Chemical Analysis of Food: Techniques and Applications

Chemical Analysis of Food: Techniques and Applications, 1st Edition

Chemical Analysis of Food: Techniques and Applications, 1st Edition,Yolanda Picó,ISBN9780123848628

Y Picó   

Academic Press




235 X 191

A comprehensive treatment of the major techniques used in the analysis of food, with selected applications related to current trends in food chemistry. This is an essential reference work for anyone who must undertake any aspect of food analysis.

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Key Features

Winner of a PROSE Award 2012, Book: Honorable Mention in Physical Sciences & Mathematics - Chemistry and Physics from the American Association of Publishers.

  • Provides researchers with a single source for up-to-date information in food analysis
  • Single go-to reference for emerging techniques and technologies
  • Over 20 renowned international contributors
  • Broad coverage of many important techniques makes this reference useful for a range of food scientists


Chemical Analysis of Food: Techniques and Applications reviews new technology and challenges in food analysis from multiple perspectives: a review of novel technologies being used in food analysis, an in-depth analysis of several specific approaches, and an examination of the most innovative applications and future trends. This book won a 2012 PROSE Award Honorable Mention in Chemistry and Physics from the Association of American Publishers.

The book is structured in two parts: the first describes the role of the latest developments in analytical and bio-analytical techniques and the second reviews the most innovative applications and issues in food analysis. Each chapter is written by experts on the subject and is extensively referenced in order to serve as an effective resource for more detailed information. The techniques discussed range from the non-invasive and non-destructive, such as infrared spectroscopy and ultrasound, to emerging areas such as nanotechnology, biosensors and electronic noses and tongues. Important tools for problem-solving in chemical and biological analysis are discussed in detail.


This book is intended for food researchers in university departments of food science, food industry laboratories, and governmental food regulatory departments. Specifically, scientists and researchers working in biochemistry, biology, food chemistry, toxicology, chemistry, agronomy, hygiene are those who are involved in food analysis.

Yolanda Picó

Yolanda Pico was born in Valencia, Spain, in 1964. She received her Ph.D. in Pharmacy in 1992, after which she was a post-doctoral fellow at the Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam (The Netherlands) (1992/1993) and at the “La Sapienza” University (Rome, Italy) (1996); Assistant Professor of Nutrition and Bromatology at the University of Valencia (1993-1998). Since 1998 she is full Professor of Nutrition and Food Science at the Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine of the University of Valencia and the Head of the research group in Food and Environmental Safety (SAMA-UV). Her research interests include identification of unknown compounds by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, microextraction separations and environmental and food safety, development of new analytical methods to determine contaminants in food and the environment and the application of methodologies to the risk assessment of different hazard within both field. She is the author of nearly 240 peer-reviewed papers 180 scientific papers in journals of SCI, 30 book chapters and editor of 3 books on Food and Environmental Safety and Applications of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. She has a hirsh index of 47 has been a member of various international scientific committees of renowned institutions. Other relevant activities include the following: Member of the Scientific Panel of Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2009-2012) and partner of projects related with food, water and soil quality at the different national and international levels. She has been supervising 9 Ph.D. theses on food analysis (1992-2014). Her main focusses are: risk assessment of the exposure to pesticide residues, veterinary and human medicines, illicit drugs, perfluorinated compounds, and other emerging compounds including toxic-analytical aspects, of bioavailability and bioaccesibility, synergisms, toxicity evaluation and detoxification.

Affiliations and Expertise

Food and Environmental Safety Research Group, University of Valencia, Spain

View additional works by Yolanda Picó

Chemical Analysis of Food: Techniques and Applications, 1st Edition




PART I: Analytical Techniques

Chapter 1. Basics and Advances in Sampling and Sample Preparation

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Types of Samples and the Analytical Procedure

1.3 Trends in Sample Preparation for Food Analysis

1.4 Conclusions



Chapter 2. Data Analysis and Chemometrics

2.1 Introduction

2.2 From Univariate to Multivariate

2.3 Multivariate Data Analysis



Chapter 3. Near-Infrared, Mid-Infrared, and Raman Spectroscopy

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Theory

3.3 Instrumentation

3.4 Sample Presentation

3.5 New Generation of Spectrometers

3.6 Advantages and Limitations of Spectroscopic Techniques

3.7 Chemometric Approach

3.8 Applications in Food Analysis

3.9 Conclusion


Chapter 4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Specialties of NMR Spectroscopy

4.3 Recent Advances in NMR Spectroscopy

4.4 Selected Applications

4.5 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 5. Low-Intensity Ultrasounds

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Basic Concepts of Ultrasounds

5.3 Low-Intensity Ultrasound

5.4 Selected Applications in Food Analysis

5.5 Conclusions and Future Trends



Chapter 6. The Applications of Nanotechnology

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Role of Nanomaterials and Nanostructures as Delivery Systems for the Food Industry

6.3 Applications and Use of Nanomaterials

6.4 Conclusions


Chapter 7. Microfluidic Devices

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Biosensors: Classes and Fundamentals

