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Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance
 
 

Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance, 1st Edition

 
Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance, 1st Edition,Thomas Cash,ISBN9780123849250
 
 
 

T Cash   

Academic Press

9780123849250

9780123849267

938

A unique, single-source reference for a growing area of scientific inquiry that brings together research from experts in a variety of fields examining the psychological and sociological phenonmenon of body image.

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Key Features

The Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance is a unique

reference for a growing area of scientific inquiry. It brings together in one source the research from

experts in a variety of fields examining this psychological and sociological phenomenon. The breadth of

topics covered, and the current fascination with this subject area ensure this reference will be of interest

to researchers and a lay audience alike.

Description

This scholarly work is the most comprehensive existing resource on human physical appearance—how people’s outer physical characteristics and their inner perceptions and attitudes about their own appearance (body image) affect their lives. The encyclopedia’s 117 full-length chapters are composed and edited by the world’s experts from a range of disciplines—social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. The extensive topical coverage in this valuable reference work includes: (1) Important theories, perspectives, and concepts for understanding body image and appearance; (2) Scientific measurement of body image and physical attributes (anthropometry); (3) The development and determinants of human appearance and body image over the lifespan: (4) How culture and society influences the meanings of human appearance; (5) The psychosocial effects of appearance-altering disease, damage, and visible differences; (6) Appearance self-change and self-management; (7) The prevention and treatment of body image problems, including psychosocial and medical interventions. Chapters are written in a manner that is accessible and informative to a wide audience, including the educated public, college and graduate students, and scientists and clinical practitioners. Each well-organized chapter provides a glossary of definitions of any technical terms and a Further Reading section of recommended sources for continued learning about the topic.

Available online via ScienceDirect or in a limited-release print version.

Readership

undergraduate students, graduate students, researchers, and interested public libraries

Thomas Cash

Affiliations and Expertise

Fellow, Association for Psychological Science, Professor Emeritus of Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA

Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance, 1st Edition

Editor-in-Chief

Associate Editors

List of Contributors

Guide to Using the Encyclopedia

Preface

Foreword

Volume 1

Amputations and Prosthetic Devices

Introduction

Amputation and Body Image

Factors Influencing Body Image Adaptation

Conclusions and Recommendations for Clinical Care

see also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Anorexia Nervosa

Introduction

Body Image Disturbance in Anorexia Nervosa

Comparisons of BID in AN to BID in Other EDs

Mechanisms of BID in AN

Effective Treatment for BID

Conclusions

see also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Anthropological Perspectives on Physical Appearance and Body Image

Introduction

Anthropological Findings in the Study of Human Appearance

Anthropological Study of Body Image

Methodological Innovations

Conclusions

see also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Anthropometry

Introduction

Body Fat

Torso Shape

Symmetry Measures

Facial Anthropometry

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Appearance Discrimination and the Law

Introduction

Legal Landscape of Weight Discrimination: Key Examples

Current Status of Legislation to Prohibit Appearance Discrimination

Potential Legislative Alternatives and Solutions

Does the Public Support Laws to Prohibit Appearance Discrimination?

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Bariatric Surgery for Weight Loss

Defining Obesity

Bariatric Surgery Procedures and Outcomes

Evaluation of Candidates for Bariatric Surgery

Psychosocial Characteristics of Bariatric Surgery Candidates

Additional Preoperative Psychosocial Issues

Postoperative Outcomes

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Beauty over the Centuries – Female

Introduction

The Historical Method and a Focal Example

The Shift to Image-Based Mass Media

How Consumer Culture Promoted an Ideological Shift

Shaping the Body through Clothing

Mass Media and Leisure

Emphasis on the Physical Self

Girls’ Organizations

The Importance of Eugenics

Controlling the Body from the Inside: Eating and Athletics

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Beauty over the Centuries – Male

