Data Architecture

Data Architecture, 1st Edition

From Zen to Reality

Data Architecture, 1st Edition,Charles Tupper,ISBN9780123851260


Morgan Kaufmann




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Find proven methods and technologies to solve the complex issues dealing with data

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Key Features

    • Presents fundamental concepts of enterprise architecture with definitions and real-world applications and scenarios
    • Teaches data managers and planners about the challenges of building a data architecture roadmap, structuring the right team, and building a long term set of solutions
    • Includes the detail needed to illustrate how the fundamental principles are used in current business practice


    Data Architecture: From Zen to Reality provides an introduction to the basic principles of data architecture, focusing on the development and implementation of enterprise-level information architecture. The book is organized into five sections. Section 1 discusses the data architecture and data design principles needed to reintroduce architecture into the business and software development process. Section 2 deals with the business and organizational issues of modern businesses and how structured and architected approaches may help them remain flexible and responsive. Section 3 focuses on the software-application development process, defining tools, techniques, and methods that ensure repeatable results. Section 4 discusses the artifact results of the process and the ways to make output products more efficient in real-world environments. Section 5 covers specialty databases and the various issues that arise in the business data processing environment, including data warehousing, objects and objects relational databases, and distributed databases. This book was written for people in business management involved with corporate data issues and information technology decisions. It is also a reference tool for those in a higher-level education process involved in data or information technology management.


    Data architects; systems analysts, data modelers, IT Directors, managers and CxOs, IT governance employees, business process management strategists; IT consultants, IT auditors, data administrators

