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Tea in Health and Disease Prevention
 
 

Tea in Health and Disease Prevention, 1st Edition

 
Tea in Health and Disease Prevention, 1st Edition,Victor Preedy,ISBN9780123849373
 
 
 

V Preedy   

Academic Press

9780123849373

9780123849380

1616

276 X 216

An interdisciplinary approach exploring the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and other putative protective biochemical effects of tea

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Key Features

  • Interdisciplinary presentation of material assists in identifying potential cross-over benefits and similarities between tea sources and diseases
  • Assists in identifying therapeutic benefits for new product development
  • Includes coverage and comparison of the most important types of tea - green, black and white

Description

While there have been many claims of the benefits of teas through the years, and while there is nearly universal agreement that drinking tea can benefit health, there is still a concern over whether the lab-generated results are representative of real-life benefit, what the risk of toxicity might be, and what the effective-level thresholds are for various purposes. Clearly there are still questions about the efficacy and use of tea for health benefit.

This book presents a comprehensive look at the compounds in black, green, and white teas, their reported benefits (or toxicity risks) and also explores them on a health-condition specific level, providing researchers and academics with a single-volume resource to help in identifying potential treatment uses. No other book on the market considers all the varieties of teas in one volume, or takes the disease-focused approach that will assist in directing further research and studies.

 

Readership

Nutritionists, Food microbiologists and toxicologists, food scientists and technologists, and pharmacologists

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FSB, FRSH, FRIPH, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a senior member of King's College London. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine. Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well being. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Drug and Alcohol Dependence and a founding member of the Editorial Board of Addiction Biology. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is Editor of the multi-volume seminal work The Handbook Of Alcohol Related Pathology (published by Academic Press-Elsevier). Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctoral degree (DSc). Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Biology in 1995 and also as a Fellow to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. He was then elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Dietetics, King's College London, UK

View additional works by Victor R. Preedy

Tea in Health and Disease Prevention, 1st Edition

Dedication

Preface

Contributors

Section 1: Tea, Tea Drinking and Varieties

Chapter 1. The Tea Plants: Botanical Aspects

Introduction

Classification in Camellia

Methods of Distinguishing Types of Tea

Morphological Traits

Cytological Markers

Chemical/Biochemical Traits

Molecular Markers

Others

Summary Points

References

Chapter 2. Green Tea: The Plants, Processing, Manufacturing and Production

Introduction

The Plants: Botanical Classification and Distribution

Cultivation

Tea Harvest: Plucking and Seasons

Processing

Chemistry and Biochemical Changes During Green Tea Processing

Storage, Preparation and Flavor

Global Green Tea Production

Summary Points

References

Further Readings

Chapter 3. White Tea: The Plants, Processing, Manufacturing, and Potential Health Benefits

Introduction

Historical Perspectives

Processing and Manufacturing of White Tea

Varieties of White Tea

Health Benefits of White Tea

Summary Points

References

Further reading

Chapter 4. Black Tea: The Plants, Processing/Manufacturing and Production

Introduction

The Tea Plant

Processing/Manufacturing

Production

Summary Points

References

Chapter 5. Pu-erh Tea: Botany, Production, and Chemistry

Introduction

Botany and Biogeography

Production and Preparation

Chemistry and Health

Summary Points

References

Chapter 6. Tea Flavanols: An Overview

Introduction

Photosynthesis

Biosynthesis of Flavanols

Flavanols

Tea

Why are there Flavanols in Camellia sinensis and not in Aspalathus Linearis?

Summary Points

References

Chapter 7. Analysis of Antioxidant Compounds in Different Types of Tea

Abbreviations

Introduction

Determination of Antioxidant Activity of Tea

Identification and Determination of Antioxidant Compounds in Tea

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Further Readings

Chapter 8. Cultivar Type and Antioxidant Potency of Tea Product

Introduction

Types of Tea Product

Chemical Composition of Tea

Methods of Assaying Antioxidative Capacity

Antioxidant Properties of Tea

Cultivar Type and Antioxidant Activity

Summary Points

References

Chapter 9. Objective Evaluation of the Taste Intensity of Tea by Taste Sensors

Introduction

Mechanism of the Lipid/Polymer Membrane-Type Taste Sensor

Evaluation Method for Tea Taste Intensity by a Lipid/Polymer Membrane-Type Taste Sensor System

Toward the Creation of a Taste Sensor System with a Receptor Function

Summary Points

References

Chapter 10. Green Tea (Cv. Benifuuki) Powder and Catechins Availability

Introduction

Bioavailability of Benifuuki Green Tea Infusion and Anti-Allergic Activity of the Tea in Humans

Pharmacokinetics of Plasma Catechins after the Intragastric Administration of Benifuuki Green Tea in Rats

Absorption of Catechins after Intragastric Administration in Rats

The AUC of Catechins after Oral Administration in Humans

Consumption and Usage of Green Tea Powder in Japan

Summary Points

References

Section 2: Miscellaneous Teas and Tea Types: Non-Camellia sinensis

Chapter 11. Herbal Teas: A Focus on Antioxidant Properties

Introduction

Summary points

References

Chapter 12. Honeybush Tea (Cyclopia sp.): A Traditional South-African Tisane

Introduction

Botanical Characteristics and Cultivation

Honeybush Tea Manufacture

Traditional and Modern Use

Chemical Composition and Quality Control

Antioxidant Properties and Biological Effects

Summary Points

References

Chapter 13. Mate Tea: From the Camp to the Bench

Introduction

Tea from I. paraguariensis

Popular Culture Associated with the Consumption of I. paraguariensis

Regional Consumption of I. paraguariensis

Biochemical Characterization of I. paraguariensis

Biological Effects of I. paraguariensis Consumption

Summary Points

References

Chapter 14. In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Mediterranean Herbs and their Bioactivity

