Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual

Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual, 1st Edition

Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual, 1st Edition,E. Shashi Menon,ISBN9780123838674


Gulf Professional Publishing




229 X 152

A handy problem-solving guide written by a former Chief Engineer with over 32 years of experience

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Key Features

  • Back-of-the envelope calculations
  • Checklists for maintenance operations
  • Checklists for environmental compliance
  • Simulations, modeling tools and equipment design
  • Guide for pump and pumping station placement


Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual aims to guide engineers and technicians in the processes of planning, designing, and construction of a pipeline system, as well as to provide the necessary tools for cost estimations, specifications, and field maintenance. The text includes understandable pipeline schematics, tables, and DIY checklists. This source is a collaborative work of a team of experts with over 180 years of combined experience throughout the United States and other countries in pipeline planning and construction. Comprised of 21 chapters, the book walks readers through the steps of pipeline construction and management. The comprehensive guide that this source provides enables engineers and technicians to manage routine auditing of technical work output relative to technical input and established expectations and standards, and to assess and estimate the work, including design integrity and product requirements, from its research to completion. Design, piping, civil, mechanical, petroleum, chemical, project production and project reservoir engineers, including novices and students, will find this book invaluable for their engineering practices.


Piping Engineers, Designers, Civil Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, Petroleum Engineers, Chemical Engineers, Project Production Engineers and Project Reservoir Engineers

E. Shashi Menon

E. Shashi Menon, Vice President of SYSTEK Technologies, Inc is a Registered Professional Engineer based in USA for the last 40 years with Bachelors and Masters degrees in Mechanical Engineering. He has extensive experience in Oil and Gas Pipeline Design and construction in USA and South America, having worked for leading US companies. He is the author of several popular technical publications on the subject. He has also coauthored over a dozen software programs in Liquid and Gas Pipeline Hydraulics used by engineers in the industry since 1992. He lives in Lake Havasu City, Arizona

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice President, SYSTEK Technologies, Inc., Lake Havasu City, AZ, USA