Introduction

The Pythagorean View of Beauty

Muscular Ideal

Leanness and Youthfulness

Well Roundedness and Plumpness

Nonphysical Standards of Beauty and the Wen/Wan Dichotomy

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketches

Body Art

Introduction

A Brief History of Body Art

Motivations for Obtaining Body Art

Behavioral and Personality Correlates of Obtaining Body Art

Perceptions of Body Art

Future Directions

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Biographical Sketches

Bodybuilding

Bodybuilding: Definition and a Brief History

The Drive for Muscularity

Muscle Dysmorphia

Three Models of Potential Causes of Muscle Dysmorphia

Anabolic Steroid Use in Bodybuilders

Possible Treatments for Muscle Dysmorphia

Future Research on Body Image and Muscle Dysmorphia in Bodybuilders

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Introduction

Prevalence/Epidemiology

Clinical Features of BDD

BDD in Special Populations

A Patient with BDD: Case Description

Neural Substrates and Cognitive/Emotional Processing

Psychological Correlates

Assessing and Diagnosing BDD

Treatment Approaches

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Body Height

Introduction

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Body Image among African Americans

Introduction

African American Body Image – The Current Consensus

Exposing the Limits of Racial Framing in Understanding Body Image

Toward Culture and the Explication of Similarity and Difference in Body Image among African Americans

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Body Image among Asian Americans

Introduction

Sociocultural Influences

Interpersonal Influences

Individual Factors

Research Implications

Clinical Recommendations

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Body Image among Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Individuals

Introduction

Sexual Minorities’ Perceptions of Appearance

Variability within Gay and Lesbian Communities

Intersectionality

Bisexual Body Image

Measuring Sexual Orientation

Directions for Future Research

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketches

Body Image among Hispanics/Latinos

The Prevalence of Body Image Concerns

Consequences of a Negative Body Image

Predictors of Positive and Negative Body Image

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketches

Body Image among Older Adults

Introduction: Body Image Concerns and the Ideal Older Body

The Development of a Sense of Self

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Body Image and “Fat Talk”

Introduction

Historical and Theoretical Context for Fat Talk

Proposed Functions of Fat Talk

Empirical Exploration of Fat Talk

Research Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research

Concluding Comments

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Body Image and Gender Roles

Introduction

Body Image Ideals for Girls and Women

Body Image Ideals for Boys and Men

Contemporary Gender Role Norms and the Body

Women’s Bodies and Femininity

Men’s Bodies and Masculinity

Comparing Women and Men

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Body Image and Personality

Introduction

Why Should Personality Predict Body Image?

Associations with Specific Personality Traits

Common Explanatory Mechanisms: Personality Variables as Moderators

Conclusion and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketches

Body Image and Self-Esteem

Introduction

Definitions of Body Image and Self-Esteem

Measurement of Body Image and Self-Esteem

Associations between Self-Esteem and Body Image

Associations with Pubertal Status, Body Size, Ethnicity, Culture, and Sport

Interventions to Improve Body Image via Promotion of Self-Esteem

What We Know about the Links between Body Image and Self-Esteem – Summary of Issues in Program Success

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Body Image and Sexual Functioning

Introduction

Body Image and Sexual Functioning with a Partner

Body Image Based on Breasts and Genitals

Body Image and Sexual Risk Taking

Questions in Need of Answers

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Body Image and Social Class

Introduction

The Body and Social Position

Body Image Dissatisfaction and Social Position

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Body Image and Sports/Athletics

Introduction

Multiple Body Images and Ideals

Body Image, Disturbed Eating, and Other Disorders among Athletes

The Sport Culture as a Risk Factor

Creating a Body-Healthy Sport Environment

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Body Image Behaviors

Introduction

Body Checking Behavior

Appearance Fixing

Body Image Avoidance

Treatment of Body Image Behaviors

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Body Image Change and Prevention

Introduction

Research Support

Additional Research Support

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Biographical Sketch

Body Image Development – Adolescent Boys

Introduction: Nature of Body Image Concerns

Measurement

Type and Prevalence of Problems

Body Image Concerns across Cultures

Biological Factors

Sociocultural Influences

Individual Factors

Further Considerations

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Body Image Development – Adolescent Girls