Introduction

In vitro antioxidant properties of selected Mediterranean herbal infusions

Bioactivity of Pelargonium purpureum aqueous extract

Summary points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 15. Bush Tea as a Herbal Beverage and Medicinal Plant in South Africa

Introduction

The Bush Tea Plant

Distribution of Bush Tea

Traditional Uses of Bush Tea

Potential of Bush Tea as a Health Beverage

Summary Points

References

Section 3: Manufacturing and Processing

Chapter 16. Tea Processing and its Impact on Catechins, Theaflavin and Thearubigin Formation

Introduction

The chemistry and benefits of green tea

Tea processing

Impact of tea processing on catechins, theaflavin and thearubigin formation

Conclusion

Summary points

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 17. Tea Processing and Carotenoids

Introduction

Variation in Carotenoid Level between Tea Cultivars and Growing Seasons

Changes in Carotenoid Level during Processing for Various Teas

Variation in Carotenoid Level between Various Kinds of Tea

Summary Points

References

Chapter 18. Effect of Far-Infrared Irradiation on Catechin Contents of Green Tea

Introduction

Effect of FIR Irradiation on Green Tea Leaves

Application of Far-Infrared Irradiation in the Manufacturing Process of Green Tea

Effect of AN FIR Heater on the Characteristics of Green Tea during Processing

Summary Points

References

Section 4: Compositional and Nutritional Aspects

Chapter 19. Structure and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides in Tea: Applications in Diabetes, Hyperlipidemia, Coagulation, Thrombosis, Immunology, Oxidative Stress, Radiation and Bacterial Adhesion

Abbreviations

Introduction

Extraction and Isolation Methods

Chemical Composition

Structure and Conformational Analysis

Biological Activity

Toxicity of TPS

Summary Points

References

Chapter 20. An Overview of the Physicochemical and Bioactive Properties of Novel Tea Polysaccharide Conjugates

Abbreviations

Introduction

Chemical Composition of TPC

Analysis of the Physicochemical Properties of Crude and Purified Tea Polysaccharide Conjugates

Thermal Stability of Tea Polysaccharide Conjugate Fractions

Suppression of Diabetes in Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mice by Oral Administration of Water-Soluble and Alkali-Soluble Tea Polysaccharide Conjugates

Protecting Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells against Impairments Triggered by High Glucose

Conclusions and Further Research

Summary Points

References

Chapter 21. Green Tea Dietary Supplements: Current Issues and Analysis Methods

Abbreviations

Introduction

Investigations of the Quality Control of GTDS

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 22. Trace Elements in Tea (Camellia sinensis) and their Bioavailability

Abbreviations

Introduction

Trace Elements in Tea

Bioavailability of Trace Elements from Tea Consumption

Summary Points

References

Chapter 23. Tea and Iron Metabolism

Introduction

Iron

Metabolic Studies

Tea and Iron Status

Conclusions (Box 3)

Summary Points

References

Chapter 24. Manganese Nutrition and Tea Consumption

Introduction

Manganese – The Element

Manganese and Tea

Summary

Summary Points

References

Chapter 25. Vitamin K in Green Tea Leaves

Introduction

Characterization of vitamin K

Sources of vitamin K

Effects of vitamin K

Analysis of vitamin K

Summary points

References

Chapter 26. Odor and Flavor Volatiles of Different Types of Tea

Introduction

Odor and Flavor Volatile Components of Teas

Summary Points

References

Chapter 27. Chromatographic Development, Validation and Data Handling of Tea Fingerprints

Introduction

Development of Fingerprints

Validation of Fingerprints

Data Handling of Fingerprints

Concluding Summary

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 28. Steeping Time and Temperature on the Content of the Main Flavanols in Green Tea

Introduction

Amount of Tea Leaves

Leaf Size

Steeping Time

Temperature

Additives

Summary points

References

Chapter 29. Chemistry and Biology of the Black Tea Thearubigins and of Tea Fermentation

Introduction

What are Thearubigins?

Basics of Tea Fermentation Chemistry

Analysis and Characterization of Thearubigins

Structural Model for the Thearubigins: Oxidative Cascade Hypothesis

Confirmation of the Oxidative Cascade Hypothesis

Consequences of the Oxidative Cascade Hypothesis

Quantification of Thearubigins

Biological Activities of Thearubigins

Conclusion

Summary Points

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 30. Bioactive Phytophenolics and Antioxidant Functions of Aqueous and Organic Tea Extracts

Introduction

Antioxidant Effectiveness of Tea Extracts and Their Main Antioxidant Phytophenolics

Extraction Systems and Antioxidant Effectiveness

Structure–Activity Relationship

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 31. Formation of Damascenone and its Related Compounds from Carotenoids in Tea

Introduction

Formation of Damascenone from the 9’-Cis-epoxycarotenoids

Formation of Damascenone During the Tea Manufacturing Process

Formation of Damascenone During the Production of Tea Drinks or Infusions from Processed Tea Leaves

Glycosidically Bound Precursors of Damascenone in Teas and their Hydrolysis

Putative Functions of Volatile Carotenoid Breakdown Products in Relation to Human Health

Summary Points

References

Chapter 32. Tea Catechins in Tissues: Analysis, Possibilities and Challenges

Introduction: Site-related Analysis

Metabolism Makes Analysis Complicated

Overview of Analytical Steps

Summary Points

References

Chapter 33. Intestinal Absorption and Disposition of Green Tea Catechins: The First Barrier for Green Tea Catechins Entering the Body

