Handbook of Loss Prevention and Crime Prevention

Handbook of Loss Prevention and Crime Prevention, 5th Edition

Handbook of Loss Prevention and Crime Prevention, 5th Edition,Lawrence Fennelly,ISBN9780123852465






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A comprehensive volume bringing together the expertise of over forty security and crime prevention experts!

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Key Features

  • Covers every important topic in the field, including the latest on wireless security applications, data analysis and visualization, situational crime prevention, and global security standards and compliance issues
  • Required reading for the certification DHS selected for its infrastructure security professionals
  • Each chapter is contributed by a top security professional with subject-matter expertise


The Handbook of Loss Prevention and Crime Prevention, 5e, is a trusted resource for physical security professionals, students, and candidates for the coveted Certified Protection Professional (CPP) certification administered by ASIS International. The U.S. government recently announced that employees will have to obtain CPP certification to advance in their careers.

Edited by the security practitioner and author Lawrence Fennelly, this handbook gathers in a single volume the key information on each topic from eminent subject-matter experts. Taken together, this material offers a range of approaches for defining security problems and tools for designing solutions in a world increasingly characterized by complexity and chaos. The 5e adds cutting-edge content and up-to-the-minute practical examples of its application to problems from retail crime to disaster readiness.


Certification candidates for ASIS CPP credentials; security professionals; students in Security Management and Criminal Justice programs in traditional and for-profit schools

Lawrence Fennelly

Lawrence J. Fennelly is an internationally recognized authority on crime prevention, security planning and analysis, and on the study of how environmental factors (CPTED), physical hardware, alarms, lighting, site design, management practices, litigation consultants, security policies and procedures, and guard management contribute to criminal victimization. Mr. Fennelly was previously employed with Apollo Security, Computershare, Inc., as well as a sergeant at Harvard College, employed by the Harvard University Police Department in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was trained as a crime prevention specialist and served in this capacity for over 21 years at Harvard. He was also the department’s training officer and assistant court officer. As part of his role as an officer at Harvard, Larry also was a deputy sheriff in both Suffolk and Middlesex counties (Massachusetts). Mr. Fennelly is a frequent speaker and lecturer on CPTED, physical security, school crime, and other issues. He serves as an expert witness who works closely with attorneys in defense as well as plaintiff cases, assisting in case preparation, offering knowledgeable questions to ask the opposing side, etc. He has also done a considerable amount of consultant work throughout the United States. His experience ranges from identifying vulnerabilities to conducting security and lighting surveys, working with architects to design and implement security, and developing long range guard training programs and risk assessments of various facilities. He is also a prolific author. His titles include such well-known security books as "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design," "Effective Physical Security," and "Handbook of Loss Prevention and Crime Prevention."

Affiliations and Expertise

Expert witness and consultant in security, Litigation Consultants Inc.

View additional works by Lawrence Fennelly

Handbook of Loss Prevention and Crime Prevention, 5th Edition




PART I. Approaches to Crime Prevention & Loss Prevention

Chapter 1. Introduction to Vulnerability Assessment

Risk Management and Vulnerability Assessment

Risk Assessment and the Vulnerability Assessment Process

Statistics and Quantitative Analysis

Vulnerability Assessment Process Overview

Reporting and Using the Vulnerability Assessment

Systems Engineering and Vulnerability Assessment


Chapter 2. Vulnerability Assessment Process Inputs — Establish Protection Objectives

Defining the Threat

Asset Identification

Facility Characterization


Chapter 3. Designing Security and Working with Architects

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

CPTED Planning and Design Review2

Physical Security Systems

Glossary of Terms*

Chapter 4. Designing Crime Risk Management Systems

Understanding Crime Risk Management

Who is the Manager?

