Analog Circuit Design, 1st Edition

A Tutorial Guide to Applications and Solutions

 
Analog Circuit Design, 1st Edition,Bob Dobkin,Jim Williams,ISBN9780123851857
 
 
 

Dobkin   &   Williams   

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9780123851857

9780123851864

960

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This compilation of Linear Technology’s renowned App Notes covers everything electronics designers need to know about analog integrated circuit design

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Key Features

  • Covers the fundamentals of linear/analog circuit and system design to guide engineers with their design challenges
  • Based on the Application Notes of Linear Technology, the foremost designer of high performance analog products, readers will gain practical insights into design techniques and practice
  • Broad range of topics, including power management tutorials, switching regulator design, linear regulator design, data conversion, signal conditioning, and high frequency/RF design
  • Contributors include the leading lights in analog design, Robert Dobkin, Jim Williams and Carl Nelson, among others

Description

Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions will aid systems designers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common circuit design challenges. The book’s in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today’s demanding designs.

Online support package, including LTspiceÒ software, Design Notes, plus videos and data sheets can be found at: www.elsevierdirect.com/companions/9780123851857

Readership

Electronics engineers and designers; electronics technicians; engineering students; electronics hobbyists, circuit designers, electrical engineers, instrumentation engineers, or electrical engineering students

Bob Dobkin

Bob Dobkin is a founder and Chief Technical Officer of Linear Technology Corporation. Prior to 1999, he was responsible for all new product development at Linear. Before founding Linear Technology in 1981, Dobkin was Director of Advanced Circuit Development at National Semiconductor for eleven years. He has been intimately involved in the development of high performance linear integrated circuits for over 30 years and has generated many industry standard circuits. Dobkin holds over 100 patents pertaining to linear ICs and has authored over 50 articles and papers. He attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Linear Technology Corporation, Milpitas, CA, USA

View additional works by Bob Dobkin

Jim Williams

Jim Williams, who worked for Linear Technology for nearly three decades, was a talented and prolific circuit designer and author in the field of analog electronics until his untimely passing in 2011. In nearly 30 years with Linear, he had the unique role of staff scientist with interests spanning product definition, development and support. Before joining Linear Technology in 1982, Williams worked in National Semiconductor’s Linear Integrated Circuits Group for three years. Williams was a legendary circuit designer, problem solver, mentor and writer with writings published as Linear application notes and EDN magazine articles. In addition, he was writer/editor of four books. Williams was named Innovator of the Year by EDN magazine in 1992, elected to Electronic Design Hall of Fame in 2002, and was honored posthumously by EDN and EE Times in 2012 as the first recipient of the Jim Williams Contributor of the Year Award.

Affiliations and Expertise

Linear Technology Corporation, Milpitas, California

View additional works by Jim Williams

Analog Circuit Design, 1st Edition

Dedication

Dedication

Publisher’s Note

Trademarks

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Why write applications?

Foreword

Part 1: Power Management

Section 1. Power Management Tutorials

1. Ceramic input capacitors can cause overvoltage transients

Plug in the wall adapter at your own risk

Building the Test Circuit

Turning on the switch

Testing a portable application

Input voltage transients with different input elements

Optimizing Input Capacitors

Conclusion

2. Minimizing switching regulator residue in linear regulator outputs: Banishing those accursed spikes

Introduction

References

3. Power conditioning for notebook and palmtop systems

Introduction

Battery charging

Power supplies for palmtop computers

4. 2-Wire virtual remote sensing for voltage regulators: Clairvoyance marries remote sensing

