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Women and Health
 
 

Women and Health, 2nd Edition

 
Women and Health, 2nd Edition,Marlene Goldman,Rebecca Troisi,Kathryn Rexrode,ISBN9780123849786
 
 
 

Goldman   &   Troisi   &   Rexrode   

Academic Press

9780123849786

9780123849793

1632

276 X 216

"An unparalleled and valuable compendium of data for anyone interested in women's health." -- THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

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Key Features

  • Saves researchers and clinicians time in quickly accessing the very latest details on a broad range of women’s health issues, as opposed to searching through thousands of journal articles
  • Provides a common language for epidemiologists, public health practitioners, and women’s health specialists to discuss the behavioral, cultural, and biological determinants of women’s health
  • Researchers and medical specialists will learn how the gender-specific risks and features of one organ system’s diseases affect the health of other organ systems
    • For example: Hormone replacement therapy used to treat imbalance within the endocrine system is also being used to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease; Drugs developed for type 2 diabetes are now being used in chemoprevention
  • Orients the non-gerontologist about the importance of considering the entire life cycle of women within research designs and treatment plans
  • Professors teaching courses in women’s health will use slides and additional materials to structure lectures/courses; students will use slides as a unique resource to study for exams

Description

Women and Health is a comprehensive reference that addresses health issues affecting women of all ages — from adolescence through maturity. It goes far beyond other books on this topic, which concentrate only on reproductive health, and has a truly international perspective. It covers key issues ranging from osteoporosis to breast cancer and other cancers, domestic violence, sexually transmitted diseases, occupational hazards, eating disorders, heart disease and other chronic illnesses, substance abuse, and societal and behavioral influences on health.

In this second edition of Women and Health, chapters thoughtfully explore the current state of women’s health and health care, including the influences of sex and gender on the occurrence of a wide variety of diseases and conditions. All chapters have been extensively updated and emphasize the epidemiology of the condition — the etiology, occurrence, primary and secondary prevention (screening), risk factors, surveillance, changing trends over time, and critical analysis of the diagnostic and treatment options and controversies. Treatment sections in each chapter have been expanded to create a stronger dialogue between epidemiologists and women's health practitioners.

Readership

Professionals and graduate students in epidemiology and public health; fellows, internists, physicians in public health, general practice, family medicine, gerontology, and those specializing in women's health.

Marlene Goldman

Dr. Goldman is a reproductive epidemiologist and Director of Clinical Research in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Community and Family Medicine at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center. She specializes in research and teaching related to women's health. Her research program includes several large randomized clinical trials evaluating optimal infertility treatment for younger and older women seeking to conceive and a prospective cohort study investigating the role of preconception nutrition and oxidative stress on implantation and early pregnancy loss. She is co-editor of Women and Health, a comprehensive reference textbook for researchers, teaching faculty, and clinicians on the role of gender in understanding disease occurrence, diagnosis, treatment, and priority-setting in health care.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Obstetrics & Gynecology and Community & Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School; Director of Clinical Research, OB/GYN, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA

Rebecca Troisi

Dr. Troisi is a cancer epidemiologist in the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, at the National Institutes of Health’s Cancer Institute and an associate member of the Norris Cotton Cancer Center at Dartmouth College.. Her research has focused on the hormonal etiologies of reproductive cancers and the role of maternal, gestational, neonatal and early life factors in breast cancer risk, including endocrine disruptors such as diethylstilbestrol, a drug previously given to pregnant women. She is a Principal Investigator on multiple national and international collaborations and has led a project in Mongolia to attempt to learn more about international differences in cancer incidence rates.

Affiliations and Expertise

Staff Scientist, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD; Assistant Professor of Epidemiology, Department of Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth University Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA

Kathryn Rexrode

Dr. Rexrode is an Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Associate Physician, Division of Preventive Medicine and Faculty Director, Office for Women's Careers, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. Dr. Rexrode's research examines risk factors for heart disease and stroke. She has a particular interest in the role of obesity and hormonal factors, as well as understanding sex differences. She has studied the effects of endogenous sex hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, and related genetic variants, and risk of cardiovascular disease. She is Principal Investigator of a grant examining risk factors for ischemic stroke in women and Principal Investigator of a grant examining long term cardiovascular outcomes among early stage breast cancer survivors. She is also active in several large studies of women's health, including the Nurses' Health Study, the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study, and the Women's Health Initiative.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Physician, Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Faculty Director, Office for Women's Careers, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

Women and Health, 2nd Edition

Dedication

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition

List of Contributors

Introduction

20th Century Achievements

21st Century Challenges

In Closing

Part I: Women, Health, and Medicine

Section 1: Introduction to Women’s Health

Chapter 1. Women’s Health in the 21st Century

Why Women’s Health?