Introduction

Overview of Body Image in Adolescent Girls

Factors in the Development of Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Girls

Longitudinal Research

Conclusions and Future Research Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Body Image Development – Adult Men

Introduction: Male Body Ideals

Rates of Body Dissatisfaction

Antecedents to Body Dissatisfaction

Behavioral Consequences of Body Dissatisfaction

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Body Image Development – Adult Women

Introduction

Social Pressure to Maintain a Youthful Appearance

Age-Related Changes in Body Image

Making Sense of Greater Body Satisfaction in Older Women

Challenges in Interpreting Data on Age Differences in Body Image

Cultural and Ethnic Group Differences

Using What We Know about Body Image in Older Women to Increase Body Satisfaction in Younger Women

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Body Image Development – Boy Children

Introduction: Defining of Body Image

Nature of Body Image Focus for Males

Prevalence of Body Image Concerns among Preadolescent Boys

Level of Body Image Dissatisfaction and Developmental Trends

Factors Associated with Body Image Concerns

Individual and Psychological Factors

Cultural Differences in Body Image

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Body Image Development – Girl Children

Introduction

Development of Body Image

Risk and Protective Factors in the Development of Body Image

Effects of Negative Body Image

Conclusions and Future Research

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Body Image

Introduction

The Impact of Verbal Messages

The Impact of Family Members’ Own Attitudes and Behaviors

Family Atmosphere and Functioning

Importance of Family Influences Relative to Other Influences on Body Image

Individual Differences

Limits and Implications

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Body Image in Dance and Aesthetic Sports

Introduction

Body Image and Dance

Body Image and Aesthetic Sports

Possible Explanatory Factors

Conclusions: Unique Nature of These Pursuits

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Body Image in Mood and Psychotic Disorders

Introduction

Body Image and Depression

Body Image in Bipolar Disorder

Body Image in Schizophrenia

Body Image in Delusional Disorder

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketches

Body Image in Non-Western Societies

Introduction

Body and Person in Comparative Perspective

Body Modification

Beauty Industries in a Global Economy

Eating Disorders in Non-Western Nations

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Biographical Sketch

Body Image in Social Contexts

Introduction

Social Aspects of Body Image

The Impact of Body Image on Social Functioning

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Body Image Issues among Individuals with HIV and AIDS

Introduction

Appearance Changes Associated with HIV/AIDS and Psychosocial Impact

Appearance Changes Associated with HIV Treatment and Psychosocial Impact

The Role of Stigma

Initiation and Adherence to Treatment and Body Image

Interventions to Address Body Image Issues

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Body Image

Introduction

Conceptual Model of Body Image and Peer Influences

Peer Influence

Friends and Cliques

Peer Reputational Popularity and Acceptance

Peer Evaluations: Teasing and Sexual Harassment

Romantic Partners

Sociocultural Contributions to Peer Influence: The Case of the School Context

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Body Weight and Body Image in Adults

Introduction: Body Image and Body Mass Index

Weight Loss and Body Image

Weight Gain and Body Image

Ethnicity, Weight, and Body Image

Protective Factors

Gender, Weight, and Body Image

Binge Eating Disorder and Body Image

Obesity Stigma and Body Image

Gender Differences in Obesity Stigma

Obesity Stigma, Body Image, and Weight-Related Health

Body Image in Underweight Individuals

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Biographical Sketch

Body Weight and Body Image in Children and Adolescents

Introduction

Associations between Weight Status and Body Image

Sequelae

Mechanisms

Interventions

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Breast Reconstruction and Breast Reduction Surgeries