Introduction

Overview of the Pharmacokinetics of Green Tea Catechins

Stability of Green Tea Catechins at GI Tract

Intestinal Absorption of Green Tea Catechins

Intestinal Metabolism of Green Tea Catechins

Transport of the Green Tea Catechin Metabolites Formed During Intestinal Absorption

Effect of the Co-Occurring Components from Green Tea on the Intestinal Absorption and Disposition of GTC

Summary Points

References

Chapter 34. Green Tea Flavan-3-ol Bioavailability

Green Tea Contains Very Special Polyphenols

Green Tea Flavonoids are Modified by the Interaction with the Gastrointestinal Tract

The Bioavailability of Green Tea Flavan-3-ols

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 35. L-Theanine from Green Tea: Transport and Effects on Health

Introduction

Characteristics of L-Theanine

ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) of L-Theanine

Physiological Benefits of L-Theanine

Summary Points

References

Chapter 36. Holistic Approaches to Tea Bioactivity: Interactions of Tea and Meal Components Studied In Vitro and In Vivo

Abbreviations

Introduction

Tea Bioavailability and Bioactivity

In vitro and In vivo Approaches

Interactions Between Tea Components and Dietary Iron

Interactions between Tea Components and Dietary Proteins

Interactions Between Tea Components and Dietary Fat and Carbohydrates

Summary Points

References

Chapter 37. Gallic Acid in Old Oolong Tea

Abbreviations

Introduction

Production of New and Old Oolong Tea

Polyphenols and Gallic Acid in Oolong Tea and their Biological Functions

Determination of the Accumulation of Gallic Acid in Old Oolong Tea

Characterization of the Release of Gallic Acid in Old Oolong Tea by Multiple-Stage Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 38. Tea and Starch Digestibility

Abbreviations

Introduction

Assays for Measuring Starch Hydrolase Inhibition of Tea

Inhibition Activity of Tea on Saliva α-AMYLASE

Tea and Pancreatic α-AMYLASE and α-GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITION

Incorporation of Tea Extracts into Starchy Food System for Regulating Starch Digestion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 39. Electronic Tongue for Tea Tasting

Abbreviations

Introduction

Fluorometry for Amino Acids and Tannins

Development of a Hand-Held Fluorometer as the Electronic Tongue

Experimental

Theanine and Tannic Acid Determination

Tea Quality Assessment

Summary Points

References

Chapter 40. Green Tea and Protein Availability

Abbreviations

Introduction

Effects of Green Tea Polyphenols on the Activities of Proteolytic Enzymes

Effects of Green Tea Polyphenols on Protein Availability

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Section 5: General Protective Aspects of Tea-Related Compounds

Chapter 41. Review of the Clinical Evidence on Tea Consumption and Weight Loss

Abbreviations

Introduction

Background

Interventions and Outcomes

Discussion of Moderators

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Further Readings

Chapter 42. Oolong Tea and Weight Loss

Abbreviations

Introduction

Anti-Obesity Effects of Oolong Tea in Human Studies

Anti-Obesity Effects of Oolong Tea in Laboratory Studies

Active Components of Oolong Tea in Obesity Reduction

Anti-Obesity Mechanisms of Oolong Tea

Comparison of the Anti-Obesity Effects of Oolong Tea and Green Tea

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Further Reading

Chapter 43. Antioxidant Functions of Green and Black Tea

Introduction

Antioxidant Functions of Tea in Human Studies

Oxidative Damage Biomarkers

Discussion

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Further Reading

Chapter 44. Tea and Liver Antioxidant Capabilities in Ethanol Toxicity

Introduction

Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) During Ethanol Metabolism

Tea Leaves as a Source of Antioxidants

Tea and its Oxidative Action in the Liver

Summary Points

References

Chapter 45. Antimutagenic Activities of Tea and its Polyphenols in Bacterial Test Systems

Introduction

Detection of Antimutagenicity by the Ames Test

Antimutagenic Effect of Green Tea and its Polyphenols

Antimutagenic Effect of Black Tea and its Polyphenols

Comparison of the Antimutagenic Effects of Green and Black Tea and Their Polyphenols

The Mechanism of Antimutagenicity

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 46. The Modulating Influence of Tea Polyphenols on Estrogen Metabolism in Asian and Caucasian Populations: Breast Cancer Prevention

Introduction

Tea Polyphenols in Reducing the E2 Production: Aromatase

Modifying Ability of TPh on the Hydroxylation Step in the Estrogen Pathway and their Antioxidant Ability

Breast Cancer Incidence in European versus Asian Populations

Benefits of an Evolutionary Adaptation Due to a Catechol-Containing Diet in Asia – COMT Polymorphism

Summary Points

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 47. Tea and Inflammation

Abbreviations

Introduction

Inflammatory Pathways

Inflammation-related Diseases/Markers

Teas as Anti-inflammatory Agents

Summary Points

References

Chapter 48. Tea and Sepsis: Effects on Inflammatory Cytokines

Introduction

Pathogenesis of Sepsis

EGCG Inhibits Endotoxin-induced Cytokine Release

EGCG Inhibits HMGB1-induced Cytokine Release

EGCG Protects Against Lethal Endotoxemia and Sepsis

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

Competing Financial Interests

References

Chapter 49. Green Tea and Protection against Helicobacter Infection

Helicobacter Infection – Clinical Implications

Association of Helicobacter Infection Rates with Disease Progression in Society Based on Dietary Habits

Associations Specifically with Green Tea

Green Tea is Bacteriostatic against H. pylori and H. felis

Summary Points

References

Chapter 50. Black Tea (Camellia sinensis) and Bone Loss Protection

Introduction

Tea Drinking and Bone

Animal Studies on Black Tea and Bone

Summary Points

References

Chapter 51. Green Tea and Bone Health Promotion: Bone Mass and Microarchitecture

Abbreviations

Introduction

Green Tea and Bone Tissues: Bone Turnover Biomarkers, Mass, Microstructure, and Quality