The Second Edition

An Overview of the Health of Women

Future Directions in the Study of Women’s Health

References

Chapter 2. The Mutability of Women’s Health with Age: The Sometimes Rapid, and Often Enduring, Health Consequences of Injustice

Sex, Gender and Survival

Age, Health and Weathering

Stress Physiology and Aging

Global Application of Weathering

References

Chapter 3. Current Approaches to Women’s Health Care

Women’s Health through a Health Services Lens

Changes in the Paradigm of Women’s Health

Women’s Interactions with the Health Care System

New Models for Women’s Health Services and Research

Future Considerations and Challenges

Women Become Active Stakeholders in their Care

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 4. The Impact of Health Coverage on Women’s Access to Care in the US

Introduction

Health Coverage for Women Today

Insurance Regulations Affecting Services of Importance to Women

How Coverage Affects Use of Health Care Services

Costs and Other Barriers to Care

Coverage Concerns for Older Women

Health Reform and Women’s Coverage

Conclusion

References

Chapter 5. Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Medicine and Women’s Health

Introduction/Background

CAM Modalities in Women

Clinical Conditions Difficult to Manage Solely with Conventional Medicine

Epidemiologic Issues, Including Research Methodology and Public Health Impact

Summary and Conclusions/Future Directions

References

Chapter 6. Research on the Health of Sexual Minority Women

Importance of Studying the Health of Sexual Minority Women

Who are Sexual Minority Women?

History of Research on the Health of Sexual Minority Women

Specific Health Concerns for Sexual Minority Women

Barriers and Facilitators to Health Care Access

Future of Research on Sexual Minority Health

References

Section 2: Research Methods in Women’s Health

Chapter 7. Understanding Research Designs

Introduction

Terminology

The Randomized Trial Design

The Cohort Design

The Case-Control Design

The Cross-Sectional Design

Case Reports and Case Series

The Ecological Design

Sources of Error in Epidemiologic Studies

Conclusion

References

Chapter 8. Progress in Women’s Health Research

Introduction

Gender Disparity in Health Research

Intervention Studies

Observational Studies

Remedying the Disparity: Advocacy, Seminal Studies, NIH Response

Women’s Health Movement

Seminal Studies Restricted to Women

Office of Research on Women’s Health

Inclusion of Women in Clinical Trials

Increase in Number of Women Researchers

Lessons Learned and Future Challenges

Research Agenda

Conclusions

References

Chapter 9. Life Course Approach to Research in Women’s Health

Introduction

Life Course Epidemiology

Life Course Theory and Models

Life Course Influences on Health

Life Course Reproductive Characteristics and Health

Life Course Methodology and Study Design

Prevention and Policy

References

Chapter 10. Principles of Genetics and Genomics

Introduction

Understanding the Human Genome

The Genetic Contribution to Disease

Other ‘Omics’ Initiatives

Clinical and Public Health Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Part II: Sexual and Reproductive Health

Section 3: Introduction: Sexual and Reproductive Health

Section 3. Introduction: Sexual and Reproductive Health

Chapter 11. Puberty and Adolescent Pregnancy

Hormonal Regulation of Growth at Adolescence

Biological Maturation and Maturity Indicators

Adolescent Changes in Linear Growth and Body Composition

Characteristics Influencing Adolescent Growth and Maturation

Factors Influencing Secular Change in Growth and Maturation

Short Term Consequences of Early Maturation

Long Term Consequences of Early Maturation

References

Chapter 12. Menstruation and Menstrual Disorders: The Epidemiology of Menstruation and Menstrual Dysfunction

Introduction

Normal Variation in Menstrual Cycles Across the Lifespan

Menstrual Disorders

Regional, Ethnic, and Socioeconomic Differences in Menstrual Cycle Characteristics

Risk Factors Related to Menstrual Cycle Characteristics

Epidemiologic Issues in the Study of Menstrual Function

Summary, Conclusions, and Future Directions

References

Chapter 13. Premenstrual Syndrome

Definition and Diagnosis

Incidence, Prevalence, and Burden of PMS

Pathophysiology

Risk Factors

Treatments

Conclusions

References

Chapter 14. Women’s Fecundability and Factors Affecting It

Introduction

Background and Terminology

Estimates of Fecundability

Factors Affecting Fecundability

Methodological Issues

Future Directions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 15. Contraception