The Place Manager–Practitioner Relationship

Crime Pattern Analysis

Conducting the Security Survey

Determination of Probable Maximum Loss

Making Recommendations to Place Managers


Chapter 5. Approaches to Physical Security

Levels of Physical Security

The Value of Planning

Physical Barriers

The Security Plan


Chapter 6. Security Surveys and the Audit

The Best Time to Conduct the Survey

Why Conduct a Security Review

Classification of Survey Recommendations

Developing Security Points

Nine Points of Security Concern

Personality of the Complex

Positive and Negative Aspects of making Recommendations

Crime Analysis

Key Control

Digital Closed-Circuit Television

Intrusion Alarms

Lighting and Security

Other Security Aspects

Security Survey Follow-Up

Residential Security

Home Security Checklist

Top Ten Security Threats

The Audit

Appendix 6.A Site Survey and Risk Assessment*

Appendix 6.B Physical Security Survey*

Appendix 6.C Plant Security Checklist*

Appendix 6.D Security Officers Checklist*

Appendix 6.E Office Security Checklist

Appendix 6.F Home Security Checklist*

Appendix 6.G Fire Safety Inspection

Appendix 6.H Bullet-Resistant Glazing for a Secure Workplace

Appendix 6.I Window Film

Chapter 7. CPTED in the Twenty-First Century

The Transition to the Future of CPTED

CPTED in the New Millennium

CPTED Applications

Objectives for Commercial Environment

Downtown Streets and Pedestrian Areas

The Three-D Approach

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design2

Defensible Space

Crime-Prevention Model

The Environmental Influence on Criminal Behavior

Chapter 8. Environmental Criminology and Crime Control


Twenty-Five Techniques of Situational CRIME Prevention

Four Components of Situational Crime Prevention, Part II


Chapter 9. Problem Solving — Community Policing

What is a Problem?

What is Community Policing?

The Sara Problem-Solving Model

Chapter 10. Neighborhood Watch Guidelines for the Twenty-First Century


Ten Secrets of Neighborhood Watch

The Practitioner

Safety Checklist for Apartments

Robbery Prevention — Tips for Small Business

Burglary Prevention — Tips for Small Business

Suspicious Situations to Report

Vehicle Theft — A Big Problem

Safety Skills for Children

Street Smarts — How to Protect Yourself

The Con Artist

Crime Prevention Tips for Senior Citizens

Take Action — Stop the Violence

Protection from Telemarketing Fraud

Crime Prevention Tips At ATMs

Chapter 11. Situational Crime Prevention and Opportunity Blocking


Opportunity Blocking

Sixteen Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention in Public Housing