Aging- and Aging-Plus-Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

Aging- and Aging-Plus-Orchidectomy-Induced Bone Loss

Chronic Inflammation-Induced Bone Loss

Green Tea and Osteoblastogenesis: Evidence from In Vitro Studies

Green Tea and Osteoclastogenesis: Evidence from In Vitro Studies

Summary Points

References

Chapter 52. Protective Effect of Green Tea Extract on Gentamicin- and Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

Abbreviations

Introduction

Effect of GT on GM- and CP-Induced Nephrotoxicity Parameters in Serum

Effect of GT on GM-/CP-Induced Alterations on BBM and Lysosomal Biomarkers in Renal Tissues and Na-Dependent Transport of Pi

The Effect of GT on GM-/CP-Induced Alterations of Carbohydrate Metabolism Enzymes in Renal Tissues

Effect of GT on GM-/CP-Induced Oxidative Stress

Summary and Conclusion

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 53. Black Tea and Prevention of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Damage

Introduction

Black Tea Prevents Cigarette Smoke-Induced Oxidative Modification of Proteins

Black Tea Prevents Oxidative Degradation of Lung Proteins of Guinea Pigs Exposed to Cigarette Smoke

Black Tea Prevents Cigarette Smoke-Induced Apoptosis in the Guinea Pig Lung In Vivo

Black Tea Prevents Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Damage

Summary Points

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 54. The Protective Effect of Green Tea Against Experimentally Induced Lung Fibrosis in Rats

Introduction

Rat Studies

The Role of Green Tea in Paraquat-Induced Lung Fibrosis

Summary Points

References

Chapter 55. Tea and Diabetes: The Laboratory and the Real World

Introduction

The Claims

The Active Compounds

The Studies

Conclusions

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 56. Green Tea Consumption and Diabetes

Introduction

Green Tea and Diabetes

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 57. Green Tea Catechins Inhibit Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase

Introduction

GTCs Regulate GPDH Gene Expression in Animal Systems

GTCs Regulate GPDH Activity and Gene Expression in Adipocytes

GTCs Regulate GPDH Activity in Cell-Free Systems

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 58. Green Tea and Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease

Introduction

Green Tea Catechins as the Major Component in Green Tea

Pathogenesis of AD at a Glance

How Green Tea Protects the Brain from Neurodegeneration in AD

Summary Points

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 59. Green Tea: Potential Benefits in Shock Disease

Abbreviations

Introduction

Shock

In Vivo Study

Conclusion and Future Prospects

Summary Points

References

Further Reading

Chapter 60. Tea Catechins and Endurance

Abbreviations

Introduction

Endurance-Improving Effects of Tea Catechins (GTE) in BALB/C Mice

Inhibitory Action of Tea Catechins on the Aging-Associated Decline in Physical Performance in Senescence-Accelerated Mice

Endurance-Improving Effects of Tea Catechins (GTE) in MDX Mice

Possible Mechanisms for the Endurance-Improving Effects of Tea Catechins (GTE)

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 61. Tea and Metabolomics: Consequences of Tea Intake for the Human Metabolome

Abbreviations

Introduction

Methodology

Tea Intake and Metabolomics: Exogenous Markers

Tea Intake and Metabolomics: Endogenous Markers

Concluding Remarks

Summary Points

References

Chapter 62. Cancer Chemoprevention by Black Tea Polyphenols: Emerging Evidence and Molecular Targets

Abbreviations

Introduction

Black Tea Constituents

Anti-Cancer Effects

Molecular Mechanisms of the Anti-cancer Effects of Black Tea Polyphenols

Epigenetics

Combination Chemoprevention

Summary Points

References

Chapter 63. Molecular Aspects of Cancer Prevention by Green Tea: An Overview

Abbreviations

Introduction

Cancer in General

Rationale for Cancer Prevention

Molecular Targets of Green Tea

Targets of Green Tea in Human Trials

Future Directions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 64. Protective Aspects of Tea and Prostate Cancer: Emerging Evidence

Introduction

Literature Search

Epidemiological Evidence (1986–2000)

Epidemiological Evidence (2001–present)

Limitations

Clinical Evidence

Biological Mechanisms

Conclusions and Future Perspectives

Summary Points

References

Chapter 65. Vitamin C, Lysine, Proline, Quercetin and Other Natural Components Significantly Enhance Anticancer Effects of Green Tea

Abbreviations

Introduction

Defining Active Compounds

Micronutrient Synergy Enhances Bioavailability of Epigallocatechin Gallate

Micronutrient Synergy Enhances Anticancer Effects of Green Tea Extract In Vivo

Micronutrient Synergy Enhances Green Tea Extract Inhibitory Effects on MMP Expression

Micronutrient Synergy Enhances Anti-Invasiveness Effects of Green Tea through ECM-Mediated Effects

Micronutrient Synergy Enhances Anticancer Effects of Green Tea Extract In Fibrosarcoma Cells In Vitro

Synergistic Antitumor Effects of NM on Fibrosarcoma In Vivo

NM Enhances Anticancer Effects of EGCG in Cervical Cancer

Micronutrient Synergy Enhances EGCG Pro-Apoptotic Effects in Leukemia Cells

Summary points

References

Further Reading

Chapter 66. Effect of Green Tea Extract on Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Introduction