Contraceptive Use in the United States

Contraceptive Cost

Contraceptive Use: Medical Eligibility Guidelines

Contraceptive Methods

References

Chapter 16. Induced Abortion

Introduction: History, Background, Definitions, Chapter Objectives

Abortion Procedures

Ascertainment of Induced Abortion

Induced Abortion in the US

Complications of Abortion – Mortality and Morbidity

Global Abortion

Public Health Impact of Induced Abortion – US and Worldwide

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 17. Infertility

Definition of Infertility

Historical Evolution and Trends

Prevalence of Infertility

Access to and Use of Medical Services

Clinical Presentation

Risk Factors

Clinical Issues

Epidemiological Methods

Conclusions and Future Directions

References

Chapter 18. Endometriosis

Description of Endometriosis and Its Impact

Disease Ascertainment and Methods Issues

Frequency of Endometriosis Occurrence

Theories of Endometriosis Pathogenesis

Risk Factors for Endometriosis

Genetic Markers of Susceptibility

Endometriosis Treatment

Summary, Conclusions, and Future Directions

References

Chapter 19. Uterine Leiomyomata

Introduction

Anatomic, Histopathological, and Molecular Characteristics

Issues in the Design of Epidemiological Studies

Frequency of Occurrence and Demographic Patterns

Etiological Hypotheses and Risk Factors

Clinical Epidemiology

Summary and Directions for Future Research

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 20. Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Introduction

The Epidemiology of Infertility

Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)

General Steps Involved with Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Indications for Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Patient Selection for ART

Defining Success in ART

Predicting Success with ART: Is it Possible?

Complications of ART

Conclusions and Future Directions

References

Chapter 21. Pregnancy Complications and Future Maternal Health

Introduction

Cardiometabolic Changes in Pregnancy

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Pre-eclampsia

Opportunities for Intervention and Prevention

Conclusion

References

Chapter 22. Labor and Delivery

Introduction

Topics in Labor and Delivery

Effecting Change in Clinical Practice and in the Organization of Health Services

Conclusion

References

Chapter 23. Female Sexuality and Sexual Function

Introduction

Sexuality Throughout the Life Course

The Interactive Biopsychosocial Model of Sexuality and Health

Normal Sexual Function and Response

Female Sexual Dysfunction

Cancer and Sexuality

Instruments to Measure Sexual Function

Conclusion

References

Chapter 24. Vulvodynia

Introduction

Definition

Historical Evolution

Distribution in Women

Etiology

Clinical Issues

Public Health Importance and Future Directions

References

Chapter 25. Menopause: Its Epidemiology

Introduction

Definition of the Menopause

Hormonal Events and the Menopausal Transition

Age and Duration of the Menopausal Transition

‘Symptomatology’ of the Menopause

Is the Menopausal Transition a Keystone in Subsequent Chronic Disease?

Theories and Conceptual Models of Menopause

Summary

References

Chapter 26. Overview of Pelvic Floor Disorders: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Introduction

Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Bladder Dysfunction

Bowel Dysfunction

Sexual Dysfunction

Methodology for Study

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 27. Hysterectomy

Introduction

Definition and History

Epidemiology

Factors Associated with Hysterectomy

Indications for Hysterectomy

Types and Surgical Routes of Hysterectomy

Prophylactic Bilateral Oophorectomy

Patient-Centered Outcomes

Length of Stay

Cost of Hysterectomy

Alternatives to Hysterectomy

Implications for Practice

Implications for Research

References

Section 4: Introduction: Sexually Transmitted Infections

Section 4. Introduction: Sexually Transmitted Infections

Gender Differences in Risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Section Overview

New Directions

Chapter 28. Gonococcal Infection in Women

Introduction

Microbiology

Epidemiology of Gonococcal Infections in Women

Clinical Spectrum of Infection in Women

Diagnosis of Gonococcal Infections

Specimen Collection

Treatment of Women with Gonococcal Infections

Patient Follow-Up after Therapy

Public Health Aspects of Gonococcal Infections

References

Chapter 29. Chlamydia trachomatis

Introduction

Epidemiology

Transmission

Natural History of Infection

Screening Strategies

Clinical Syndromes

Complications

Sequelae

Risk of HIV Transmission

Microbiology and Diagnosis

Management

STD Control

Cost Effectiveness

Conclusions

References

Chapter 30. Syphilis in Women

Introduction and History

Epidemiology of Syphilis

Considerations in Transmission of Syphilis

Natural History and Clinical Manifestations of Syphilis

Diagnostic Methods

Treatment

Effects of HIV on Syphilis

Syphilis and Pregnancy

Summary

References

Chapter 31. Vaginal Infections

Introduction

The Normal Vaginal Ecosystem

Diagnostic Work-Up of Vaginitis

Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

Trichomoniasis

Bacterial Vaginosis

Conclusion

References

Chapter 32. Genital Herpes

Introduction

Epidemiology

Clinical Epidemiology

Neonatal Herpes

Diagnosis

Therapy

Prevention

Resources for Persons with Genital Herpes

References

Chapter 33. HIV and AIDS in Women

Introduction

Defining and Detecting HIV/AIDS

HIV Acquisition and Transmission

Distribution of HIV/AIDS in Women

Natural History and Clinical Management

Factors Associated with HIV Transmission

Prevention

Conclusions

References

Chapter 34. Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Women

Introduction

Virology

Pathogenesis and Mechanisms of Oncogenicity

Clinical Classification of Oncogenic Changes in the Cervical Epithelium

Epidemiology of HPV

Transmission of Infection

Risk Factors for HPV Infection and Disease

Clinical Screening and Diagnosis of HPV-Related Disease

Treatment of HPV-Related Disease

Primary Prevention: HPV Vaccines

Conclusions

References

Chapter 35. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Chronic Pelvic Pain

