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Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
 
 

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), 2nd Edition

 
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), 2nd Edition,Laurence Cole,ISBN9780128007495
 
 
 

  

Elsevier

9780128007495

9780128008218

446

229 X 152

Comprehensive review of the role of hCG in cancer and disease development

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Key Features

  • It provides comprehensive information on hCG from basic science to clinical medicine
  • The second edition will include coverage of the many new discoveries that have been made in the last five years
  • Updated material with new findings in the field

Description

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is produced during pregnancy by the embryo. It promotes progesterone production by corpus luteal cells. It also functions in pregnancy to promote angiogenesis in uterine vasculature, it immuno-blands the invading placental tissue so it is not rejected by the maternal uterine tissues, promotes the growth of the uterus in line with the growth of the fetus, promotes the differentiation of growing cytotrophoblast cells, promotes the quiescence of contractions in the uterine myometrium during the course of pregnancy, and also has function in growth and development of fetal organs.

The first edition described the detailed biology, clinical chemistry, and clinical perspectives of hCG and associated molecules, and examines hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and hCG free ß-subunit, 3 separate and independent molecules with totally sovereign physiological functions.

The second edition will include coverage of the many new discoveries that have been made in the last five years: hCG analogues may be the actual driving signal of all human cancers. The editor estimates that 40% of the out of date material will be excluded and replaced with 40% of the exciting new findings. The book will also have a much clearer pregnancy and cancer focus.

Readership

Researchers in reproductive medicine, oncology, and endocrinology

Laurence Cole

Dr. Cole has served on the journal editorial board from 1994-2001 as the Editor of “Trophoblast Disease Update”. He has written more than 100 articles on hCG structure, physiology and immunoassay and on clinical applications of hCG or hCG-related molecules. He has a 1.17 FWCI in the Medicine category of SciVal where he has published throughout the various disciplines and maintains an average of 12.6 citations per article from 2009-2014. He has experience with international, single, and institutional collaboration. Awards and recognition for Dr. Cole include the Institute for Anticancer Research, Biannual Prize for best research; American Association for Clinical Chemistry, Most Outstanding Research Contributor to Clinical Chemistry Prize; Gynecology Oncology, Outstanding Speaker Award; and International Society for Study of Trophoblastic Disease, Gold Medal for most outstanding research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Departments of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of New Mexico; Director, USA hCG Reference Service, Santa Fe, NM, USA