Effects of GTE on Tumor Growth, Proliferation, and Hepatocarcinogenesis

Effect of GTE on Apoptosis in HCC Cells

Effect of GTE on Cell Cycle Arrest in HCC

Effect of GTE on Oxidative Stress in HCC

Effect of GTE on Angiogenesis in HCC

Effect of GTE on Migration, Invasion, and Metastasis of HCC

Effect of GTE on Drug Resistance Against HCC

Conclusion

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 67. The Effect of Tea Polyphenols on Microsatellite Instability in Colorectal Cancer

Introduction

Mechanism and Clinical Significance of MSI in Colorectal Cancer

Epigenetics of Mismatch Repair Gene Deficiency

Tea Polyphenols for MSI Colorectal Cancer

Summary Points

References

Chapter 68. Effect of Green Tea on Nitrosamines: Implications for Cancer

Abbreviations

Introduction

Inhibitory Effects of Green Tea Components on the Formation of Nitrosamines

Inhibitory Effect of Green Tea and Catechins on the Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity of Nitrosamines

Summary Points

References

Chapter 69. MicroRNA, Breast Cancer and Green Tea Polyphenon-60

Abbreviations

MICRORNAS

Green Tea, Polyphenon-60 and Breast Cancers

MICRORNAS Associated With Breast Cancers

MICRORNAS and Green Tea Polyphenols

Summary Points

References

Chapter 70. The Role of Individual Tea Compounds in Cardiovascular Protective Effects of Green and Black Tea

Abbreviations

Introduction

In vitro studies

Animal studies

Human studies

Perspectives

Summary points

References

Chapter 71. Molecular and Cellular Targets Affected by Green Tea Extracts in Vascular Cells

Abbreviations

Introduction

Several Key Events Involved in Atherosclerosis are Affected by EGCG

Molecular and Cellular Activities of EGCG

Modulation of Signal Transduction and Gene Expression by EGCG

Conclusions

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 72. Effects of Green Tea Polyphenols under Hyperlipidemic Conditions through their Anti-Angiogenic Activity

Abbreviations

Introduction

From Vasculogenesis to Angiogenesis

Hyperlipidemia-Induced Atherosclerosis and the Role of Angiogenesis

The Role of Angiogenesis in Adipose Tissue Development

Green Tea and Angiogenesis

Action of Synthetic Analogs

The Use of Mouse Models in Angiogenesis and Green Tea Intervention

Possible Complications

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 73. In Vitro Studies on the Responses of Healthy and Cancerous Cells Derived from Tissues of the Human Oral Cavity to Tea Theaflavins and Catechins

Introduction

Theaflavins

Catechins

Cancerous versus Normal Cells

Summary Points

References

Chapter 74. Black Tea Theaflavins and Gastric Ulcer Prevention

Introduction

Tea as a Remedy for Gastric Ulcers: Previous Studies

Black Tea, a Potential Anti-Ulcer Formulation: Present Studies

Summary Points

References

Chapter 75. Effect of Green Tea on Liver Function: Carbohydrate and Lipid Management, Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Hepatoprotection

Introduction

Green Tea

Effect on Carbohydrate and Lipid Management

Effect on Liver Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes

The Hepatoprotective Effect of Green Tea

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 76. Green Tea Extract in the Management of Hepatic Fibrosis

Introduction

Polyphenols and Clinical Experience

Experimental Evidence for Hepatic Anti-Fibrotic Effects of Green Tea Extract

Summary Points

References

Chapter 77. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Gene Expression in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) and Tongue Carcinoma (Cal-27) Cells

Abbreviations

Introduction

DNA Array Analysis of Gene Induction by GTE in HepG2 Cells

Molecular Mechanism for Anti-Oxidant Gene Induction

The Anti-Oxidant/Electrophile Response Element

Genes Involved in Apoptosis

Summary Points

References

Chapter 78. Green Tea Polyphenols and Skin Protection: An Overview

Abbreviations

Introduction to Green Tea

Ultraviolet Light and Skin Damage

Green Tea Polyphenols and Skin Photo-Protection

Conclusion

References

Chapter 79. Effect of Green Tea Compounds on Neutral Endopeptidase Activity in Cultivated Brain Cells

Abbreviations

Introduction

Summary Points

References

Chapter 80. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Protective Effects of Green Tea Consumption

Abbreviations

Introduction

Green Tea Consumption and SAH Risk: An Epidemiological Approach

Protective Implication of Green Tea Consumption

Protective Role of Green Tea Consumption against the Development of SAH

Summary Points

References

Section 6: Focused Areas, Specific Tea Components and Effects on Tissue and Organ Systems

Chapter 81. Metabolic Fate of Green Tea Catechins in Humans

Introduction

In vitro Drug Metabolism

In vitro Microbial Metabolism

In vivo Drug and Microbial Metabolism in Humans

Summary

References

Chapter 82. Drug Interactions with Green Tea Catechins in Humans

Introduction

Pharmacokinetics of Individual Catechins and their Metabolites in Humans

Pharmacokinetics of Mixed Catechins and Their Metabolites in Humans

Drug–Drug Interactions within Mixed Catechins in Humans

Drug–drug Interactions with CYP Substrates, Drugs and Food in Humans

Green Tea and Its Metabolites in Patients

Summary Points

References

Chapter 83. Differences in the Tissue Distribution of Green Tea Compared to Black Tea Polyphenols

Introduction

Bioavailability and Metabolism of Tea Polyphenols

Mouse and Rat Studies

Black Tea Compared to Green Tea

Transdermal Application of Green Tea

Concentration of Green Tea Polyphenols in the Eye

Human Intervention Studies

Intestinal Metabolites of Tea Polyphenols

Summary of Bioavailability Studies

Summary Points

References

Chapter 84. Anti-Obesity Effect of Tea Catechins in Combination with Exercise

Introduction

Anti-Obesity Effect of Tea Catechins

Combined Effects of Tea Catechin Consumption and Regular Exercise on Obesity

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 85. Protective Effects of Green Tea in Metabolic Syndrome