Introduction

Breast Reconstruction

Breast Reduction

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Breast Size

Introduction

Evolution of the Breasts: Explanations of Why Women Have Permanent Breasts

Sexual Arousal and Breast Stimulation

The Sexualizing of the Breast for Men

The Breast in Pornography

What Makes Women Beautiful

Population Dynamics and Beauty

Breasts in the Media

The Development of Self and Self-Esteem

The Development of Body Image Dissatisfaction

Objectification and Self-Objectification of the Breast

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder

Bulimia Nervosa

Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in Bulimia Nervosa

Body Image Disturbance in Bulimia Nervosa

Binge Eating Disorder

Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in Binge Eating Disorder

Body Image Disturbance in Binge Eating Disorder

Addressing Body Image Disturbance in Treatment

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Burn Injuries

Introduction

Epidemiology

Stages of Psychological Adaptation during the Course of Recovery from Burns

Stigmatization and Social Integration after a Burn Injury

Interventions for Negative Body Image and Social Discomfort

Interventions in the Social Environment and Advocacy Groups

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Cancers

Introduction

Appearance-Changing Effects of Cancer Treatments

Multidimensional Features of Cancer-Related Appearance Changes

Clinical Applications

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Children’s Media Influences

Introduction

Children’s Exposure to the Media

Internalization of Unrealistic Body Ideals and the Link to Media Exposure

Research on Children’s Media

Prevention Efforts

Conclusion and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Clothing and Adornment

Introduction

Clothing and Adornment: Effects on Individuals

Clothing and Adornment: Effects on Interactions

Future Research and Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy

Introduction

Typical Components of BI CBT and Their Goals

Research Designs Typically Used to Study BI CBT

The Impact of BI CBT on the Dimensions of Body Image

The Impact of BI CBT on Psychological Well-Being

Who Benefits Most: Clinical or Nonclinical Populations?

BI CBT for Overweight and Obese Individuals

BI CBT for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

BI CBT for Eating Pathology and Eating Disorders

Effectiveness of BI CBT with Various Levels of Therapist Contact

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectives on Body Image

Introduction

Key Body Image Constructs

Historical and Developmental Influences

Body Image Perceptions and Attitudes

Proximal Events and Processes

Cognitive Behavioral Applications

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Biographical Sketch

Congenital Craniofacial and Maxillofacial Malformations

Introduction

Types of Congenital Craniofacial and Maxillofacial Conditions with the Potential to Affect Body Image

Body Image and Congenital Conditions

Factors Associated (and Not Associated) with Adjustment in Relation to Body Image Issues

Current Developments in Interventions to Address Body Image Issues for People Affected by Congenital Conditions

Future Research, Health-Care, and Societal Agendas

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Cosmetic Surgical and Non-Surgical Procedures for the Face

Introduction

Type-Changing Facial Cosmetic Surgeries

Antiaging Facial Cosmetic Surgeries

Minimally Invasive Facial Cosmetic Procedures

Motivational Factors in the Pursuit of Facial Cosmetic Procedures

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Biographical Sketch

Cosmetic Surgical Procedures for the Body

Introduction

Cosmetic Breast Augmentation

Body Contouring Procedures

Other Body Enhancement Procedures

Psychiatric Disorders and Cosmetic Surgery of the Body

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Cosmetics Use

Introduction

History of Cosmetics Use

Purposes of Cosmetics Use

Efficacy of Cosmetics Use

Cosmetics Use and Facial Attractiveness

Other Perceptions of People Wearing Cosmetics

Individual Differences in Cosmetics Use

Cosmetics Use and Gender

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Dental and Orthodontic Treatments

Introduction

The Normal Development of the Dento-Facial Region

Conditions That Affect the Appearance of the Mouth, Teeth, and Smile

Perceptions and Attributions as a Function of Dento-Facial Appearance

The Role of Dental Treatment with respect to Appearance

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Dieting (Chronic)

Introduction and Definitions

Background on Chronic Dieting in Normal-Weight Individuals

Current Perspectives on Chronic Dieting, Body Image, and Weight

Dieting in Men and Minority Populations

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketches

Dolls and Action Figures

Introduction: Toys and Identity Development

Dolls and Action Figures as Embodiments of Sociocultural Body Ideals

The Impact of Exposure to Action Figures and Dolls

Summing Up and Looking Ahead

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Drug Use, Appearance- and Performance-Enhancing

What are Appearance- and Performance-Enhancing Drugs?

