault          SVCall (SuperVisor Call)          PendSV (Pendable Service Call)          SysTick          Interrupts     Exception Priority Definition     Vector Table     Exception Sequence Overview          Acceptance of Exception Request          Stacking and Unstacking          Exception Return Instruction          Tail Chaining          Late Arrival     EXC_RETURN     Details of Exception Entry Sequence          Stacking          Vector Fetch and Update PC          Registers Update     Details of Exception Exit Sequence          Unstacking of Registers          Fetch and Execute from Return Address Chapter 9 Interrupt Control and System Control     Overview of the NVIC and System Control Block Features     Interrupt Enable and Clear Enable     Interrupt Pending and Clear Pending     Interrupt Priority Level     Generic Assembly Code for Interrupt Control          Enable and Disable Interrupts          Set and Clear Interrupt Pending Status          Setting up Interrupt Priority Level     Exception Masking Register (PRIMASK)     Interrupt Inputs and Pending Behavior          Simple Interrupt Process     Interrupt Latency     Control Registers for System Exceptions     System Control Registers          CPU ID Base Register          Application Interrupt and Reset Control Register          Configuration and Control Register Chapter 10 Operating System Support Features     Overview of the OS Support Features          Why Use an Embedded OS?     The SysTick Timer     SysTick Registers          Setting up SysTick          Using SysTick Timer for Timing Measurement     Process Stack and Process Stack Pointer     SVC     PendSV Chapter 11 Low-Power Features     Low-Power Embedded System Overview     Low-Power Advantages of the Cortex-M0 Processor     Overview of the Low-Power Features     Sleep Modes     Wait-for-Event (WFE) and Wait-for-Interrupt (WFI)          Wait for Event (WFE)          Wait for Interrupt (WFI)          Wakeup Conditions     Sleep-on-Exit Feature     Wakeup Interrupt Controller Chapter 12 Fault Handling     Fault Exception Overview          What Can Cause a Fault?     Analyze a Fault     Accidental Switching to ARM State     Error Handling in Real Applications     Lockup          Causes of Lockup          What Happens during a Lockup?     Preventing Lockup Chapter 13 Debug Features     Software Development and Debug Features     Debug Features Overview     Debug Interface     Halt Mode and Debug Events     Debug System Chapter 14 Getting Started with Keil MDK     Introduction to Keil MDK     First Step of Using Keil MDK          Create the Blinky Project          Create the Project Code          Project Settings          Compile and Build the Program          Using the Debugger     Other Project Configurations          Target, Source Groups          Compiler and Code-Generation Options          Simulator          Execution in RAM     Customizing the Startup Code in Keil     Using the Scatter Loading Feature in Keil Chapter 15 Simple Application Programming     Using CMSIS     Using the SysTick Timer as a Single Shot Timer     UART Examples          Simple Input/Output          Retargeting          Developing Your Own Input and Output Functions     Simple Interrupt Programming          General Overview of Interrupt Programming          Dial Control Interface Example          Interrupt Control Functions     Different Versions of CMSIS Chapter 16 Assembly Projects and Mixed-Assembly and C Projects     Project Development in Assembly     Recommended Practice in Assembly Programming     Structure of an Assembly Function     Simple Assembly Project Example     Allocating Data Space for Variables     UART Example in Assembly     Additional Text Output Functions          Complex Branch Handling     Mixed-Language Projects          Calling a C Function from Assembly          Calling an Assembly Function from C Code     Embedded Assembly     Accessing Special Instructions     Idiom Recognitions Chapter 17 Using Low-Power Features in Programming     Overview     Review of Sleep Modes in the Cortex-M0 Processor     Using WFE and WFI in Programming     Using the Send-Event-on-Pend Feature     Using the Sleep-on-Exit Feature     Wakeup Interrupt Controller (WIC) Feature     Event Communication Interface     Developing Low-Power Applications     Example of Using Low-Power Features on the LPC111x Chapter 18 Using SVC, PendSV, and Keil RTX Kernel     Introduction     Using the SVC Exception     Using the PendSV Exception     Using an Embedded OS     Keil RTX Real-Time Kernel          Features Overview     OS Startup Sequence          Simple OS Example          Intertask Communications          Event Communications          Mutual Exclusive          Semaphore          Mailbox Messages          Periodic Time interval          Other RTX Features          Application Example Chapter 19 Getting Started with the ARM RealView Development Suite     Overview     Simple Application Example     Using the Scatter Loading File     Example with Vector Table in C     Using MicroLIB in RVDS     Using Assembly for Application Development in RVDS     Flash Programming     Debugging Using RealView Debugger     Using Serial Wire Debug with the RealView Debugger     Retargeting in RVDS Chapter 20 Getting Started with the GNU C Compiler     Overview     Typical Development Flow     Simple C Application Development     CodeSourcery Common Startup Code Sequence (CS3)     Using a User-Defined Vector Table     Using Printf in gcc     Inline Assembler     SVC Example in gcc     Hard Fault Handler Example     Flash Programming and Debug Chapter 21 Software Porting     Overview     ARM Processors     Differences between the ARM7TDMI and the Cortex-M0          Operation Mode          Registers          Instruction Set          Interrupts     Porting Software from the ARM7TDMI to the Cortex-M0          Startup Code and Vector Table          Interrupt          C Program Code          Assembly Code          Atomic Access          Optimizations     Differences between the Cortex-M1 and the Cortex-M0          Instruction Set          NVIC          System-Level Features     Porting Software between the Cortex-M0 and the Cortex-M1     Differences between the Cortex-M3 and the Cortex-M0          Programmer’s Model          NVIC and Exceptions          Instruction Set          System-Level Features          Debug Features     Porting Software between the Cortex-M0 and the Cortex-M3     Porting Software between the Cortex-M0 and the Cortex-M4 Processor     Porting Software from 8-Bit/16-Bit Microcontrollers to the Cortex-M0          Common Modifications          Memory Requirements          Nonapplicable Optimizations for 8-Bit or 16-Bit Microcontrollers          Example: Migrate from the 8051 to the ARM Cortex-M0 Chapter 22 Cortex-M0 Products     Overview     Microcontroller Products and Application-Specific Standard Products (ASSPs)          NXP Cortex-M0 Microcontrollers          NuMicro™ Microcontroller Family          Mocha-1 ARM Cortex-M0 Configurable Array          Melfas MCS™-7000 Series Touch Screen Controllers     Compilers and Software Development Suites          Keil Microcontroller Development Kit (MDK)          TASKING VX-Toolset for ARM          IAR Embedded Workbench for ARM          CrossWorks for ARM          Red Suite          LabView C Code Generator     Development Boards          LPCXpresso          IAR KickStart Kit for LPC1114          LPC1114 Cortex-M0 Stamp Module          Keil Cortex-M0 Boards Appendix A: Instruction Set Summary Appendix B: Cortex-M0 Exception Type Quick Reference Appendix C: CMSIS Quick Reference Appendix D: NVIC, SCB, and SysTick Registers Quick Reference Appendix E: Debug Registers Quick Reference Appendix F: Debug Connector Arrangement Appendix G: Linker Script for CodeSourcery G++ Lite Appendix H: Example Code Files Appendix I: Troubleshooting Index
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