Introduction

“Virtual” remote sensing

Applications

VRS linear regulators

VRS equipped switching regulators

VRS based isolated switching supplies

VRS halogen lamp drive circuit

References

Section 2. Switching Regulator Design

5. LT1070 design manual

Introduction

Preface

LT1070 operation

Pin functions

Basic switching regulator topologies

Application circuits

Negative buck converter

Negative-to-positive buck-boost converter

Positive buck converter

Flyback converter

Totally isolated converter

Positive current-boosted buck converter

Negative current-boosted buck converter

Negative input/negative output flyback converter

Positive-to-negative flyback converter

Voltage-boosted boost converter

Negative boost converter

Positive-to-negative buck boost converter

Current-boosted boost converter

Forward converter

Frequency compensation

External current limiting

Driving external transistors

Output rectifying diode

Input filters

Efficiency calculations

Output filters

Input and output capacitors

Inductor and transformer basics

Heat sinking information

Troubleshooting hints

Warning

Subharmonic oscillations

Inductor/transformer manufacturers

Core manufacturers

Bibliography

6. Switching regulators for poets: A gentle guide for the trepidatious

Basic flyback regulator

−48V to 5V telecom flyback regulator

Fully-isolated telecom flyback regulator

100W off-line switching regulator

Switch-controlled motor speed controller

Switch-controlled peltier 0°C reference

Acknowledgments

7. Step-down switching regulators

Basic step down circuit

Practical step-down switching regulator

Dual output step-down regulator

Negative output regulators

Current-boosted step-down regulator

Post regulation-fixed case

Post regulation-variable case

Low quiescent current regulators

Wide range, high power, high voltage regulator

Regulated sinewave output DC/AC converter

References

8. A monolithic switching regulator with 100μV output noise: “Silence is the perfectest herald of joy ...”

Introduction

References

9. Powering complex FPGA-based systems using highly integrated DC/DC μModule regulator systems: Part 1 of 2 Circuit and electrical performance

Innovation in DC/DC design

DC/DC μModule Regulators: Complete Systems in an LGA Package

48A from four parallel DC/DC μModule regulators

Start-up, soft-start and current sharing

Conclusion

10. Powering complex FPGA-based systems using highly integrated DC/DC µModule regulator systems: Part 2 of 2 Thermal performance and layout

60W by paralleling four DC/DC μModule regulators

Thermal performance

Simple copy and paste layout

Conclusion

11. Diode turn-on time induced failures in switching regulators: Never Has so Much Trouble Been Had By so Many with so Few Terminals

Introduction

Diode turn-on time perspectives

Detailed measurement scheme

Diode Testing and Interpreting Results

References

Section 3. Linear Regulator Design

12. Performance verification of low noise, low dropout regulators: Silence of the amps

Introduction

Noise and noise testing

Noise testing considerations

Instrumentation performance verification

Regulator noise measurement

Bypass capacitor (CBYP) influence

Interpreting comparative results

References

Section 4. High Voltage and High Current Applications

13. Parasitic capacitance effects in step-up transformer design

14. High efficiency, high density, PolyPhase converters for high current applications

Introduction

How do PolyPhase techniques affect circuit performance?

Design considerations

Design example: 100A PolyPhase power supply

Summary

Section 5. Powering Lasers and Illumination Devices

15. Ultracompact LCD backlight inverters: A svelte beast cuts high voltage down to size

Introduction

References

16. A thermoelectric cooler temperature controller for fiber optic lasers: Climatic pampering for temperamental lasers

Introduction

Temperature Controller Requirements

Temperature Controller Details

Thermal Loop Considerations

Temperature Control Loop Optimization

Temperature Stability Verification

Reflected Noise Performance

References

17. Current sources for fiber optic lasers: A compendium of pleasant current events

Introduction

References

18. Bias voltage and current sense circuits for avalanche photodiodes: Feeding and reading the APD

Introduction

Summary

References

Section 6. Automotive and Industrial Power Design

19. Developments in battery stack voltage measurement: A simple solution to a not so simple problem

The battery stack problem

Transformer based sampling voltmeter

Detailed circuit operation

Multi-cell version

Automatic control and calibration

Firmware description

Measurement details

Adding more channels

References

Part 2: Data conversion, signal conditioning and high frequency/RF

Section 1. Data Conversion

20. Some techniques for direct digitization of transducer outputs

21. The care and feeding of high performance ADCs: get all the bits you paid for

Introduction

An ADC has many “inputs”

Ground planes and grounding

Supply bypassing

Reference bypassing

Driving the analog input

Choosing an op amp

Driving the convert-start input

Routing the data outputs

Conclusion

22. A standards lab grade 20-bit DAC with 0.1ppm/°C drift: The dedicated art of digitizing one part per million

Introduction

References

23. Delta sigma ADC bridge measurement techniques

Introduction

Low cost, precision altimeter uses direct digitization

How Many Bits?