Body Image and APED Use

Women and APEDs

Diagnosis and Psychopathology in APED Use

Conclusions and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Biographical Sketches

Endocrine Conditions

Introduction

Osteoporosis

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

Acromegaly

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Hirsutism

Interventions and Clinical Implications

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Evolutionary Perspectives on Physical Appearance

Introduction

Facial Attractiveness

Bodily Attractiveness

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Biographical Sketches

Exercise

Introduction

The Effects of Exercise on Body Image

How Does Exercise Improve Body Image?

Factors That Moderate the Effects of Exercise on Body Image

Can a Single Bout of Exercise Enhance Body Image?

When Exercise Turns Bad – Compulsive Exercise

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Experiential and Somatopsychic Approaches to Body Image Change

Introduction: Defining Body Image

Premise

Relevance to Clients and Clinicians

Touchstones from the Past: Old Frontiers for Exploration

Somatic-Centered Approaches

Empirical Support for Experiential and Somatopsychic Methods

Back to the Future

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Face and Body in Motion

Introduction

Nonverbal Communication in Impression Formation

Nonverbal Communication and Physical Attractiveness

Individual Differences in Nonverbal Expressive Style

Methodologies for Studying Nonverbal Communication Processes

Implications for Research

Implications for Practice

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Face and Hand Transplantation

From Science Fiction to a Reconstructive Option: The Rationale for Face and Hand Transplantation

Ethical, Technical, and Immunological Issues

Identity and Body Image Aspects of Transplantation

Appearance and Body Image Aspects of Facial Transplantation

Cortical Changes

Facial Transplantation and Models of Body Image

Supporting Body Image Reintegration in the Clinical Setting

Outcomes of Facial Transplantation Procedures from 2005

Conclusion: The Future of Facial Transplantation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Feminist Perspectives on Body Image and Physical Appearance

Introduction

Feminist Theories about the Body

Feminist Research on the Body

Change and Resistance

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Volume 2

Gender Disorder, Transgenderism and Transsexuality

Introduction

Terminology

Description of the Phenomenon

Gender Dysphoria

Gender Role Presentation

Assessment and Treatment

Feminizing and Masculinizing Medical Interventions

Passing or Affirmation of Transgender Identity and Appearance

Sexual Attractiveness, Competence, and Health

Body Image

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Genetics and Human Appearance

Introduction

Assessing Genetic Influences on a Trait

Objective Appearance

Genetic Disorders of Human Appearance

Subjective Perceptions of Appearance

Psychological Disorders

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Genitalia

Introduction

Images of Genitalia in Art and in the Public Forum

What is Normal?

Religious and Cultural Influences to Alter Genitalia

Male Circumcision

Female Circumcision, Female Genital Mutilation, and Female Genital Cutting

Cosmetically Driven Genital Surgery

Medically Recognized Genital Anomalies and Conditions

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Gynecologic Conditions and Body Image

Introduction

Body Image and Puberty

Body Image and Pelvic Pain

Body Image and Sexual Abuse

Body Image and Sexually Transmitted Infections

Body Image and Infertility and Miscarriage

Body Image and Cosmetic Gynecologic Surgery

Body Image and Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy

Body Image and Menopause

Body Image and Gynecologic Precancerous and Cancerous Conditions

Body Image and Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Incontinence

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant-Websites

Biographical Sketches

Hair

Introduction

Hirsutism

Facial Hair

Body Hair Preferences and Challenges to Cultural Norms

Women’s Body Depilation

Men’s Body Depilation

Health Concerns Associated with the Appearance of Body Hair and Its Depilation

Theoretical Considerations

Future Directions in the Research of Facial and Body Hair

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Hair Loss Effects and Surgical/Drug Treatments for the Alopecias