Crime Control Strategy and Tactics

Chapter 12. Design and Evaluation of Physical Protection Systems

Safety Versus Security


Process Overview

Physical Protection System Design

PPS Functions

Design Goals

Design Criteria


Physical Protection System Design and the Relationship to Risk


Chapter 13. Planning, Management, and Evaluation

The Concepts Defined

Statistical Information: The Backbone for Design of a Prevention Program

Crime Statistics

Demographic Data

Efficiency Analysis: Measuring Activity

Effectiveness Analysis: Measuring Program Impact

Attitudinal Analysis: Gathering Opinions on the Program Impact

A Strategy to Facilitate Implementation of the Evaluation

Chapter 14. Crime Analysis


Don’t be Discouraged by the Displacement Doomsters

Pay Attention to Daily and Weekly Rhythms

Identify Risky Facilities

Chapter 15. Standards, Regulations and Guidelines





Managing Compliance


PART II. Security Operations, Tools, and Technology

Chapter 16. Access Control, Access Badges, and Biometrics Characteristics

Access Control

Designated Restricted Areas

Degree of Security


Employee Screening

Identification System

ID Methods

Mechanized/Automated Systems

Card/Badge Specifications

Visitor Identification and Control


Enforcement Measures

Sign/Countersign and Code Word

Duress Code

Access-Control Rosters

Methods of Control

Security Controls of Packages, Personal Property, and Vehicles

Tactical-Environment Considerations

Biometrics Characteristics2

Chapter 17. Alarms

Components of Alarm Systems


Alarm Equipment Overhaul

Additional Resources


Glossary for Alarm Systems*

Appendix 17.A Smoke Detectors

Appendix 17.B Alarm Certificate Services Glossary of Terms Certificate Types*

Appendix 17.C Fire Classifications

Chapter 18. Video Technology Overview


The Video System

The Camera Function

Scene Illumination

Scene Characteristics





Quads and Multiplexers



Hard-Copy Video Printers

Ancillary Equipment


Glossary for CCTV

Chapter 19. Security Lighting



Twenty-Five Things you Need to Know About Lighting7

Energy Management

Lighting Definitions

Web Sites

Appendix 19.A Lighting Description

Chapter 20. Information Technology Systems Infrastructure


Basics of TCP/IP and Signal Communications


User Datagram Protocol

Networking Devices

Network Infrastructure Devices


Network Architecture

Network Configurations

Creating Network Efficiencies

Digital Video

Digital Resolution

Frame Rates

Display Issues

Managing Data Systems Throughput

System Architecture

Interfacing to other Enterprise Information Technology Systems


Chapter 21. Information Security


Three Basic Categories of Information

Determining the Value of Information

Case Study — A Process for Determining Information Value

The Protection of Automated Information and High-Technology Equipment

IAPS Organization Responsibilities

IAPS Management Job Description

IAPS Staff Job Descriptions

Information Assurance and Protection Program (IAPP)


Chapter 22. Protective Barriers


Perimeter Entrances

Barrier Planning

Fence Standards

Types of Security Fences


Chapter 23. Physical Barriers





Walls and Moats

Chapter 24. Fence Standards


Security Planning

Material Specifications

Design Features and Considerations

Typical Design Example

Chapter 25. The Use of Locks in Physical Crime Prevention

Lock Terminology and Components

Key-Operated Mechanisms

Combination Locks

Lock Bodies

Door Lock Types


Attacks and Countermeasures

Locks and the Systems Approach to Security

Appendix 25.A Key Control*

Appendix 25.B Key Control and Lock Security Checklist*

Appendix 25.C Terms and Definitions for Door and Window Security*

Chapter 26. Safes, Vaults, and Accessories

Choose The Right Container

UL-Rated Combination Locks

Relocking Devices

Locking Dials

Lockable Handles

Time Locks

Time-Delay Combination Locks

Alarmed Combination Locks

Vision-Restricting and Shielded Dials

Combination Changing

Safe Burglaries

Overcoming Safe-Opening Problems

Appendix 26.A Rating Files, Safes, and Vaults*

Chapter 27. Guard Service in the Twenty-First Century

Liabilities Connected with a Security Force

Power and Authority of the Security Guard


Report Writing

Weapons Safety


Bomb Threats

Bomb Search

Fire Protection

Fire Prevention

Emergency Medical Assistance

Reporting a Medical Case

Security Officer Supervision

Techniques for Setting the Example

Expanded Security Officer Training Program

Determining Adequate Levels of Security Staffing


Chapter 28. Internal Theft Controls


What is Honesty?

The Dishonest Employee

Program for Internal Security

Procedural Controls

When Controls Fail

Case Study


Chapter 29. Bomb Threats and Physical Security Planning


Bomb Threats

Why Prepare?

How to Prepare

Security Against Bomb Incidents

Responding to Bomb Threats

Decision Time


Search Teams

When a Suspicious Object is Located

Handling The News Media


Appendix 29.A Suspect Package Alert*

Appendix 29.B Bomb Threat Checklist*

Appendix 29.C Mail Handlers and Suspicious Mail Procedures

Chapter 30. Perspectives on Safe School Administration

Emphasize Crime and Deviance Prevention during Teacher Education

Maintain a Sense of Ownership in School Grounds and the Surrounding Neighborhood

Conduct Periodic Risk Assessments or Security Surveys and Audits

Clearly State Rules and Regulations

Conduct a Crime and Deviance Analysis

Develop an Incident Mapping System

Utilize Parent Volunteers as Monitors and Student Aides

Institute After-School Programs

Security Considerations should be Incorporated from the “Ground Up”

Establish In-Class Communication between Teachers and Administration

Institute a Safety and Security Committee

Value the Contributions of Custodial Personnel

Train Personnel in Graffiti Interpretation

Schools need Central Office Support

Value Aesthetics

Foster Students’ Beliefs they are connected to the School

Do not Use Student Monitors

The “Combustible Engine” Model of School Communities

Create a Crisis Management Plan

Train Personnel in Conflict Resolution

Implement Character Education Curricula

Create Law-Related Education Modules to be Incorporated in Social Studies Courses