Introduction

Green Tea Composition

Green Tea and Metabolic Syndrome: Epidemiological Observations and Clinical (Interventional) Studies

Green Tea and Metabolic Syndrome: Mechanisms of Action

Conclusions and Recommendations

Summary Points

References

Chapter 86. Green Tea and Control of Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activity

Abbreviations

Introduction

The Structure of Mammalian GDH

HHS: the Link Between GDH and Insulin Homeostasis

Inhibition of GDH-Mediated Insulin Secretion by Polyphenols

Other Possible Applications for EGCG Inhibition of GDH

Future Pharmaceutical Application of EGCG as a GDH Inhibitor

Summary Points

References

Chapter 87. Pharmacokinetics of Green Tea Catechins in Maternal and Fetal Body Compartments

Abbreviations

Introduction

Maternal Pharmacokinetics

Gestational transfer

Fetal distributions

Potential applications

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 88. Effect of Green Tea (−)-Epigallocatechin Gallate on Adipocytes: Signaling Effects

Abbreviations

Introduction

EGCG Signaling in Inhibiting fat Cell Growth

EGCG Signaling in Inducing Fat Cell Apoptosis

EGCG Signaling in Inhibiting Fat Cell Adipogenesis and Differentiation

EGCG Signaling in Stimulating Fat Cell Metabolism

EGCG Signaling in Altering Adipocyte Endocrine Activity

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 89. Modulation of Pattern Recognition Receptor-Mediated Signaling Pathways by Green Tea Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate

Abbreviations

Introduction

Pattern-Recognition Receptors

Inhibition of PRR Activation by EGCG

EGCG Targets in PRR Signaling Pathways

Other Cellular Targets of EGCG and Possible Relationship with PRR Inhibition

The Regulation of PRR Signaling by Other Components in Tea

Summary Points

References

Chapter 90. Caffeine and Insulin-Independent Glucose Transport

Abbreviations

Introduction

Glucose Transport in Skeletal Muscle

Effect of Caffeine on Glucose Transport

CaMK and Caffeine-Stimulated Glucose Transport

AMPK and Insulin-Independent Glucose Transport

AMPK and Caffeine-Stimulated Glucose Transport

Caffeine and Upstream Kinases of AMPK

Caffeine and T2DM

Conclusions

Summary points

References

Chapter 91. (−)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-Gallate (EGCG) and Kidney Interstitial Fibroblasts

Abbreviations

Introduction

Effects of EGCG in Kidney Interstitial Cells In Vitro

Effects of EGCG in Nephropathic Models

Effects on Other Renal Cells In Vitro

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 92. Caffeine-Mediated ERK Phosphorylation in the Rat Brain

Abbreviations

Introduction

Why Study ERK Phosphorylation?

Effects of Caffeine on ERK Phosphorylation in Cortical Regions

Effects of Caffeine on ERK Phosphorylation in Dopaminergic Mesolimbic Areas

Caffeine, ERK and Synaptic Plasticity

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 93. Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) from Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) and Other Natural Products Mediate Stress Resistance and Slows Down Aging Processes in Caenorhabditis elegans

Abbreviations

Introduction

Epigallocatechin Gallate and Other Tea Polyphenols Act As Multi-Target Drugs

Caenorhabditis Elegans as a Model System for Pharmacological and Nutritional Studies

Understanding and Preventing Aging Processes

Stress and Aging

Natural Products from Green Tea Promote Longevity and Stress Tolerance in C. Elegans

Other Longevity-Promoting Polyphenols and Medicinal Plants

Alzheimer’s and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases

Outlook

Summary Points

References

Chapter 94. Chinese Tea and Telomere Length in Elderly Chinese Men

Abbreviations

Introduction

Global Trends in Tea Production and Consumption

Telomere Length as Biological Marker of Aging

Effect of Tea and its Constituent Nutrients on Telomere Length

Tea Consumption and Telomere Length in Elderly Chinese Men

Tea Consumption, Healthy Lifestyle, and Telomere Length

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 95. Human Prostate Cancer Prevention by Green Tea Catechins: Clinical Trial and Putative Molecular Mechanisms of Action

Introduction

PSA Era: Therapeutic Options and the Risk of Over-Treatment

Prevention of CaP

Catechins from Green Tea

Pre Clinical Studies in Our Laboratory

A Proof-of-Principle Clinical Trial Showed the Anti-Cancer Efficacy of GTE in Humans

Putative Molecular Mechanisms of GTE Action

Gene Profiling of Responsive and Resistant GTE-Treated CaPs in the TRAMP Model

Chemoprevention of CaP with GTE: Conclusions

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 96. Effect of Green Tea Catechins on Intracellular Signaling in Breast Tissue: Implications for Cancer

Introduction

Epidemiological Evidence

Growth Factor and Growth Factor Receptors

Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Regulation

Motility and Invasion

Potential Mechanism of Action

Clinical Application

Combinatorial Treatment

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 97. Caffeine, Cyclin D1 and Cell Proliferation

Introduction

Effect of Caffeine on G1-S-Phase Cell Cycle Progression

Regulation of G1-S-Phase Progression

Effect of Caffeine on CDK4/6 Activity

Mechanisms of Caffeine-Induced Akt Signaling Pathway Inhibition

Caffeine as an Anti-Cancer Agent

Summary Points

References

Chapter 98. Synthetic Analogs of (−)-Epigallocatechin-Gallate: Bioavailability and Molecular Mechanisms of Action