Introduction

Background

Definition of Chronic Pelvic Pain

Issues Related to Ascertainment

Historical Evolution/Trends

Distribution in Women, Including Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality Statistics

Risk Factors

Biological Markers of Susceptibility or Exposure

Genetic Markers

Clinical Issues

Methodological Issues for Epidemiological Studies

Prevention and Self-Care

Global Issues

Summary and Conclusions/Future Directions

References

Chapter 36. Urinary Tract Infection

Overview

Range of Clinical Entities and Associated Morbidity

UTI Distribution among Otherwise Healthy Women

UTI Reservoir

UTI Transmission

Risk Factors

Bacterial Virulence Factors

Clinical Issues: UTI among Otherwise Healthy Women

Epidemiological Issues

Future Directions

References

Part III: Occupational, Environmental, and Social Determinants of Health

Section 5: Occupational and Environmental Determinants of Health

Section 5. Occupational and Environmental Determinants of Health

Introduction

Chapter 37. Working Women in the United States: A Statistical Profile

Introduction

Wages, Hours, and Family Responsibilities

Occupational Injuries and Illnesses

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 38. International Perspectives: Women’s Occupational Health

The ‘Developed/Developing’ Split

Traditional Unpaid Employment

The Informal Sector

Implications for Occupational Health and Safety

An Additional Hazard: Violence

Economic and Social Responses to Women in the Workforce

Documenting the Issues

References

Chapter 39. Multiple Roles and Complex Exposures

Exposures to ‘Invisible’ Workplace Health Determinants

Prolonged Standing

Stress

Workplace Contributions to Work–Family Balancing

Equality and Health

Analytical Approaches

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 40. Reproductive Hazards of Occupational and Environmental Exposures

Introduction

Chemical Agents

Physical Agents

Biological Agents

Physical and Psychosocial Strain

Methodological Issues

Risk Assessment, Risk Communication, and Prevention

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 41. Work-Related Musculo-Skeletal Disorders

Definitions

Gender and Musculo-skeletal Disorders

At-Risk Occupations

Interpreting Gender Differences

Conclusion and Research Needs

References

Chapter 42. Occupational Cancer

Introduction

Carcinogens in the Workplace

Selected Cancer Sites

Epidemiologic Issues/Future Directions

Conclusion

References

Chapter 43. Environmental Exposures and Cancer

Introduction

Definition of the Topic: Environmental Exposures and Cancer

Epidemiological Evidence

Historical Evolution/Trends

Distribution of Environmental Cancer in Women, Including Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality Statistics

Host Determinants

Influence of Women’s Social Roles or Context on Environmental Cancer

Risk Factors

Biological Markers of Susceptibility or Exposure

Clinical Issues

Epidemiological Issues

Is Breast Cancer an Environmental Cancer?

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Section 6: Introduction: An Introduction to the Social Determinants of Women’s Health

Section 6. Introduction: An Introduction to the Social Determinants of Women’s Health

Chapter 44. Socioeconomic Determinants of Women’s Health: The Changing Landscape of Education, Work, and Marriage

Introduction

Education Effects on Health

Effects of Work on Women’s Health

Marriage and Women’s Health

Recent Trends in Women’s Education, Work, and Marital Status

Understanding Recent Trends in Mortality and Morbidity in the Context of Changes in Social Determinants of Health

How Will Recent Trends in Education, Marriage History, and Labor Force Participation Affect the Future of Women’s Health?

Challenges and Future Directions

Conclusion

References

Chapter 45. Women, Stress, and Health

The Social Stress Model

Key Sources of Stress in Women’s Lives

Women and Aging

Positive Features of the Social Environment

Intersections with Race and Sexuality

Mechanisms

Directions for Research

References

Chapter 46. Tobacco Use: Trends, Determinants, and Health Effects

Introduction

Trends in Tobacco Use among Women and Girls

Determinants of Tobacco Use among Women and Girls

Health Effects of Tobacco Use among Women

Health Effects of Second-hand Smoke

Conclusions

References

Chapter 47. Alcohol Is a Women’s Health Issue

Introduction

Methodological Issues in Studying Patterns of Alcohol Consumption

Alcohol-attributable Deaths and Disability-adjusted Life Years among Women Globally

History of Alcohol as a Women’s Health Issue

Conclusions

References

Chapter 48. Intimate Partner Violence

Introduction

Prevalence

Risk Factors

Challenges

Conclusion

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 49. Do Social Policies Influence the Health of Women and their Children?: Implications for Designing Future Policies Using a ‘Social Determinants of Health’ Lens