    Charles Tupper

    Data Architecture, 1st Edition

    Preface Section 1 The Principles Chapter 1 Understanding Architectural Principles Defining Architecture Design Problems Patterns and Pattern Usage Concepts for Pattern Usage Information Architecture Structure Works! Problems in Architecture Architectural Solutions The “Form Follows Function” Concept Guideline: Composition and Environment Guideline: Evolution Guideline: Current and Future Data Policies (Governance), the Foundation Building Codes Data Policy Principles Chapter 2 Enterprise Architecture Frameworks and Methodologies Architecture Frameworks Brief History of Enterprise Architecture The Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture The Open Group Architecture Framework The Federal Enterprise Architecture Conclusions Enterprise Data Architectures Enterprise Models The Enterprise Data Model The Importance of the Enterprise Data Model Object Concepts: Types and Structures Within Databases Inheritance Object Life Cycles Relationships and Collections Object Frameworks Object Framework Programming Pattern-Based Frameworks Architecture Patterns in Use U.S. Treasury Architecture Development Guidance TADG Pattern Content TADG Architecture Patterns IBM Patterns for e-Business Enterprise Data Model Implementation Methods Chapter 3 Enterprise-Level Data Architecture Practices Enterprise-Level Architectures System Architectures Enterprise Data Architectures Enterprise Technology Architectures Enterprise Architecture Terminology-Business Terms The Enterprise Model The Enterprise Data Architecture from a Development Perspective Subject Area Drivers Naming and Object Standards Data Sharing Data Dictionary-Metadata Repository Domain Constraints in Corporate and Non-Corporate Data Organizational Control Components Data Administration Database Administration Setting Up a Database Administration Group Repository Management Areas and Model Management Chapter 4 Understanding Development Methodologies Design Methods Why Do We Need Development Methodologies? The Beginnings Structured Methods Structured Programming Structured Design Structured Analysis Still Having Problems Requirements Definitions Problems with Structured Approaches Personal Computers and the Age of Tools Engineering Concepts Applied Other Principles Utilized The Birth of Information Engineering Information Engineering as a Design Methodology The Synergy of Tools and Information Engineering Problems with Information Engineering Implementing the Best of IE while Minimizing Expense Section 2 The Problem Chapter 5 Business Evolution The Problem of Business Evolution Expansion and Function Separation Separate Function Communication Manual Data Redundancy Data Planning and Process Planning Corporate Architecture Using Nolan’s Stages of Growth Problems with Older Organizations Business Today When Will It End? What Can We Do about It? Generic Subject Areas for Corporate Architectures Corporate Information Groupings or Functional Areas Corporate Knowledge Chapter 6 Business Organizations Purpose and Mission of the Organization Ideology, Mission, and Purpose Design with the Future of the Organization in Mind Generalize for Future Potential Directions Organizational Structure What Are the Basic Functions in an Organization? The Information Needs of Management Organizations Don’t Know What They Don’t Know Information Strategy for Modern Business Maximizing the Value of Information Forces in the Organization Chapter 7 Productivity Inside the Data Organization Information Technology What Is Information Technology? Trends in Information Technology Vendor Software Development The Other Option Trends in Organizational Change Productivity Explanations for the Anomaly in Productivity Information Technology and Its Impact on Organizations Why Invest in Information Technology? Ineffective Use of Information Technology Other Impediments to Organizational Efficiency Organizational Impediments to Information Technology Technological Solutions for Information Technology Human Resource Issues in Information Technology Quality of the Workforce Summary Maximizing the Use of Information Technology Chapter 8 Solutions That Cause Problems Downsizing and Organizational Culture Downsizing Defined Culture Change Organizational-Level Analysis Organizational/Individual-Level Analysis Downswing’s Impact on Culture A Different Approach to Culture Change and Downsizing Summary Outsourcing Rapid Application Development Section 3 The Process Chapter 9 Data Organization Practices Fundamentals of All Data Organization Practices Corporate Data Architecture Corporate Data Policy Architecture Team Design Team Develop the Project Structure Scope Definition Project Plan Data Architecture and Strategic Requirements Planning Data Gathering and Classification Business Area Data Modeling Current Data Inventory Analysis Data and Function Integration Event Identification Procedure Definition via Functional Decomposition Process Use Identification New Function Creation Utilization Analysis via Process Use Mapping Access Path Mapping Entity Cluster Development and Logical Residence Planning Application Development Templates Quality Assurance Metrics Maintenance Control Process The Software Development Methods Architectural Development Methods Atomic Process Models Entity Process Models The Unified Method Chapter 10 Models and Model Repositories What Are Models and How Did They Come About? Data Models Introduction What Does Modeling Do for Us? Process Models Introduction Process Models-Why? How Are Automated Models Developed? How Are Models Retained? Model Repository Policy and Approach Shared Repository Objects Model-Driven Releases Supporting an Application Release Version Type: Participation Seamless Development Control Process Test Environments, Releases, and Databases Release Stacking Emergency Corrections Emergency Correction Procedures PTF Implementation for Shared Batch and Online Objects Chapter 11 Model Constructs and Model Types Data Model Constructs Application Audience and Services Entities Attributes Relationships Primary Identifiers Entity Types Entity Relationship Diagrams Types of Relationships Model Types Physical-Level Design Primary Keys Normalization Denormalization Overnormalization Domains Domain Constraints Reference Data Generic Domain Constraint Constructs Chapter 12 Time as a Dimension of the Database What Is to Be Done with Historical Data? Application History Classes and Characteristics Current Occurrence Simple History Bounded Simple History Complex History Logically Modeling History Physical Design of History Physical Implementation of History Performance Tuning Finding