Abbreviations

Introduction

Green Tea Polyphenol (−)-EGCG

Synthetic EGCG Analogs and Pro-Drug Forms of EGCG

Pre-Clinical Studies of Tea Polyphenol (−)-EGCG and its Analogs/Pro-Drugs

Clinical Studies of Green Tea Polyphenols

Conclusion

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 99. Anti-Influenza Viral Activity of Catechins and Derivatives

Introduction

Influenza

Anti-Influenza Effects Of Green Tea Catechins and Derivatives In Vitro

Clinical studies on catechins in influenza prevention

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 100. Antibacterial – Acinetobacter baumannii – Activity of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG)

Introduction

(−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate

Anti-Pathogenic Properties of EGCG

Action of EGCG against Acinetobacter baumannii

Potential Applications of EGCG against A. baumannii

Conclusions

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 101. Tea Catechins and Staphylococcus aureus

Introduction

Antibiotic Resistance of S. aureus

Effects of Tea Catechins on S. aureus

Clinical Evidence for the Effects of Tea Catechins on S. aureus

Summary Points

References

Chapter 102. (−)-Epicatechin 3-(3″-O-Methylgallate) and (+)-Catechin 3-(3″-O-Methylgallate), and their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Abbreviations

Introduction

Isolation and Determination of the Structure of ECG3″Me (1)

Chemical Synthesis of ECG3″Me (1) and its Analogs

Biological Activities of ECG3″Me (1) and Structure–Activity Relationships

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 103. Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate on Markers of Inflammation

Introduction

Chemical Properties of Green Tea and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate

Inflammatory Markers

Putative Mechanisms Governing the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of EGCG

Efficacy of GTCS and EGCG in Inflammatory Conditions Related to Cardiovascular Diseases

Effects of EGCG on Inflammatory Markers in Humans

Summary Points

References

Chapter 104. Molecular Basis for Down-Regulation of the Inflammatory Responses by Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Macrophages

Abbreviations

Introduction

Effects of EGCG on Regulation of TLR-Mediated Immune Responses

Anti-Inflammatory Action of EGCG Through the Cell-Surface EGCG-Sensing Molecule

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 105. Green Tea and its Main Catechin, Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate, Provide Parasitic Protection

Abbreviations

Introduction

Malaria

Babesiosis

Toxoplasmosis

Avian coccidiosis

Trypanosomosis

Leishmaniasis

Helminthes

The Parasites of Fish

Green Tea Extract as a Molluscicide

Summary points

References

Chapter 106. Effects of Tea Catechins on Cardiac Allografts

Introduction

Effects of Tea Catechins on Cardiac Allografts in an Experimental Model

Discussion

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 107. Maternal Caffeine Exposure on Fetal Cardiovascular Function and Growth

Introduction

Effect of Maternal Caffeine Exposure on Fetal CV Function and Growth

Ex vivo and in vitro Caffeine Effects on Fetal Blood Pressure and Myocardial Contraction

Maternal Caffeine Exposure and Adenosine Receptor Function

Effects of Maternal Caffeine Exposure under Maternal Hypoxia

Implication of the Results of the Mouse Model of Maternal Caffeine Exposure

Summary Points

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 108. Green Tea (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate and its Effects on Pancreatic Stellate Cells

Introduction

Pancreatic Stellate Cells (PSCs)

Activation of PSCs

Effect of EGCG on PSCs

Effect of EGCG on PSCs in vivo

Clinical Implications of EGCG in Pancreatic Fibrosis

Summary Points

References

Chapter 109. Effect of Green Tea Extract and Tea Polyphenols Against Antibiotic-, Anti-Cancer Drug- and Immunosuppressant Agent-Induced Nephrotoxicity: A Focus on Cyclosporine A and Tacrolimus

Introduction

Cyclosporine A

Tacrolimus

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 110. Biological Effects of Green Tea Catechins in Ocular Tissue Cells

Introduction

Physiological Effects of Catechins

Toxicity

Ocular Disorders

Effects of Catechins on Ocular Tissue Cells

Further Green Tea Extract Studies on Ocular Tissues

Prospects

Summary points

References

Section 7: Behavior and Brain

Chapter 111. Tea and the Cognitive Function of Elderly People: Evidence From Neurobiology and Epidemiology

Introduction

Neuroprotective Effects of Tea: Evidence from Neurobiology

Tea and the Cognitive Function of Elderly People: Evidence from Epidemiology

Future Research

Summary Points

References

Chapter 112. Green Tea and Protection of the Brain Against Aging: Structural Aspects

Introduction

Vulnerability of the Brain

The Lysosomal Compartment and the Genesis of Lipofuscin

The Role of Mitochondria in Aging

Green Tea as a Nutraceutical

The Actions of Green Tea Catechins

Aging and the Hippocampal Formation

Green Tea and the Lysosomal Compartment in the Hippocampus

Green Tea and Mitochondria

Green Tea and Neuronal Signaling Systems

Conclusions

Summary points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 113. Behavioral Pharmacology of Caffeine

Introduction

Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine

Molecular Targets for the Central Effects of Caffeine

Behavioral Pharmacology: Studies in Humans

Behavioral Pharmacology: Studies in Animals

Abuse Potential of Caffeine

Summary Points

References

Chapter 114. Effect of Green Tea Catechins on Cognitive Learning Ability and Dementia

Introduction

Green Tea Catechins

Green Tea and Cognition

Possible Mechanisms of Green Tea Catechin-Induced Cognitive Improvement

Summary Points

References

Further Reading

Chapter 115. Attention Benefits of Tea and Tea Ingredients: A Review of the Research to Date