Introduction: Social Policies, Social Determinants of Health, Gender, and Health Outcomes

Literature Review Methods

Results: Policy Overviews and Health Impacts

Conclusions and Implications: Lessons to Apply to Future Design of Social Policies to Improve the Health of Women

Conclusion

References

Chapter 50. The Impact of the Built Environment on Health

Introduction

Definition of the Topic: the Neighborhood Built Environment and Health

Methods in Built Environment Research

The Modern Built Environment: Sprawl and Transportation

Air Pollution

Overweight/Obesity, Physical Activity, and Diet

Motor Vehicle Crashes and Motor Vehicle-Pedestrian Collisions

Mental Health and Social Capital

Disparities

Research Needs to Understand the Impact of the Built Environment on Health

Conclusion

References

Part IV: Chronic Disease

Section 7: Introduction: Autoimmune Diseases

Section 7. Introduction: Autoimmune Diseases

How Does Autoimmunity Occur?

Why Do Autoimmune Diseases Occur?

Why Do Autoimmune Diseases Preferentially Develop in Women?

What is the Relationship Between Sex Hormones and Autoimmune Diseases?

Summary

Chapter 51. Rheumatoid Arthritis

Introduction

Etiology and Pathogenesis

Epidemiology

Classification Criteria

Evaluation and Management of RA

Prognosis and Outcomes in RA

Future Directions in Rheumatoid Arthritis

References

Chapter 52. Multiple Sclerosis

Overview of Multiple Sclerosis

Pathophysiology

Diagnostic Evaluation

Clinical Parameters

Reproductive Life: MS, Fertility, and Pregnancy

Disease Monitoring

Treatment Strategies

Summary

References

Chapter 53. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Introduction

SLE Epidemiology

Clinical Presentation and Management

Management of SLE

Summary

References

Chapter 54. Sjögren’s Syndrome

Introduction and Background

Primary and Secondary Sjögren’s Syndrome

Evolution Since 1930

Definition of Sjögren’s Syndrome

Epidemiology

Host and Environmental Factors

Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory Abnormalities

Management of Sjögren’s Syndrome

Summary

Note in Proof

References

Chapter 55. Asthma

Introduction

Asthma Diagnosis and Management

Increasing Prevalence of Asthma

Gender Differences

Risk Factors

Discussion

Acknowledgments

References

Section 8: Endocrinology and Women’s Health

Section 8. Endocrinology and Women’s Health

Introduction

Chapter 56. The Obesity Epidemic and Women’s Health

Introduction

Definitions and Classifications

Historical Perspective (Evolution/Trends)

The Current Obesity Epidemic

Why do Men and Women in the United States Gain Weight?

Why Do Women Regain Weight?

Host Susceptibility–Genetics. Is Obesity Inherited?

Obesity-Associated Morbidity and Mortality

Heterogeneity in Obesity-Related Risk of Disease: Why Do Some Obese Women Have More Disease Than Other Women?

Epidemiological Issues–Older Women

Clinical Issues: Diagnosis and Treatment

Summary

References

Chapter 57. Diabetes in Women

Introduction

Definition

Prevalence, Public Health Burden, and Distribution of Diabetes

Risk Factors for Diabetes

Health Consequences of Diabetes

Unique Issues to Women

Treatment and Prevention of Diabetes

Conclusions

References

Chapter 58. Thyroid Disease and Women

Introduction

Thyroid Physiology

Biochemical Thyroid Tests

Overview of Thyroid Disease

Summary and Perspective

References

Chapter 59. Management of Menopausal Symptoms in the Post-Women’s Health Initiative Era

Introduction/Historical Perspective

Definition of the Menopause

Symptoms of the Menopause Transition and Postmenopausal Phases

Summary

References

Chapter 60. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention in Women

Introduction

National Guidelines for Vitamin D Intake

Low Vitamin D: Prevalence and Risk Factors

Methodological Considerations

Outcomes

Clinical Recommendations

Conclusion and Future Research Directions

References

Chapter 61. Osteoporosis

Introduction

Definition and Pathophysiology

Public Health Impact

Rates and Patterns of Bone Loss

The Rates of Fracture

Secular Changes in Hip and Other Fractures

Prevalence of Osteoporosis by BMD

Risk Factors for Fracture

Novel Risk Factors for Fracture in the Last Decade

Summary and Future Directions

References

Section 9: Cardiovascular Disease in Women

Section 9. Cardiovascular Disease in Women

Introduction

Unique Risk Factors in Women

Prevention

Disparities among Women

Changes in our Understanding of CVD in Women

CVD Chapters

Future Directions

Chapter 62. Overview of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

Introduction

Demographic Characteristics

Family History of Cardiovascular Disease

Cigarette Smoking

Hypertension

Lipids and Lipoproteins

Physical Activity

Diabetes Mellitus

Body Size and Distribution

Nutrition

Novel Biomarkers

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 63. Lipids in Women

Introduction

Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism

Role of Lipids in Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Prevention

Trends in Lipid Levels

Unique Issues Affecting Lipids in Women

Measurement, Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment of Lipid Disorders