Patterns Tips and Techniques for Implementing History Types of Systems Physical Structure Dimensional History Section 4 The Product Chapter 13 Concepts of Clustering, Indexing, and Structures Cluster Analysis What Is a Cluster? Cluster Properties Cluster Theory Applied Inserts Updates Deletes Physical Structure Key History and Development Primary Keys Foreign Keys Foreign Key Propagation Candidate Keys Natural Keys Engineered Keys Surrogate Keys High Water Keys One of a Kind Keys Other Specialized Keys Chapter 14 Basic Requirements for Physical Design Requirements for Physical Design How Much Data? History Population Quantification of Application Data Concurrency Security/Audit Audit Archive/Purge Recovery/Restart Sort/Search Requirements Reorganization and Restructuring Data Integrity Referential Integrity Data Access Privacy Requirements Chapter 15 Physical Database Considerations Three-Level Architecture Data Independence Database Languages Classification of Database Management Systems Factors Impacting Physical Database Design Analysis of Queries, Reporting, and Transactions Queries, Reports, and Transactions Interpreting the Functional Decomposition Event Identification Process Use Identification Reviewed Utilization Analysis via Process Use Mapping Time Constraints of Queries and Transactions Analysis of Expected Frequency of Insert, Delete, Update Other Physical Database Design Considerations Population on the Database Chapter 16 Interpreting Models Physical Design Philosophy Objectives The Entity Relationship Model Interaction Analysis The CRUD Matrix Entity Life Cycle Analysis/Entity State Transition Diagrams Process Dependency Scope and Process Dependency Diagram Event Analysis Process Logic Diagrams Interaction Analysis Summary Changes to ER Models ERD Denormalization Actions on Super Type-Subtype Constructs Actions on Multiple Relationships Resolution of Circular References Resolution of Duplicate Propagated Keys Access-Level Denormalization Movement of Attributes Consolidation of Entities Derived Attributes and Summary Data Implement Repeating Groups Introduce Redundancy Introduce Surrogate or Synthetic Keys Vertical or Horizontal Segmentation Access Path Mapping Conclusion Section 5 Specialized Databases Chapter 17 Data Warehouses I Early Analysis in this Area Keen and Scott-Morton Decision Discussion Components of Decisions Responsibility Report Writers and Query Engines Warehouses versus Reporting Databases Higher Level of Abstraction Based on Perceived Business Use Structure Evolution Warehouse Components Why Can’t OLTP Data Stores Be Used? DSS Requirements Warehouse Characteristics Warehouse Modeling Warehouse Modeling Depends on Architectures Enterprise-Level Data Architecture Chapter 18 Data Warehouses II Reprise Background The Many Types and Levels of Data Data Modeling: Definitions Logical to Physical Transformation Entity Relational Models Placement of Models Dimensional Modeling: Definitions Denormalization and the Dimensional Model Dimensional Model Evaluation Data Evolution What Are the Choices? Applicability of the Dimensional and Relational and Hybrid Models Dimensional Architecture Where Is the Relational Data Warehouse Best Suited? Where Is the Dimensional Best Suited? Hybrid ER-Dimensional Problems Associated with the Hybrid Approach Target Enterprise Architecture Building an Enterprise Data Model Current Data Inventory Standard or Corporate Business Language Conclusion of Hybrid Approach Chapter 19 Dimensional Warehouses from Enterprise Models Dimensional Databases from Enterprise Data Models Warehouse Architecture Dimensional Model Concepts Review of Basic Components of Dimensional Models Differences between Dimension and Fact Tables Star Schemas Star Schema Design Approach Enterprise Data Warehouse Design Structure Design Categorize the Entities Identify Dependency Chains Produce Dimensional Models Options for Dimensional Design The Flat Table Schema The Stepped Table Schema Simple Star Schemas Snowflake Schemas Star Schema Clusters Review of Design Options Chapter 20 The Enterprise Data Warehouse Enterprise Data Warehouses Why Would You Want an Enterprise Data Warehouse? Enterprise Data Warehouse Defined What Are the Important EDW Driving Forces? The Best Practices for EDW Implementation Enterprise Data Architecture Implementation Methods The Top-Down Approach The Bottom-Up Approach Your Choices Preliminary Conclusion The Hybrid Approach Implementation Summary Chapter 21 Object and Object/Relational Databases Object Oriented Data Architecture Sample Object Oriented Design Concept: Wiring Money Examples of Different Actions Elements of Object Oriented Design: Overriding Analogy and Problem Solving Coping with Complexity Interconnections: The Perpetrator of Complexity Assembler Languages Procedures and Functions Modules Parameter Passing Abstract Data Types Objects with Parameter Passing Object Oriented Architectures Summary Enhanced Entity Relationship Concepts Subclasses and Superclasses Attribute Inheritance Specialization Generalization Generalization Hierarchies Physical Data Design Considerations Messaging Object Identity Type “Generators” and Type Constructors Summary Chapter 22 Distributed Databases Some Distributed Concepts The Distributed Model How Does It Work? Distributed Data Design Concepts Fragmentation Replication Homogeneous Distributed Model Federated or Heterogeneous Distributed Model Distributed DBMSs Reliability and Availability Controlled Data Sharing Performance Qualities Required in a DDBMS Other Factors An Overview of Client Server Functionality within Client Server A Typical DDBMS Distribution Transparency Types of DDBMSs Individual Site Failure’s Effect on Data Integrity Individual Site Failure‘s Effect on Traffic Flow Communication Failure Distributed Commitment Distributed Deadlocks Summary Index

    Quotes and reviews

    I am extremely thrilled that Mr. Tupper has decided to write this book. This book would fill a void in knowledge and know-how in the area of data administration and architecture. Mr. Tupper built over the years an impressive expertise and authority on the subject of enterprise data architecture.

    Daniel Fitzpatrick, Principal Consultant, Nakama Consulting Group

    I see a wealth of information ranging from technical reference information to higher level concepts and principles. Overall a very comprehensive guide where some sections can be read in a flowing manner to enhance understanding of the topic and other sections can be flipped to/from to provide greater detail and context.

    Lynn Rivera, Consultant, LMR Consulting


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