Introduction: Types of Alopecia

Causes of Hair Loss

Psychological Correlates and Consequences of Hair Loss

Cancer Treatment and Hair Loss

Coping with Hair Loss

Medical Treatments for Alopecia

Surgical Procedures for Hair Loss

Psychological Therapies

Cosmetic Measures and Fashion

Areas for Future Research

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Hair Styling and Coloring

Significance of Hair

Hair Color and Its Significance

Hair Length and Its Significance

Various Hair Textures

African Hair Texture and Its Significance

Sampling of Most Popular Styles and Their Significance

Hair as Statement

The Cost of Beauty

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Internalization of Thin-Ideal and Muscular-Ideal

Introduction

Theoretical Models and Research Findings

Measurement of Internalization

Cognitive Dissonance-Based Interventions for Internalization

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Biographical Sketches

Measurement and Stability of Physical Attractiveness Judgments

Introduction

The Measurement Scale

The Nature of the Stimulus

Facial and Body Features Influence on Attractiveness Ratings: Historico-Cultural Effects

Individual Differences and Group Agreement on Attractiveness

Interactional Effects on Attractiveness Judgments

A Comprehensive Psychological Interpretation of Physical Attractiveness

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Biographical Sketch

Measurement of Body Image in Adolescence and Adulthood

Introduction

Overview of Dimensions of Body Image

Methodological Issues: Participant and Sample Variables

Methodological Issues: Design, Procedural, and Analysis Issues

Conclusions and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Measurement of Body Image in Childhood

Introduction

Body Image Assessment of Self

Assessment of Perceptions of Others’ Bodies

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Measurement of Perceptual Body Image

Introduction: Body Image and Body Image Disturbance

Clinical Relevance of Body Size Overestimation

Early Studies Measuring Body Size Estimation

Methodological Issues Assessing Body Size Estimation

Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Measurement of Physical Self-Confidence/Competence

Introduction

Why Are Physical Self-Perceptions Important?

Historical Developments in the Measurement of Physical Self-Perceptions: A Brief Overview

Instruments Used to Measure Physical Self-Confidence and Competence: What Does the Evidence Say?

Key Considerations in Selecting an Instrument to Measure Physical Self-Confidence and/or Competence

Concluding Remarks and Future Directions: What Is Next for Physical Self-Perception Measurement?

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Media Influences on Female Body Image

Introduction

Criterion 1: Media Content

Criterion 2: Media Exposure and Body Image

Criterion 3: Media Exposure and the Prediction of Body Image

Criterion 4: Experimental Evidence – Laboratory Research

Criterion 5: Media Literacy and Prevention

Criterion 6: Effects of Perceived or Subjective Media Pressure

Criterion 7: The When and How of Media Influence – Mediating and Moderating Processes

Summary and Integration of Evidence for Media as a Causal Risk Factor

Conclusions and Implications

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Media Influences on Male Body Image

Introduction

Media Representations of the Male Body

Media Influences on Male Body Image across the Life Span

Factors That Influence the Extent to which Media Affects Male Body Image

Theoretical Explanations for the Influence of Media on Male Body Image

Strategies to Address Media Influence on Male Body Image

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Medically Induced (Iatrogenic) Adverse Changes in Appearance

Introduction

Skin and Hair Changes

Body Form Changes

Body Attachments

Facial Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Muscularity and Body Image

Introduction

Psychosocial Correlates

Behavioral Correlates

Muscularity in the Media

Clinical Outcomes

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Neuroscientific Perspectives on Body Image

Introduction

An Overview of Important Structural and Functional Elements of the Brain

Defining Terms

The Role of the Brain in Normal Body Image

The Role of the Brain in Disorders of Body Image

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Objectification Theory, Self-Objectification, and Body Image

Objectification Theory

Empirical Support for the Objectification Theory Framework

Measurement of Self-Objectification

Intersectionality in Objectification Theory

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Occupational and Economic Consequences of Physical Attractiveness

Introduction

Occupational Outcomes

Explaining Occupational Biases

Can Beauty Backfire?