Future Research

Conclusions

References

Chapter 64. Diagnosis and Treatment of Ischemic Heart Disease in Women

Introduction

Prevalence and Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease

Risk Factors

Clinical Presenting Symptoms in Women

Diagnosis

Management

Conclusion

References

Chapter 65. Emotions and Cardiovascular Disease

Introduction

The Role of Emotions in Incident CVD

Studies of Patients with Established CVD

Future Directions

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 66. Cerebrovascular Disease in Women

Introduction

Epidemiology of Stroke

Genetics of Stroke

Clinical Considerations

Risk Factor Reduction and Public Health Impact

Conclusion

References

Chapter 67. Venous Thromboembolism

Introduction

Deep Vein Thrombosis

Pulmonary Embolism

Established and Potential Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism

Pregnancy-Associated VTE

Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy Use

Contraceptive Usage

Long-Distance Air Travel

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

Recurrence and Other Consequences of VTE

Epidemiological Issues, Public Health Considerations, and Conclusions

References

Chapter 68. Arrhythmias in Women: Atrial Fibrillation and Sudden Cardiac Death

Introduction

Part 1: Atrial Fibrillation

Part 2: Sudden Cardiac Death

References

Chapter 69. Heart Failure in Women: Epidemiology, Prognosis, and Management

Introduction/Background

Definition of Heart Failure

Cardiomyopathy

Issues Related to Ascertainment

Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality Statistics

Risk Factors

Biological Markers of Susceptibility or Exposure

Genetic Markers of Susceptibility or Exposure

Clinical Issues (Diagnosis, Treatment)

Summary and Conclusions/Future Directions

References

Chapter 70. Hypertension in Women

Introduction/Background

Definition of the Topic

Issues Related to Ascertainment

Historical Evolution/Trends

Hypertension in Young Women

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

Postmenopausal Hypertension

Blood Pressure Control

Risk Factors for Hypertension in Women

Treatment of Hypertension in Women

Lifestyle Intervention in Hypertension Treatment

Pharmacological Treatment of Primary Hypertension in Women

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Section 10: Cancer

Section 10. Cancer

Introduction

Perspectives on Cancer

Signs of Progress

Persistent Challenges

Prospects

Chapter 71. Cancer in Women: Global Burden and Insights from Gender Comparisons

Introduction

Data Sources and Methods

Global Patterns of Cancer among Women

Disparities between the Sexes in Cancers Common to Both Sexes

The Future Burden of Cancer in Women

Appendix A Human Development Index Countries (2007 Indices)

References

Chapter 72. Breast Cancer Epidemiology

Introduction

Endogenous Hormones that Biologically Mediate Breast Carcinogenesis

Melatonin

Risk Factors

Conclusion

References

Chapter 73. Genetic Epidemiology of Breast Cancer

Evidence for a Genetic Component of Breast Cancer

Autosomal Dominant Predisposition to Cancer

Single Gene Predispositions of Moderate Penetrance

Low Penetrance, Common Alleles

Clinical Implications of Genetic Variants

Reflections and Future Directions

Summary

References

Chapter 74. Breast Cancer Screening

Introduction

History of Screening Trials

Efficacy of Breast Screening

Discussion

References

Chapter 75. Ovarian Cancer

Biology of Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian Cancer in Populations

Genetic Susceptibility to Ovarian Cancer

Reproductive Factors

Endogenous Hormones and Ovarian Cancer Risk

Exogenous Hormone Use and Ovarian Cancer Risk

Factors Related to Inflammation

Body Size

Smoking, Alcohol, Diet

Ovarian Cancer Screening

Summary and Future Research Directions

References

Chapter 76. Endometrial Cancer

Pathology and Diagnosis

Patterns of Disease

Environmental and Behavioral Determinants

Clinical Issues

Epidemiological Issues

Prevention and Self-Care

Conclusions

References

Chapter 77. Cervical Cancer: Burden of Disease and Risk Factors

Introduction

Cervical Cancer Histopathology

Incidence and Mortality of Cervical Cancer: Worldwide Perspective

Time Trends in Cervical Cancer

Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer

The Spectrum of HPV Related Diseases

Future Directions in Research and Public Health

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 78. Vaccination and Screening in Cervical Cancer Control and Prevention

Introduction

Natural History of Cervical Cancer and the Basis for Prevention

Cytology Screening as Prevention Paradigm

Secondary Prevention via Modern Screening Technologies

Primary Prevention via HPV Vaccination

Integration of Primary and Secondary Prevention Strategies

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 79. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Women

Introduction

Magnitude of the Problem and Descriptive Epidemiology

Risk Factors

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 80. Colorectal Cancer in Women