Introduction

Attention

Cognitive Effects of the Tea Ingredients Caffeine and L-Theanine

Interactions between Caffeine and L-Theanine

Attention Benefits of Tea

Conclusions and Recommendations

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 116. Green Tea and Feeling Depressed: A Promising Challenge

Introduction

Epidemiological Studies

Potential Mechanism Linking Green Tea And Depression

Green Tea and Stress

Further Studies are Necessary

Summary Points

References

Chapter 117. Anxiolytic Properties of the Green Tea Polyphenol (−)-Epigallocatechin Gallate

Introduction

Assessing the Anxiolytic Effect of EGCG in Rodents

Action of EGCG on GABAA receptors

Other Actions of EGCG Contributing to Anxiolysis

Anxiolytic effect of other components of green tea: the case of theanine

Concluding Remarks

Summary Points

References

Chapter 118. Green Tea (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate and Amyloid Precursor Protein: Implications for Alzheimer’s Disease

Introduction

Green Tea Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Reduces Cerebral Amyloidosis in Alzheimer’s Transgenic Mice by Modulating Amyloid Precursor Protein Proteolysis

ADAM10 Activation Is Required for EGCG-Induced α-Secretase Proteolysis of Amyloid Precursor Protein

Fish Oil Enhances Anti-Amyloidogenic Properties of EGCG in Alzheimer’s Transgenic Mice

Summary Points

References

Chapter 119. Nitric Oxide Synthase, Green Tea Catechins and Parkinson’s Disease

Introduction

Does Tea Reduce the Risk of PD?

How Do Green Tea Catechins Protect People from PD?

Summary points

References

Section 8: Adverse Effects of Tea and Tea-Related Products

Chapter 120. Toxicity of Green Tea Polyphenols

Summary Points

References

Chapter 121. Hepatocyte Cytotoxicity of Green Tea Phenolic Acids, Gallates, and Catechins

Introduction

Anti-Oxidant Activity of Polyphenols

Polyphenols and Prevention of Liver Damage

Reactive Carbonyl Scavenging Abilities of Tea Polyphenols: Implications in Diabetes

Polyphenol Iron- or Copper Complex-Mediated Pro-Oxidant Cytotoxicity and Fenton’s

Hepatocyte Cytotoxicity Mechanisms of The Tea Polyphenols EGCG, Propyl Gallate, and Gallic Acid

GSH Thiol Conjugates and EGCG Protein Cysteine Conjugates

In Vivo EGCG Hepatotoxicity Animal Studies

Clinical Studies

In vivo or Hepatocyte-Catalyzed Phase 2 Metabolism and Cytotoxicity of EGCG

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Further Reading

Chapter 122. Caffeine and Neurotoxicity: Implications for Tea

Introduction

Caffeine Targets in the Brain

Effects of Long-Term Caffeine Exposure on Receptor Binding in the Brain

Effects of Caffeine on Adenosine Receptor Binding in the Brain: Neurodevelopment

Behavioral Effects of Adenosine Receptor Antagonism by Caffeine

Developmental Caffeine Exposure and Consequences on Neurodevelopment and Behavior

In Vitro Caffeine Exposure: Mechanisms of Neurotoxicity and Neuroprotection

Adenosine Receptor Signaling and Caffeine: Neurodegenerative Disorders

Summary Points

References

Chapter 123. Interactions of Tea Tannins with Proteins and Their Impact on Food Quality and Health

Introduction

Techniques for the Analysis of Tannin–Protein Interactions

Tea Tannins, Proline-Rich Proteins and Astringency

Role of Tannin–Protein Interactions in Anti-Oxidant Activity

Therapeutic Implications of Tannin–Protein Interactions

Pro-Oxidant Effects of Tea Tannins on Proteins

Tannin–Protein Interactions and Blood Transport

Technological Significance of Tannin–Protein Interaction

Summary Points

References

Chapter 124. Diversity of Pesticides in Tea

Introduction

The Need to Introduce Plant Protection Measures

Pesticide Dynamics

Tactics of Integrated Pest Management

Residues and Persistence of Some Pesticides in Made Tea and Infusions

Regulation

Analytical methodology

Summary Points

References

Chapter 125. Potential Toxicity of Green Tea Polyphenols in Colitis

Introduction

Overview of Adverse Effects of GTPS

Animal Models of IBD and CRC

Toxicity of GTPS in IBD- and CRC-Model Mice

Conclusion

Summary Points

Acknowledgments

References

Section 9: Comparison of Tea and Coffee in Health and Disease

Chapter 126. Comparison of the Effects of Tea and Coffee on the Risk of Ovarian Cancer

Introduction

Tea and Risk of Ovarian Cancer

Coffee and Risk of Ovarian Cancer

Conclusions

Summary Points

References

Chapter 127. Comparing Tea and Coffee Intake in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk

Introduction

Tea and Coffee Constituents

Tea and Coffee Constituents and Breast Cancer: Evidence From Basic Research

Tea and Coffee Intake and Relation to Breast Cancer: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

Sources of Inconsistencies between Studies on Black Tea and Coffee In Relation to Breast Cancer

Future Directions

Implications of Tea or Coffee as Etiological Factors in Breast Cancer

Conclusion

Summary Points

References

Chapter 128. Impact of Green Tea and Coffee Consumption on Renal Function

Introduction

Evaluation of Renal Function

Effects of caffeine intake on renal function

Effect of Catechin Intake on Renal Function

Coffee Consumption and Cardiometabolic Risk

Pleiotropic Effects of the Non-Caffeine Components That may be Indirectly Related to Renal Function

Coffee Consumption and eGFR

Underlying Mechanism of Coffee Consumption and Increased eGFR

Summary Points

References

Index

 
 
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