Establish “Communities within Schools”

Avoid Peer-Group Counseling

Anti-Bullying Efforts

Chapter 31. Campus Security and Crime Prevention


Key Elements in a Campus Crime Prevention Program


Cycle of Activity

Specific Programs

The Campus Security Act of 1990

Neighborhood Watch on the College Campus

Information, Notification, and Emergency Communication

Thefts in the Library

Bicycle Theft Prevention

Administration Office Security Programs

Operation Identification

Intrusion Alarms



Chapter 32. Domestic Violence

What is Domestic Violence?

Who are the Victims?

Why Abusers Abuse

What we do Know

Law Enforcement Response

Options for Protection

Government Involvement


Chapter 33. Proprietary Information


Data Protection


Chapter 34. Identity Theft

Identity Theft1

Understanding your Local Problem2

Understanding your Local Problem3

Executive Summary4 Federal Trade Commission — 2004 National and State Trends in Fraud and Identity Theft

Chapter 35. Retail Security-Employee Theft


Cash Refund Fraud

Fraud Refunds to Third-Party Credit Cards

Fraud Refunds to House Credit Cards

Fraud Refunds for Store Credit

Fraud Voids

Stolen Credit Cards

Chapter 36. High-Rise Security


Occupancy Characteristics

Assets, Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Countermeasures

Security Programs

Emergency Planning


Key Terms

Additional Reading

Chapter 37. Multi-Residential Security



Levels of Security


Physical Security and Hardware


The Elderly

Some Special Areas of Vulnerability



Basic Steps to Remember in Multi-Residential Security

Chapter 38. Lodging Hospitality Security

Security Department Structure

Size of the Department

Reporting Level in the Organization

Role of Security



Opportunities and Trends

Legal Issues

The Future of Lodging Security

Chapter 39. Computer and Transportation Systems Security

Security is Flawed


Chapter 40. The Security Professional, Terrorism, Bioterrorism, and the Next Level

The Security Professional and Terrorism

Terrorism and the Terrorist

Understanding Terrorism

Terrorist Groups and Organizational Structure

Mechanism of Violence and Associated Risk Factors

Assessing Threats from Terrorism and Developing Effective Countermeasures

The Security Manager’s Responsibilities


Chapter 41. Contingency Planning


Contingency Planning Program

Emergency Response Planning

Crisis Management

Business Continuity Planning


Chapter 42. Emergency Preparedness — Planning and Management

Basics of Emergency Planning

Primary Man-Made Emergency Events

Accidental and Natural Emergency Events

General Administrative and Operational Issues


Glossary of Terms for Emergency Preparedness*

Chapter 43. Broadband Industry Fraud

A Case Study Overview

Chapter 44. Cargo Security

Prevention Plan



Organized Crime

Cargo Package and Movement Controls

Trucking Operations

Appendix 44.A Cargo Security Checklist

Appendix 44.B Personnel Security Checklist

Appendix 44.C Physical Security Checklist

Appendix 44.D Inspection Report Forms

Appendix 44.E Documentation

Appendix 44.F The Role of Private Security1

Chapter 45. Corporate Policy and Procedures

Hotel Employee Manual

Security Department Manual



Quotes and reviews

"Larry Fennelly continues to provide the content that ensures his book will be on the front of any professional security managers practitioner’s bookshelf.  This edition brings the reader the up to date with the materials and subjects needed to solve current security problems. No security practitioner’s library is complete without this handbook." --Joseph C. Nelson, CPP, Assistant Vice President, State Street Global Security

"As usual, Larry Fennelly has written a comprehensive, practical guide--one that belongs on the bookshelf of the serious security practitioner. The book is readable, interesting and up to date in all respects." --John J. Fay, CPP, former Director of the National Crime Prevention Institute

"I have been extremely impressed with the evolution of the content as this book moves into its next generation. It is very comprehensive and well written. The new edition now includes real time academic reference material and makes it usable as a university textbook." --Mark H. Beaudry, CPP

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