Increasing Resolution with Amplifiers

How Much Gain?

ADC Response to Amplifier Noise

How Many Bits?

Faster or More Resolution with the LTC2440

How Many Bits?

24. 1ppm settling time measurement for a monolithic 18-bit DAC: When does the last angel stop dancing on a speeding pinhead?

Introduction

DAC settling time

Considerations for measuring DAC settling time

Sampling based high resolution DAC settling time measurement

Developing a sampling switch

Electronic switch equivalents

Transconductance amplifier based switch equivalent

DAC settling time measurement method

Detailed settling time circuitry

Settling time circuit performance

Using the sampling-based settling time circuit

References

Section 2. Signal Conditioning

25. Applications for a switched-capacitor instrumentation building block

Instrumentation amplifier

Ultrahigh performance instrumentation amplifier

Lock-in amplifier

Wide range, digitally controlled, variable gain amplifier

Precision, linearized platinum RTD signal conditioner

Relative humidity sensor signal conditioner

LVDT signal conditioner

Charge pump F→V and V→F converters

12-bit A→D converter

Miscellaneous circuits

Voltage-controlled current source—grounded source and load

Current sensing in supply rails

0.01% analog multiplier

Inverting a reference

Low power, 5 V driven, temperature compensated crystal oscillator

Simple thermometer

High current, “inductorless,” switching regulator

26. Application considerations and circuits for a new chopper-stabilized op amp

Applications

Standard grade variable voltage reference

Ultra-precision instrumentation amplifier

High performance isolation amplifier

Stabilized, low input capacitance buffer (FET probe)