Occupational Outcomes across Cultures and Time

Limitations and Conclusion

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketches

Physical Appearance and Stigma

Introduction

Origins of Stigma

Nature and Extent of Weight Stigmatization

Consequences of Weight Stigma for Adults and Youth

Stigma Induced by Other Aspects of Physical Appearance

Remedies to Reduce Stigma: Shifting Societal Attitudes

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Physical Appearance Changes across Adulthood – Men

Introduction

Physical Appearance and Aging

Young Adulthood

Mid-adulthood

Later Adulthood

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Physical Appearance Changes across Adulthood – Women

Introduction

Women and Specific Physical Appearance Changes

General Attitudes toward Aging and the Changing Body

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Physical Appearance Changes in Childhood and Adolescence – Boys

Introduction

Children’s Awareness of the Human Body

Biological Changes in Childhood and Adolescence

Measurement of Physical Appearance Changes

Psychological Aspects of Physical Appearance Changes

Physical Development and Sexuality

Unexplored Areas of Research

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketches

Physical Appearance Changes in Childhood and Adolescence – Girls

Introduction

Prenatal Development

Childhood

Measuring Puberty

Sequence of Visible Pubertal Development

Causes of Pubertal Development

Psychosocial Development and Puberty

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Physical Attractiveness and Personality

Introduction

Judging a Book by Its Cover: Stereotypes or Realities?

Explanations of Actual Differences

Is Beauty but Skin Deep?

How Observer Personality Affects Perceptions and Reactions to Physical Attractiveness

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Physical Attractiveness

Introduction

The ‘Beautiful Is Good’ Bias

Reactions to Attractive People

When Is Physical Attractiveness Most Important in Romantic Relationships?

Sex Differences in the Importance of Physical Attractiveness

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketches

Physical Attractiveness Stereotyping

Introduction

The Physical Attractiveness Stereotype

Outcomes of the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype

Development of the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Physical Disability and Body Image in Adults

Overview and Concepts

Body Image and Psychological Adaptation to Disability

Developmental Factors Related to Body Image Adjustment

Psychoprosthetics

Interpersonal Aspects of Body Image and Disability

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Physical Disability and Body Image in Children

Introduction: Conceptual Approaches to Physical Disability and Body Image

Disability Experience and Narrative Approaches

Developmental Processes and Body Image

The Body in Clinical and Therapeutic Encounters

Participation, Managing Appearances, and Stigma

Body Image in Media and Technology

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Positive Psychology Perspectives on Body Image

Introduction

What is Positive Psychology?

Characteristics of Positive Body Image

Processes of Positive Body Image

Measuring Positive Body Image

Cultural, Gender, and Age Considerations

Promoting Positive Body Image

Conclusion and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Pregnancy

Introduction

Physical Changes during Pregnancy

Body Image Changes during Pregnancy

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Preventing Body Image Problems

Introduction

Are Digitally Delivered Psychoeducational Interventions for Body Image Improvement Effective?

Are Digitally Delivered Interventions Based on Emotional Processing Theory for Body Image Improvement Effective?

Advantages and Disadvantages of Digitally Delivered Interventions

What Important Questions Remain Unanswered?

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Preventing Body Image Problems

Introduction

Ecological and Activism Approaches: Definitions, Theoretical Perspectives, and Related Research

Examples of the Application of Ecological and Activism Approaches to the Prevention of Eating Disorders

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Preventing Body Image Problems

Introduction

Overview of the Field of Public Policy

Securing Government Policy Action for Preventing Body Image Problems

Appropriate Public Policy Targets for Prevention of Body Image Problems

Legislation

Nonbinding Industry Codes of Conduct and Pledges

Social Marketing

Public Policy and School-Based and Community Initiatives

Evaluation of Public Policy Initiatives

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Biographical Sketch

Preventing Body Image Problems

Introduction

Historical Trends in School-Based Programs to Promote Body Image

Concerns and Evidence about Iatrogenesis in School-Based Programs to Improve Body Image

Different Types of School-Based Programs to Improve Body Image

Summary of Programs and Outcomes in Grade Schools, Middle Schools, and High Schools

Issues of Program Fidelity and Program Delivery

The Universal Versus Targeted Program Debate and Issues of Measurement of Program Effectiveness