7.3 Nanobiosensors, Microfluidics, and Lab-on-a-Chip

7.4 Application of New Biosensing Technologies for Food Safety and Control

7.5 Commercial Instrumentation and Future Perspectives



Chapter 8. Electronic Noses and Tongues

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Electronic Noses

8.3 Electronic Tongues

8.4 Validation of Electronic Noses and Tongues

8.5 Pattern-Recognition Models

8.6 Conclusions


Chapter 9. Mass Spectrometry

9.1 Introduction to Mass Spectrometry

9.2 Direct Injection Mass Spectrometry

9.3 Hyphenated Technologies

9.4 Nontargeted Analysis

9.5 Conclusions and Perspectives


Chapter 10. Liquid Chromatography

10.1 Introduction

10.2 The Main Analytical Methods of LC

10.3 Main Terms and Equations in LC

10.4 Questions of the Theory of an HPLC

10.5 The Mobile Phase (Eluent)

10.6 The Stationary Phase (Sorbents)

10.7 Chromatographic Column

10.8 Extraction Methods in the Chromatography

10.9 Instrumentation for LC

10.10 Analysis of Food by LC

10.11 Conclusions and Future Trends


Chapter 11. Gas Chromatography

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Fundamental Aspects of Capillary Gas Chromatography

11.3 Gas Chromatography and Hyphenated Techniques in Food Analysis

11.4 Multidimensional Gas Chromatography


List of Abbreviations


Chapter 12. Electrophoresis

12.1 Introduction

12.2 CE Methods

12.3 Detection Methods for CE

12.4 Applications of CE for Food Analysis

12.5 Conclusions


Chapter 13. Molecular Techniques

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Nucleic Acids: the Backbone of all Molecular Techniques

13.3 Molecular Techniques for Detection of Food-borne Pathogens

13.4 Advanced Molecular Techniques for Detection of Food-borne Pathogens

13.5 Genotyping Methods for Detection of Food-borne Pathogens

13.6 Molecular Techniques for GMOs and Transgenic Food

13.7 Future Prospects of Molecular Techniques



PART II: Applications

Chapter 14. Traceability

14.1 Traceability in the Food Supply Chain: General

14.2 Traceability in the Food Supply Chain: Analytical Approaches

14.3 Sensory Analysis

14.4 Conclusions


Chapter 15. Food Authenticity and Fraud

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Methods for Food Authentication and Adulteration

15.3 Conclusions


Chapter 16. Food Proteomics

16.1 Overview

16.2 Analytical Techniques

16.3 Applications

16.4 Conclusions


Chapter 17. Nutritional Supplements

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Some Regulatory Points on Nutritional Supplements

17.3 Analytical Techniques for Quality Control of Nutritional Supplements

17.4 Adulteration of Nutritional Supplements

17.5 Conclusion



Chapter 18. A Particular Case of Novel Food

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Controversial Safety Issues and Legislation on GMOs

18.3 Strategies Used for the Analysis of GMOs

18.4 Conclusions and Future Outlooks



Chapter 19. Flavors and Odors

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Sample Preparation for Food Flavor Evaluation

19.3 Advanced Analytical Methodologies for Food Flavor and Odor Investigation

19.4 General Considerations on Food Flavor Research


Chapter 20. Emerging Contaminants

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Analytical Techniques to Determine Emerging Contaminants

20.3 Biotoxins

20.4 Residues

20.5 Compounds of Industrial Origin

20.6 Compounds Formed during the Processing of Food

20.7 Conclusions and Future Perspectives



Chapter 21. Allergens

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Hidden Allergens in Processed Food Products

21.3 Analytical Tools for Monitoring Food Allergen Contamination: Current Methods

21.4 Quality Assurance in Food Allergen Analysis

21.5 Conclusions


Chapter 22. Metal Speciation

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Survey of Analytical Methods for Speciation

22.3 Future Trends and Recommendations

List of Abbreviations


Chapter 23. Radionuclides

23.1 Past and Hypothetical Future Scenarios That May Lead to the Contamination of Food with Radionuclides

23.2 Radionuclides and Radioactivity

23.3 Pathways by Which Radionuclides Enter Food

23.4 The Importance of Certain Foods

23.5 Sampling

23.6 Sample Preparation

23.7 Measurement of Radioactivity in Food

23.8 Measurement Uncertainty

23.9 Reference Materials and Interlaboratory Comparison Exercises

23.10 Conclusions and Priorities for the Future



Quotes and reviews

"Chemical Analysis of Foods is a very helpful book for those involved in food research and analysis, including post-graduate students. The format of the book, with analytical techniques being presented in the first part and specific applications being discussed and extensively referenced in the second part, is extremely convenient."--Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry online, March 24, 2013 and Volume 405 Issue #14, May 2013

"Because of its comprehensiveness, this book will likely become a key resource for food scientists and those evaluating food safety and quality."--CHOICE, March 2013

"New analytical techniques and new applications in food analysis are surveyed by researchers from food and food safety sciences and from analytic chemistry. Among their topics are data analysis and chemometrics, low-intensity ultrasound, electronic noses and tongues, liquid and gas chromatography, electrophoresis, food authenticity and fraud, nutritional supplements, genetically modified organisms, emerging contaminants, and allergens. Academic Press in an imprint of Elsevier."--Reference and Research Book News, October 2012

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