Chopper-stabilized comparator

Stabilized data converter

Wide range V→F converter

1Hz to 30MHz V→F converter

16-bit A/D converter

Simple remote thermometer

Output stages

References

27. Designing linear circuits for 5V single supply operation

Linearized RTD signal conditioner

Linearized output methane detector

Cold junction compensated thermocouple signal conditioner

5V powered precision instrumentation amplifier

5V powered strain gauge signal conditioner

“Tachless” motor speed controller

4-20mA current loop transmitter

Fully isolated limit comparator

Fully isolated 10-bit A/D converter

28. Application considerations for an instrumentation lowpass filter

Description

Tuning the LTC1062

LTC1062 clock requirements

Internal oscillator

Clock feedthrough

Single 5V supply operation

Dynamic range and signal/noise ratio

Step response and burst response

LTC1062 shows little aliasing

Cascading the LTC1062

Using the LTC1062 to create a notch

Comments on capacitor types

Clock circuits

Acknowledgement

29. Micropower circuits for signal conditioning

Platinum RTD signal conditioner

Thermocouple signal conditioner

Sampled strain gauge signal conditioner

Strobed operation strain gauge bridge signal conditioner

Thermistor signal conditioner for current loop application

Microampere drain wall thermostat

Freezer alarm

12-Bit A/D converter

10-Bit, 100μA A/D converter

20μs sample-hold

10kHz voltage-to-frequency converter

1MHz voltage-to-frequency converter

Switching regulator

Post regulated micropower switching regulator

30. Thermocouple measurement

Introduction

Thermocouples in perspective

Signal conditioning issues

Cold junction compensation

Amplifier selection

Additional circuit considerations

Differential thermocouple amplifiers

Isolated thermocouple amplifiers

Digital output thermocouple isolator

Linearization techniques

References

31. Take the mystery out of the switched-capacitor filter: The system designer’s filter compendium

Introduction

Circuit board layout considerations

Power supplies

Input considerations

Filter response

Filter sensitivity

Output considerations

Clock circuitry

Conclusions

Bibliography

32. Bridge circuits: Marrying gain and balance

Resistance bridges

Bridge output amplifiers

DC bridge circuit applications

Common mode suppression techniques

Single supply common mode suppression circuits

Switched-capacitor based instrumentation amplifiers

Optically coupled switched-capacitor instrumentation amplifier

Platinum RTD resistance bridge circuits

Digitally corrected platinum resistance bridge

Thermistor bridge

Low power bridge circuits

Strobed power bridge drive

Sampled output bridge signal conditioner

Continuous output sampled bridge signal conditioner

High resolution continuous output sampled bridge signal conditioner

AC driven bridge/synchronous demodulator

AC driven bridge for level transduction

Time domain bridge

Bridge oscillator—square wave output

Quartz stabilized bridge oscillator

Sine wave output quartz stabilized bridge oscillator

Wien bridge-based oscillators

Diode bridge-based 2.5MHz precision rectifier/AC voltmeter

References

33. High speed amplifier techniques: A designer’s companion for wideband circuitry

Preface

Introduction

Perspectives on high speed design

Mr. Murphy’s gallery of high speed amplifier problems

Tutorial section

Applications Section I — Amplifiers

Applications Section II — Oscillators

Applications section III — Data conversion

APPLICATIONS SECTION IV — MISCELLANEOUS CIRCUITS

References

34. A seven-nanosecond comparator for single supply operation: Guidance for putting civilized speed to work

Introduction

The LT1394 — an overview

Tutorial section

Applications

References

35. Understanding and applying voltage references

Essential features

Reference pitfalls

Reference applications

Conclusion

For further reading

36. Instrumentation applications for a monolithic oscillator: A clock for all reasons

Introduction

References

37. Slew rate verification for wideband amplifiers: The taming of the slew

Introduction

References

38. Instrumentation circuitry using RMS-to-DC converters: RMS converters rectify average results

Introduction

References

39. 775 nanovolt noise measurement for a low noise voltage reference: Quantifying silence

Introduction

Noise measurement

Noise measurement circuit performance

References

Section 3. High Frequency/RF Design

40. LT5528 WCDMA ACPR, AltCPR and noise measurements

Introduction

41. Measuring phase and delay errors accurately in I/Q modulators

Introduction

Measurements

Applying the method

Conclusion

Subject Index

Quotes and reviews

"This book is a great companion volume to Volume I with informative application notes and a full complement of reference designs. The chapters are not just every day application notes and reference designs, but give insights to problem-solving, design decision-making the thought process that goes along with a robust, successful design. That's why I love this book…This book is a keeper that needs to be on every designer's bookshelf, right next to Volume I." --EDN.com, March 2013

"Subtitled 'Immersion in the black art of analog design', this huge book has over 1,200 A4 pages of joy…you will learn something from every page…delightfully readable." --ElectronicsWeekly.com, April 2013

"…this is quite an extensive work with 1250 pages. A collection of "application notes"…[it will] help you understand and solve practical problems. Here interesting questions will be answered such as ‘Why is my phone ringing,’ but also highly complex power supply circuits." --Design and Elektronik, February 2013

"For analog designers or anyone who brushes against analog design issues…Analog Circuit Design: A Tutorial Guide to Applications and Solutions...is a great place to start. Each time I look through this book, I get new insight and understanding based on the knowledge, experience, challenges, and mysteries the authors and other contributors bring…books like this can help you get your job done faster and with fewer re-spins." --Planet Analog, January 2013

"This in-depth source book of circuit design solutions supplies engineers with practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The full support package includes online resources such as data sheets, design notes and LTspice design simulation software tools from Linear Technology." --EETimes.com and others, December 2012

"The 932-page book compiles 41 of Linear Tech's applications and each app note has its own chapter. The book divides information into two sections; one that covers power management (19 app notes) and a second that covers data conversion, signal conditioning, and Highfrequency & RF (22 app notes)... Anyone who works with analog electronics--and those who hope to--should own a copy of this book." --Dev-Monkey.com

"This is a handsome book that I will happily find space for on my shelf. It is extremely good value for money and is, thank heavens, a prime example of why it will be some time before e-books have a real place in the publication of technology texts. There should be a place for this latest ANALOG Circuit Design in the hands of every novice, journeyman, and experienced analog designer." --En Genius.net

"In September, three months after a stroke ended Jim’s life, the book - what may be the only coffee table book for analog engineers - came out. What’s remarkable is how easy it is to get into, how much it makes you want to browse - like a traditional coffee-table book. As my friend Paul Rako, described Jim’s writing style, ‘He never tried to impress you with his math or his intellect. He didn't make things complicated so you would think he was smart. He made things look simple. That is why he was brilliant.’" --Electronic Design.com

 
 
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