Inclusion of Males in School-Based Body Image Programs

Recommendations for Future Research and Programs

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Psychodynamic Perspectives on Body Image

Introduction

The Classical Drive Model

The Object Relations Model

Self-Psychology

An Integrative Approach

A Core Conflictual Relationship Theme Formulation of Body Image

Critique of the Psychodynamic Approaches to Body Image

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Psychological Trauma and Body Image

Introduction

Defining Childhood Trauma

Assessment of Childhood Trauma

The Relationship of Psychological Trauma and Eating Disorders

Association of Abuse and Body Image: Nature of the Association

Theoretical Speculations Regarding the Relationship of Psychological Trauma and Body Image

Clinical Aspects of the Psychological Trauma and Associations with Body Image

Treatment Issues and Approaches

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketches

Race, Ethnicity, and Human Appearance

Introduction

Race, Ethnicity, and the Biology of Beauty – Historical Perspectives

Ethnicity, Race, and Beauty in Culture

Beauty and the Dynamism of Culture

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Self-Discrepancy Theory and Body Image

Introduction to Self-Discrepancy Theory

Assessment of Self-Discrepancies

Self-Discrepancy and Body Image

Self-Discrepancy and Weight/Appearance-Related Behaviors

Implications of Self-Discrepancy for Prevention and Intervention Efforts

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Self-Guided Weight Loss

Introduction

Strategies Commonly Used By Self-Guided Dieters: Description and Effectiveness

Lessons from the National Weight Control Registry

Sources of Support for Self-Guided Dieters

Conclusions and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Self-Mutilation and Excoriation

Introduction

Debates over Meanings and Interventions

DSH and Cultural Models

Alternative Perspectives on DSH: Cross-Cultural and Historical Examples

Sexual Violence and Strategies of Survival

Conclusions and Recommendations

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Skin Color

Introduction

Skin Bleaching

Predictors of Skin Bleaching

Skin Darkening

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketches

Skin Conditions

Introduction

Types of Skin Condition

Skin Conditions and the Appearance Aspect of Body Image

Psychosocial Assessment and Intervention

Conclusions and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Smoking and Body Image

Introduction

Smoking Prevalence and Gender

Smoking and Weight Concern

Going Beyond Weight Concern: Body Shame, Body Monitoring, General Appearance Satisfaction, and Smoking

Appearance-Related Smoking Cessation Interventions

Using Appearance Concerns to Reduce Smoking Initiation in Young People

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Social Comparison Theory and Body Image

Introduction

Social Comparison Theory

Social Comparison Theory and Body Image

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Sociocultural Perspectives on Body Image

Introduction

Overview of the Sociocultural Model

Evidence in Support of the Sociocultural Model

Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research

Implications for Body Image Interventions

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketch

Surveys and the Epidemiology of Body Image Dissatisfaction

Introduction

Meta-analyses and Reviews of Group Differences in Body Dissatisfaction

Overview of Large-Scale Studies of Body Image

Pictorial Measures

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketches

Tanning

Introduction

Theoretical Models

Measurement of Body Image and Appearance-Related Tanning Constructs

Appearance-Based Interventions

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketches

Teasing, Appearance-Related

Introduction

Teasing Measurement

Targets of Appearance-Related Teasing

Teasing by Parents and Siblings

Appearance-Related Teasing Outcomes

Teasing Prevention

Summary and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Biographical Sketch

Traumatic Injuries and Body Image

Introduction

Body Image and Appearance Concerns

Body Image and Psychosocial Functioning following Traumatic Injury

Recommendations for Clinical Assessment and Treatment

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Biographical Sketch

Weight-Loss Programs

Introduction

Commercial Weight Loss Programs

Medically Supervised Commercial Weight Loss Programs

Internet-Based Commercial Weight Loss Programs

Self-Help Programs

Popular Diets

Diets of Varying Macronutrient Composition

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Biographical Sketches

Subject Classification Index

Subject Index

 
 
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