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), 2nd Edition

  • List of Contributors
  • About the Editors
    • Laurence A. Cole, PhD
    • Stephen A. Butler, PhD
  • Preface
    • References
  • Abbreviations
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • Part A: Introduction
    • 1. The expanding world of hCG
      • References
    • 2. History and introduction to human chorionic gonadotropin, a group of five independent growth factors
      • 2.1 History
      • 2.2 The pregnancy test
      • 2.3 Introduction to hCG
      • References
  • Part B: Synthesis, Structure and Function
    • 3. The molecular genetics of hCG
      • 3.1 The LH/hCG gene cluster
      • 3.2 Control of hCG gene expression: hCGa
      • 3.3 Control of hCG gene expression: hCGß
      • 3.4 Summary
      • References
    • 4. Structure, synthesis, and secretion of hCG and hyperglycosylated hCG
      • 4.1 Amino acid sequence of hCG
      • 4.2 Carbohydrate structure of hCG
      • 4.3 hCG primary structure
      • 4.4 hCG secondary structure
      • 4.5 hCG tertiary structure
      • 4.6 hCG quaternary structure
      • 4.7 Combination of hCG subunits
      • 4.8 Synthesis and secretion of hCG
      • References
    • 5. Three-dimensional structures of hCG and hyperglycosylated hCG
      • 5.1 X-ray crystallography
      • 5.2 Refining this model
      • References
    • 6. Structures of hCG free a-subunit and free ß-subunit
      • 6.1 Free a-subunit
      • 6.2 Free ß-subunit
      • References
    • 7. Glycobiology of hCG
      • 7.1 Characteristic features of the sugar chains of glycoproteins
      • 7.2 Biosynthetic pathways of sugar chains of glycoproteins to form characteristic features
      • 7.3 The hCG sugar chains from urine of pregnant women and placenta
      • 7.4 Characteristic features of the sugar chains of free a-subunit
      • 7.5 Comparative studies of the N-linked sugar chains of hCG
      • 7.6 Alteration induced in the O-linked sugar chains of hCG by malignant transformation of trophoblasts
      • 7.7 Altered expression of GnT-IV in choriocarcinoma cells
      • 7.8 Glycosylated hCG as a diagnostic marker of trophoblastic diseases
      • 7.9 Functional role of the hCG sialic acid residues
      • 7.10 Future prospects
      • References
    • 8. Detecting hCG and hCG variants using MALDI-ToF-MS
      • References
    • 9. The hCG/LH hormone receptor
      • References
    • 10. TGFß-II autocrine receptor
      • References
  • Part C: Continuous Dissociation and Degradation
    • 11. Degradation products of hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, and free ß-subunit
      • 11.1 Pure hCG preparations
      • 11.2 Nicking and enzyme cleavage
      • 11.3 Dissociation
      • 11.4 Liver clearance
      • 11.5 Degradation with pregnancy advancement
      • 11.6 Degradation in cancer
      • References
  • Part D: Biological Function: Pregnancy
    • 12. Pregnancy-1, functions during preimplantation and during blastocyst implantation
      • 12.1 Preimplantation
      • 12.2 Hyperglycosylated hCG function
      • 12.3 Blastocyst implantation
      • 12.4 Hyperglycosylated hCG the human time bomb
      • References
    • 13. Pregnancy-2, maintenance of gestation
      • References
    • 14. Pregnancy-3, creation and continuation of hemochorial placentation
      • References
    • 15. Paradigm shift on the targets of hCG actions
      • 15.1 Summary and perspectives
      • References
  • Part E: Biological Function: Normal Pituitary
    • 16. Pituitary sulfated hCG
      • 16.1 Structure of pituitary sulfated hCG
      • 16.2 Biological function of pituitary sulfated hCG
      • 16.3 Occurrence of pituitary sulfated hCG
      • References
  • Part F: Biological Function: Evolution
    • 17. Evolution
      • 17.1 TGFß and evolution of hCG
      • 17.2 Evolution of hCG and hyperglycosylated hCG
      • 17.3 hCG, hyperglycosylation, and the evolution of humans
      • 17.4 Hominids and the evolution of the brain
      • 17.5 hCG evolution and the development of pregnancy disorders
      • 17.6 hCG and cancer
      • 17.7 All tied together
      • References
  • Part G: Biological Function: Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
    • 18. Biological functions of hyperglycosylated hCG
      • 18.1 Discovery of hyperglycosylated hCG
      • 18.2 Hyperglycosylated hCG, independent molecule to hCG
      • 18.3 Hyperglycosylated hCG binds a TGFß receptor
      • References
    • 19. Gestational trophoblastic diseases
      • 19.1 Gestational trophoblastic diseases
      • 19.2 Complete hydatidiform mole
      • 19.3 Partial hydatidiform mole
      • 19.4 Persistent or invasive hydatidiform mole
      • 19.5 Gestational trophoblastic neoplasm
      • 19.6 Placental site trophoblastic disease
      • 19.7 Epithelioid trophoblastic disease
      • 19.8 hCG and gestational trophoblastic disease
      • 19.9 Hyperglycosylated hCG and gestational trophoblastic diseases