Introduction

Descriptive Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer

Analytic Epidemiology of CRC and Polyps

Clinical Characteristics of CRC

Next Research Steps Including Methodological Issues

Summary

References

Chapter 81. The Epidemiology of Melanoma of the Skin

Introduction

Trends

Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality

Host and Environmental Determinants

Prevention and Self-Care

Screening

Diagnosis and Treatment

Global Environment

References

Chapter 82. Cancer Prevention for Women

Introduction

Cancer Prevention: The State of the Science

Unique Issues for Women in Cancer Prevention

Changing Cancer Risk Behaviors: From Individuals to Policy

Future Directions

References

Section 11: Mental Disorders – Introduction

Section 11. Mental Disorders – Introduction

Introduction

Chapter 83. Gender and Mood Disorders

Introduction and Background

Mood Disorders Defined

Issues Related to Ascertainment

Historical Trends

Distributions

Influences of Women’s Social Roles

Risk Factors

Biological Markers of Susceptibility and Exposure

Clinical Issues

Epidemiological Issues

Conclusions and Future Directions

References

Chapter 84. Anxiety Disorders in Women

Introduction

Sex Differences in the Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders

Comorbidity

Familial and Genetic Risk Factors

Temperamental and Biological Factors

Psychosocial Risk Factors and Impact

Treatment of Anxiety

Summary and Future Directions

Acknowledgments

Appendix A

Agoraphobia

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Specific Phobia

Social Phobia

References

Chapter 85. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Introduction

Defining Trauma and PTSD

Etiological Factors in Women

Phenomenology of PTSD in Women

Assessment

Methodological Issues

Treatment of PTSD in Women

Conclusions

References

Chapter 86. Psychosis in Women: Gender Differences in Presentation, Onset, Course and Outcome of Schizophrenia

Introduction

Understanding Psychotic Disorders

Development of Schizophrenia in Women

Management of Schizophrenia in Women

Treatment for Women with Schizophrenia

Psychological Treatment for Women with Schizophrenia

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 87. Eating Disorders

Introduction

Definition and Diagnosis

Classification

Epidemiology

Risk Factors

Intervention and Treatment

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 88. Addictive Disorders

Introduction

Dependence on Psychoactive Substances

Pathological Gambling

Kleptomania

Trichotillomania

Compulsive Buying

Pathological Love

Conclusions

References

Section 12: Poorly Understood Conditions

Section 12. Poorly Understood Conditions

Introduction

Issues with Case Definition and Ascertainment

The Multidimensional Nature of Poorly Understood Conditions

Risk Factors and Consequences and Their Implications for Treatment

Future Directions

Chapter 89. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Introduction

Epidemiology

Symptoms, Signs and Laboratory Findings

Prognosis

Pathophysiology of CFS

Treatment of CFS

References

Chapter 90. Fibromyalgia: A Central Sensitivity Syndrome

Introduction

Epidemiology and Prevalence

Nomenclature

What is Central Sensitization?

Pathophysiological Mechanism of Central Sensitization

Can Central Sensitization be Produced or Maintained without Peripheral Nociception?

Association of CS/FMS in Chronic Diseases with Structural Pathology (CDSP)

