The UX Book, 1st Edition

Process and Guidelines for Ensuring a Quality User Experience

The UX Book, 1st Edition,Rex Hartson,Pardha Pyla,ISBN9780123852410


Morgan Kaufmann




235 X 191

The comprehensive guide to understanding, assimilating, applying, and practicing UX, the user experience discipline

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Key Features

  • A very broad approach to user experience through its components—usability, usefulness, and emotional impact with special attention to lightweight methods such as rapid UX evaluation techniques and an agile UX development process
  • Universal applicability of processes, principles, and guidelines—not just for GUIs and the Web, but for all kinds of interaction and devices: embodied interaction, mobile devices, ATMs, refrigerators, and elevator controls, and even highway signage
  • Extensive design guidelines applied in the context of the various kinds of affordances necessary to support all aspects of interaction
  • Real-world stories and contributions from accomplished UX practitioners
  • A practical guide to best practices and established principles in UX
  • A lifecycle template that can be instantiated and tailored to a given project, for a given type of system development, on a given budget


The UX Book: Process and Guidelines for Ensuring a Quality User Experience aims to help readers learn how to create and refine interaction designs that ensure a quality user experience (UX). The book seeks to expand the concept of traditional usability to a broader notion of user experience; to provide a hands-on, practical guide to best practices and established principles in a UX lifecycle; and to describe a pragmatic process for managing the overall development effort. The book provides an iterative and evaluation-centered UX lifecycle template, called the Wheel, for interaction design. Key concepts discussed include contextual inquiry and analysis; extracting interaction design requirements; constructing design-informing models; design production; UX goals, metrics, and targets; prototyping; UX evaluation; the interaction cycle and the user action framework; and UX design guidelines. This book will be useful to anyone interested in learning more about creating interaction designs to ensure a quality user experience. These include interaction designers, graphic designers, usability analysts, software engineers, programmers, systems analysts, software quality-assurance specialists, human factors engineers, cognitive psychologists, cosmic psychics, trainers, technical writers, documentation specialists, marketing personnel, and project managers.


usability practitioners, experienced practitioners, project managers, usability and user experience consultants, software engineers, programmers, software testers, graduate and senior undergraduate students in user experience-related courses

Rex Hartson

Rex Hartson is a pioneer researcher, teacher, and practitioner-consultant in HCI and UX. He is the founding faculty member of HCI (in 1979) in the Department of Computer Science at Virginia Tech. With Deborah Hix, he was co-author of one of the first books to emphasize the usability engineering process, Developing user interfaces: Ensuring usability through product & process. Hartson has been principle investigator or co-PI at Virginia Tech on a large number of research grants and has published many journal articles, conference papers, and book chapters. He has presented many tutorials, invited lectures, workshops, seminars, and international talks. He was editor or co-editor for Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, Volumes 1-4, Ablex Publishing Co., Norwood, NJ. His HCI practice is grounded in over 30 years of consulting and user experience engineering training for dozens of clients in business, industry, government, and the military.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Computer Science, Virginia Tech

Pardha Pyla

Pardha S. Pyla is a Senior User Experience Specialist and Interaction Design Team Lead at Bloomberg LP. Before that he was a researcher and a UX consultant. As an adjunct faculty member in the Department of Computer Science at Virginia Tech he worked on user experience methodologies and taught graduate and undergraduate courses in HCI and Software Engineering. He is a pioneer researcher in the area of bridging the gaps between software engineering and UX engineering lifecycle processes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior User Experience Specialist and Lead Interaction Designer for Mobile Platforms, Bloomberg LP