      • References
  • Part H: Biological Function: Cancer
    • 20. Cancer-1, hCG variants as tumor markers
      • References
    • 21. Cancer-2, hCG variants drive malignancies
      • References
    • 22. Cancer-3, tying everything together
      • References
    • 23. Expression and Biological Function of the Free ß-Subunit in Cancer: Expression and Treatment Target in Cancer
      • 23.1 hCGß gene expression in cancer
      • 23.2 hCGß expression in epithelial cancer
      • 23.3 The biological action of hCGß on epithelial tumors
      • 23.4 hCG cancer vaccines
      • 23.5 Summary
      • References
    • 24. hCG and breast cancer conundrum
      • References
  • Part I: Clinical Applications
    • 25. Use of hCG in reproductive dysfunction
      • 25.1 Historical overview and perspective
      • 25.2 Considerations of hCG administration within clinical protocols
      • 25.3 Timing administration of hCG-ultrasound monitoring, progesterone patterns, and endogenous LH surge patterns
      • 25.4 Risks of ovulation management with hCG
      • 25.5 Efficacy of LUF syndrome
      • 25.6 Considerations of hCG administration for timing IUI
      • 25.7 High-order multiple pregnancies
      • References
    • 26. hCG in assisted reproduction
      • 26.1 The ovarian cycle and hCG use in assisted reproduction
      • 26.2 The follicular phase: the role of LH
      • 26.3 The periovulatory phase and the mid-cycle LH surge
      • 26.4 The follicular-luteal transition
      • 26.5 The luteal-placental shift
      • 26.6 The potential role of hCG in implantation
      • 26.7 hCG in the management of normal pregnancy
      • 26.8 Hyperstimulation syndrome
      • 26.9 hCG in the management of ectopic pregnancy
      • 26.10 Conclusions
      • References
    • 27. Illicit use of hCG in dietary programs and to promote anabolism
      • 27.1 Dietary programs
      • 27.2 hCG and anabolism promotion
      • 27.3 hCG variants as dangerous substances
      • References
    • 28. Positive hCG tests: Causes other than pregnancy
      • 28.1 False-positive hCG test results
      • 28.2 Pituitary hCG
      • 28.3 Quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease
      • 28.4 Cancer
      • 28.5 Choriocarcinoma/gestational trophoblastic neoplasm
      • 28.6 Munchausen’s syndrome
      • 28.7 Familial hCG syndrome
      • 28.8 Administering hCG
      • 28.9 Managing non-pregnant individuals positive for hCG
      • References
  • Part J: Assays and Antibodies
    • 29. Antibodies and hCG tests
      • 29.1 Antibody sites on hCG
      • 29.2 Radioimmunoassay
      • 29.3 Laboratory immunometric assays
      • 29.4 Point-of-care hCG immunoassays
      • 29.5 Over-the-counter hCG immunoassays
      • 29.6 Specific hCG free subunit, fragment, and carbohydrate variant assays
      • References
    • 30. Problems with today’s hCG pregnancy tests
      • 30.1 Automated immunometric assays
      • 30.2 Problems with automated immunometric hCG assays and specificity
      • 30.3 Sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care hCG immunoassays
      • 30.4 Sensitivity and specificity of over-the-counter immunoassays
      • References
    • 31. The future and a new generation of pregnancy tests
      • References
  • Part K: Test Applications and Standards
    • 32. Detecting Down syndrome pregnancies and preeclampsia
      • 32.1 Down syndrome screening
      • 32.2 Preeclampsia screening
      • References
    • 33. The biology of gestational trophoblastic neoplasms
      • 33.1 Complete hydatidiform mole
      • 33.2 Partial hydatidiform mole
      • 33.3 Choriocarcinoma
      • 33.4 Placental site trophoblastic tumor
      • References
    • 34. Hyperglycosylated hCG and free ß-subunit markers of gestational trophoblastic diseases
      • 34.1 Hydatidiform mole
      • 34.2 Choriocarcinoma
      • 34.3 Placental site trophoblastic disease
      • References
    • 35. Quiescent trophoblastic disease and minimally aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm
      • 35.1 Quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease
      • 35.2 Minimally aggressive GTN
      • References
    • 36. Background hCG
      • References
    • 37. hCG standards
      • 37.1 First IS
      • 37.2 Second IS
      • 37.3 Third IS
      • 37.4 IRR for hCG and related substances
      • 37.5 Future prospects
      • 37.6 Recombinant hCG
      • References
  • Part L: Methods
    • 38. hCG and hyperglycosylated hCG purification and analysis from serum, urine, and culture fluids
      • 38.1 Urine hCG and hyperglycosylated hCG
      • 38.2 Culture fluid hCG and hyperglycosylated hCG
      • 38.3 Serum hCG and hCG-H
      • 38.4 Analysis
      • References
  • Part M: Ethics, Comments and the Future
    • 39. Ethics, Texas, and politics
    • 40. Summary: hCG a remarkable molecule
    • 41. hCG and the future
 
 
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