Factors that may Trigger or Contribute to Central Sensitization

Evidence of Central Sensitization in FMS

Clinical Manifestations of FMS

Diagnosis of FMS

Management of FMS

Conclusions

References

Chapter 91. Epidemiology of Headache in Women: Emphasis on Migraine

Introduction

Diagnostic Criteria

Incidence

Prevalence

Female Hormones and Headache

References

Chapter 92. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Introduction

Definition and Issues Related to Ascertainment

Historical Evolution

Distribution in Women

Epidemiological Issues

Health Care Seeking

Risk Factors

Clinical Issues

Treatment

Public Health Issues

Conclusions

References

Chapter 93. Temporomandibular Disorders

Background

Definitions

Issues Related to Ascertainment

Historical Trends

Distribution in Women

Host and Environmental Determinants

Influence of Women’s Social Roles

Risk Factors

Biological Markers of Susceptibility or Exposure

Clinical Issues

Epidemiological Issues

Summary and Conclusions/Future Directions

References

Chapter 94. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

Introduction

Epidemiology

Risk Factors

Diagnosing MCS

Possible Mechanisms

Skepticism Surrounding MCS

Treatment

Future Research in MCS

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Part V: Geriatric Health

Section 13: Aging

Section 13. Aging

Introduction

Chapter 95. Morbidity, Disability, and Mortality

Introduction

Sociodemographic Characteristics

Socioeconomic Status of Older Women

Demography of Aging

Functional Limitations and Disability

Life Expectancy

Active Life Expectancy

Health Status

Mortality

Health Disparities

Measurement Issues

Summary

References

Chapter 96. Osteoarthritis and Other Musculoskeletal Diseases

Introduction

Definition and Classification

Clinical Features of OA

Descriptive Epidemiology of Osteoarthritis

Risk Factors for the Development and Progression of Osteoarthritis

Biomarkers and Osteoarthritis

Management of Osteoarthritis

References

Chapter 97. Urinary and Fecal Incontinence in Older Women

Introduction

Definitions

Epidemiology

Global Issues

Costs

Etiology

Clinical Issues

Areas for Future Research

Conclusion

References

Chapter 98. Hearing Loss and Aging

Introduction

Background

Epidemiology of Hearing Loss

Impact of Hearing Loss in Adults

Clinical Issues in the Treatment of Hearing Loss

Conclusion

References

Chapter 99. Visual Impairment

Introduction

Measurement of Visual Impairment

Major Causes of Visual Impairment in the World

Other Eye Conditions with Noted Gender Discrepancy

Low Vision Rehabilitation

Summary

References

Chapter 100. The Impact of Women’s Oral Health on Systemic Health

Hormonal Changes and Oral Health

Oral Diseases and Their Relationship to Women’s Health

Systemic Diseases and Their Relationship to Women’s Oral Health

Conclusion

References

Chapter 101. Cognitive Functioning in Aging Women

Introduction

Background

Sex Differences in Incidence and Prevalence of Dementia

Diversity and Disparity in Dementia

Biological and Environmental Modulators of Cognitive Decline and Dementia

Hormone Therapy

Genetic Risk

Summary

References

Chapter 102. The Role of Social Support in the Health and Well-Being of Older Adult Widows

The Epidemiology of Widowhood

Adapting to the Loss of a Spouse

Dual Process Model of Coping

The Notre Dame Widowhood Study (NDWS)

Widowhood and Health

Social Support and Health

Conceptual and Methodological Importance for Future Research

References

Chapter 103. Long-Term Care: The Global Impact on Women

Introduction

The Aging Population

What is Long-Term Care?

Women in Need of Care

Women as Informal Caregivers

Caregiving Outcomes

Institutional Long-Term Care

Women as Caregivers in Institutional Long-Term Care Settings

Environmental Determinants that Impact Quality of Care Received by Women in Long-Term Care Settings

Creative Alternatives to Traditional Long-Term Care Settings

Research and Public Health Impact on Long-Term Care

Conclusion

References

Chapter 104. Caring for Women at the End of Life

Introduction

Epidemiology of Dying

Role of Palliative Care and Hospice Care in Caring for patients at EOL

Ethical Issues

Communication and Medical Decision-Making

Clinical Issues at the End of Life

Implications for Health Care Policies at the End of Life

Summary

References

Chapter 105. Successful Aging in Women

Successful Aging in Women

Definition

Prevalence of Successful Aging

Factors that Influence Successful Aging

Behavioral Factors Influencing Successful Aging

Additional Factors Associated with Successful Aging

Measurement of Successful Aging

Intervention to Facilitate Successful Aging Among Older Women

Exercise Guidelines and How Much is Enough?

Cognitive Stimulation

Maintaining Purpose in Life

Interventions to Strengthen Motivation

Conclusion

References

Epilogue and Future Directions

Index

Quotes and reviews

"This reference for the medical and scientific community is also accessible to health care consumers, with a readable style, a clear layout, and a visual orientation, offering b&w images, photos, data charts, and summary tables on almost every page. The reference provides overview articles highlighting the latest research on biological as well as behavioral and societal determinants of the health of women throughout the life span."--Reference and Research Book News, August 2013
"This revised work updates the authoritative, exhaustively referenced, thoroughly documented…handbook published over ten years ago…this is an advanced textbook suitable for graduate medical and nursing students and health care professionals…Summing Up: Highly recommended."--CHOICE, August 2013
"
Women and Health is a comprehensive reference that addresses health issues affecting women of all ages - from adolescence through maturity. It goes far beyond other books on this topic that concentrate only on reproductive health, and has a truly international perspective."--Doody.com, April 24, 2013

Reviews of the First Edition:

"This book is an unparalleled and valuable compendium of data for anyone interested in women's health. The editors have done a superb job... the book is one of the most useful I have yet seen in the emerging field of women's health."-- THE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE (2000)
"The chapters are uniformly well researched and written, with extensive bibliographies and relevant Web sites. ...The book could serve well as the key text for a graduate or medical school course on women's health. It is also an excellent guide for planning and developing women's health curricula for medical students and residents in internal medicine, family medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology."--ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE (2001)
"This first of its kind, easy-to-read, comprehensive text is an excellent contribution to the field of women's health and the epidemiologic literature."--DOODY'S PUBLISHING (2000)
"Editors Goldman and Hatch offer an extremely well referenced, clearly organized, comprehensive, and manageable large handbook with research reviews that will also stimulate new ideas...A must purchase for all academic libraries."-- CHOICE (2000)

 
 
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