The UX Book, 1st Edition

Preface Acknowledgments Guiding Principles for the UX Practitioner Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Ubiquitous interaction 1.2 Emerging desire for usability 1.3 From usability to user experience 1.4 Emotional impact as part of the user experience 1.5 User experience needs a business case 1.6 Roots of usability Chapter 2: The Wheel: A Lifecycle Template 2.1 Introduction 2.2 A UX process lifecycle template 2.3 Choosing a process instance for your project 2.4 The system complexity space 2.5 Meet the user interface team 2.6 Scope of UX presence within the team 2.7 More about UX lifecycles Chapter 3: Contextual Inquiry: Eliciting Work Activity Data 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The system concept statement 3.3 User work activity data gathering 3.4 Look for emotional aspects of work practice 3.5 Abridged contextual inquiry process 3.6 Data-driven vs. model-driven inquiry 3.7 History Chapter 4: Contextual Analysis: Consolidating and Interpreting Work Activity Data 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Organizing concepts: work roles and flow model 4.3 Creating and managing work activity notes 4.4 Constructing your work activity affinity diagram (WAAD) 4.5 Abridged contextual analysis process 4.6 History of affinity diagrams Chapter 5: Extracting Interaction Design Requirements 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Needs and requirements: first span of the bridge 5.3 Formal requirements extraction 5.4 Abridged methods for requirements extraction Chapter 6: Constructing Design-Informing Models 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Design-informing models: second span of the bridge 6.3 Some general “how to” suggestions 6.4 A New example domain: slideshow presentations 6.5 User models 6.6 Usage models 6.7 Work environment models 6.8 Barrier summaries 6.9 Model consolidation 6.10 Protecting your sources 6.11 Abridged methods for design-informing models extraction 6.12 Roots of essential use cases in software use cases Chapter 7: Design Thinking, Ideation, and Sketching 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Design paradigms 7.3 Design thinking 7.4 Design perspectives 7.5 User personas 7.6 Ideation 7.7 Sketching 7.8 More about phenomenology Chapter 8: Mental Models and Conceptual Design 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Mental models 8.3 Conceptual design 8.4 Storyboards 8.5 Design influencing user behavior 8.6 Design for embodied interaction 8.7 Ubiquitous and situated interaction Chapter 9: Design Production 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Macro view of lifecycle iterations for design 9.3 Intermediate design 9.4 Detailed design 9.5 Wireframes 9.6 Maintain a custom style guide 9.7 Interaction design specifications 9.8 More about participatory design Chapter 10: UX Goals, Metrics, and Targets 10.1 Introduction 10.2 UX goals 10.3 UX target tables 10.4 Work roles, user classes, and UX goals 10.5 UX measures 10.6 Measuring instruments 10.7 UX metrics 10.8 Baseline level 10.9 Target level 10.10 Setting levels 10.11 Observed results 10.12 Practical tips and cautions for creating UX targets 10.13 How UX targets help manage the user experience engineering process 10.14 An abridged approach to UX goals, metrics, and targets Chapter 11: Prototyping 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Depth and breadth of a prototype 11.3 Fidelity of prototypes 11.4 Interactivity of prototypes 11.5 Choosing the right breadth, depth, level of fidelity, and amount of interactivity 11.6 Paper prototypes 11.7 Advantages of and cautions about using prototypes 11.8 Prototypes in transition to the product 11.9 Software tools for prototyping Chapter 12: UX Evaluation Introduction 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Formative vs. summative evaluation 12.3 Types of formative and informal summative evaluation methods 12.4 Types of evaluation data 12.5 Some data collection techniques 12.6 Variations in formative evaluation results Chapter 13: Rapid Evaluation Methods 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Design walkthroughs and reviews 13.3 UX Inspection 13.4 Heuristic evaluation, a UX inspection method 13.5 Our practical approach to UX Inspection 13.6 Do UX Evaluation rite 13.7 Quasi-empirical UX evaluation 13.8 Questionnaires 13.9 Specialized rapid UX evaluation methods 13.10 More about “discount” UX engineering methods Chapter 14: Rigorous Empirical Evaluation: Preparation 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Plan for rigorous empirical UX evaluation 14.3 Team roles for rigorous evaluation 14.4 Prepare an effective range of tasks 14.5 Select and adapt evaluation method and data collection techniques 14.6 Select participants 14.7 Recruit participants 14.8 Prepare for participants 14.9 Do final pilot testing: fix your wobbly wheels 14.10 More about determining the right number of participants Chapter 15: Rigorous Empirical Evaluation: Running the Session 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Preliminaries with participants 15.3 Protocol issues 15.4 Generating and collecting quantitative UX data 15.5 Generating and collecting qualitative UX data 15.6 Generating and collecting emotional impact data 15.7 Generating and collecting phenomenological evaluation data 15.8 Wrapping up an evaluation session 15.9 The humaine project Chapter 16: Rigorous Empirical Evaluation: Analysis 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Informal summative (quantitative) data analysis 16.3 Analysis of subjective questionnaire data 16.4 Formative (qualitative) data analysis 16.5 Cost-importance analysis: prioritizing problems to fix 16.6 Feedback to process 16.7 Lessons from the field Chapter 17: Evaluation Reporting 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Reporting informal summative results 17.3 Reporting qualitative formative results 17.4 Formative reporting content 17.5 Formative reporting audience, needs, goals, and context of use Chapter 18: Wrapping up Evaluation UX 18.1 Goal-directed UX evaluation 18.2 Choose your UX evaluation methods 18.3 Focus on the essentials 18.4 Parting thoughts: be flexible and avoid dogma during UX evaluation 18.5 Connecting back to the lifecycle Chapter 19: UX Methods for Agile Development 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Basics of agile SE methods 19.3 Drawbacks of agile SE methods from the UX perspective 19.4 What is needed on the UX side 19.5 Problems to anticipate 19.6 A synthesized approach to integrating UX Chapter 20: Affordances Demystified 20.1 What are affordances? 20.2 A little background 20.3 Four kinds of affordances in UX design 20.4 Affordances in interaction design 20.5 False cognitive affordances misinform and mislead 20.6 User-created affordances as a wake-up call to designers 20.7 Emotional affordances Chapter 21: The Interaction Cycle and the User Action Framework 21.1 Introduction 21.2 The interaction cycle 21.3 The user action framework-adding a structured knowledge base to the interaction cycle 21.4 Interaction cycle and user action framework content categories 21.5 Role of affordances within the UAF 21.6 Practical value of UAF Chapter 22: UX Design Guidelines 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Using and interpreting design guidelines 22.3 Human memory limitations 22.4 Selected UX design guidelines and examples 22.5 Planning 22.6 Translation 22.7 Physical actions 22.8 Outcomes 22.9 Assessment 22.10 Overall 22.11 Conclusions Chapter 23: Connections with Software Engineering 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Locus of influence in an organization 23.3 Which scenario is right for you? 23.4 Foundations for success in SE-UX development 23.5 The challenge of connecting SE and UX 23.6 The ripple model to connect SE and UX 23.7 Conclusions Chapter 24: Making It Work in the Real World 24.1 Putting it to work as a new practitioner 24.2 Be a smart UX practitioner 24.3 UX professionalism 24.4 Cost-justifying UX 24.5 UX within your organization 24.6 Parting words References Exercises Index

Quotes and reviews

"The book is brimming with advanced knowledge for perfecting written communication in our mobile digital age… If you write anything at all (you send emails, don’t you?), you need to grab a copy of Letting Go of the Words and keep it close at hand…This book has joined my writer’s bookshelf as a valued aid I refer to every day.", January 21, 2014

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