View additional works by E. Shashi Menon

Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual, 1st Edition

List of Contributors

Author Biography


1. Design Basis


    1.1 Units of Measurement

         1.1.1 Base Units

         1.1.2 Supplementary Units

         1.1.3 Derived Units

    1.2 Physical Properties of Liquids and Gases



2. Route Selection


    2.1 Community and Local Agencies

    2.2 Population Density

         2.2.1 Subpart A: General

    2.3 Technical and Project Necessities

    2.4 Constructibility

    2.5 Right-of-Way

    2.6 Environmental Issues

    2.7 Route Beginning and Ending Points

    2.8 Connections

    2.9 Mapping System

    2.10 Field Review

    2.11 Parallel Other Lines

    2.12 Integrity

    2.13 Established Corridors


3. Pipeline Regulatory and Environmental Permits


    3.1 Regulation of Interstate Pipelines

         3.1.1 FERC-Regulated Natural Gas Pipelines

         3.1.2 FERC-Regulated Oil Pipelines

         3.1.3 Safety Regulations of Oil, Gas, and Hazardous Materials Pipelines

    3.2 Regulation of Intrastate Pipelines

    3.3 Environmental Permits for Interstate Pipelines

    3.4 Environmental Permits for Intrastate Pipelines

    3.5 Local Permits

         3.5.1 Identifying Permits and Determining Requirements along a Proposed Linear Facility

4. Right-of-Way


    4.1 Right-of-Way Deliverables and Requirements

         4.1.1 Right-of-Way Deliverables

         4.1.2 Right-of-Way Requirements

    4.2 Project Planning

    4.3 Right-of-Way Budgeting

    4.4 Right-of-Way Database and Records

         4.4.1 Right-of-Way Database

         4.4.2 Land Title Research

         4.4.3 Right-of-Way Documents

    4.5 Field Support

    4.6 Right-of-Way Negotiations and Condemnation

         4.6.1 Negotiations

         4.6.2 Condemnation Through the Power of Eminent Domain (Provided the Project Qualifies)

    4.7 Construction Support

    4.8 Project Completion and Pipeline Operations

         4.8.1 Project Completion

         4.8.2 Pipeline Operations

5. Alignment Sheets


    5.1 Uses

    5.2 Alignment Sheet Development

    5.3 Quantity of Alignment Sheets

    5.4 Stationing

    5.5 Survey

    5.6 Drawing Issuance

    5.7 Changes to the Route

    5.8 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Requirements

    5.9 Existing Systems


6. Overview of Pipeline Materials


    6.1 Criteria

    6.2 Product to Be Transported

    6.3 Operating Pressure

    6.4 Operating Temperature

    6.5 Handling and Welding

    6.6 Volume or Throughput

    6.7 Codes and Regulations

         6.7.1 Gas Pipelines

         6.7.2 Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    6.8 Coating

    6.9 Joint Coating

    6.10 Fittings


7. Pipe Strength and Wall Thickness


    7.1 Allowable Operating Pressure

    7.2 Barlow’s Equation for Internal Pressure

    7.3 Derivation of Barlow’s Equation

    7.4 Modified Barlow’s Equation

    7.5 Gas Pipelines: Class Locations

         7.5.1 Class 1

         7.5.2 Class 2

         7.5.3 Class 3

         7.5.4 Class 4

    7.6 Thick-Walled Pipes

    7.7 Mainline Valves

    7.8 Blowdown Calculations

    7.9 Determining Pipe Tonnage



8. Pipeline Hydraulic Analysis


    8.1 Velocity of Flow in Liquid Pipelines

    8.2 Reynolds Number in Liquid Flow

    8.3 Pressure and Head of a Liquid

    8.4 Pressure Drop in Liquid Flow

    8.5 Friction Factor

    8.6 Colebrook–White Equation

    8.7 Moody Diagram

    8.8 Hazen–Williams Equation

    8.9 Minor Losses

    8.10 Flow of Gas in Pipelines

    8.11 Erosional Velocity

    8.12 Reynolds Number in Gas Flow

    8.13 Friction Factor in Gas Flow

    8.14 Colebrook–White Equation for Gas Flow

    8.15 Transmission Factor

    8.16 Pressure Drop in Gas Flow

    8.17 Effect of Pipe Elevations

    8.18 The Average Gas Pressure



9. Series and Parallel Piping and Power Required


    9.1 Total Pressure Required to Transport Liquids

    9.2 Hydraulic Pressure Gradient in Liquids

    9.3 Series Piping in Liquid Pipelines

    9.4 Parallel Piping in Liquid Pipelines

    9.5 Transporting High Vapor Pressure Liquids

    9.6 Pumping Power Required in Liquid Pipelines

         9.6.1 Hydraulic Horsepower

         9.6.2 Brake Horsepower

    9.7 System Head Curves – Liquid Pipelines

    9.8 Injections and Deliveries – Liquid Pipelines

    9.9 Pipe Loops in Liquid Pipelines

    9.10 Gas Pipelines

         9.10.1 Total Pressure Required to Transport Gases

    9.11 Hydraulic Pressure Gradient in Gas Pipeline

    9.12 Series Piping in Gas Pipelines

    9.13 Parallel Piping in Gas Pipelines



10. Valve Stations


    10.1 What to Expect

    10.2 Valve Usage

    10.3 Some Other Valves Not Listed by API-6D

    10.4 Valve Pressure Class

    10.5 Pipeline Design and Valve Selection

    10.6 Mainline Valve Locations

    10.7 Valve Station Design

    10.8 Buried Valve Vaults

    10.9 Direct Burial of Valves

    10.10 Natural Gas Pipeline Valves

    10.11 Valve Placement on Gas Pipelines

    10.12 Block Valve Spacing on Gas Transmission Lines

    10.13 Valve Maintenance for Liquid and Gas Pipelines as per Code

    10.14 Overpressure Safety Valves and Pressure Limiting Devices for Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    10.15 Natural Gas Pipeline Valves Maintenance

    10.16 Pressure Limiting and Regulating Stations for Gas Pipelines

    10.17 General Valve Station Protection

    10.18 Pipeline Valve Selection – Ball or Gate?



11. Pump Stations


    11.1 Multipump Station Pipelines

    11.2 Hydraulic Balance and Pump Stations Required

    11.3 Telescoping Pipe Wall Thickness

    11.4 Change of Pipe Grade – Grade Tapering

    11.5 Slack Line and Open Channel Flow

    11.6 Batching Different Liquids

    11.7 Centrifugal Pumps Versus Reciprocating Pumps

    11.8 Centrifugal Pump Head and Efficiency Versus Flow Rate

    11.9 BHP Versus Flow Rate

    11.10 NPSH Versus Flow Rate

    11.11 Specific Speed

    11.12 Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Pumps

    11.13 Effect of Specific Gravity and Viscosity on Pump Performance

    11.14 Pump Configuration – Series and Parallel

    11.15 Pump Head Curve Versus System Head Curve

    11.16 Multiple Pumps Versus System Head Curve

    11.17 NPSH Required Versus NPSH Available

    11.18 Pump Station Configuration

    11.19 Control Pressure and Throttle Pressure

    11.20 Variable Speed Pumps

    11.21 VSD Pump Versus Control Valve



12. Compressor Stations


    12.1 Compressor Station Locations

    12.2 Hydraulic Balance

    12.3 Isothermal Compression

    12.4 Adiabatic Compression

    12.5 Polytropic Compression

    12.6 Discharge Temperature of Compressed Gas

    12.7 Compression Power Required

    12.8 Optimum Compressor Locations

    12.9 Compressors in Series and Parallel

    12.10 Types of Compressors – Centrifugal and Positive Displacement

    12.11 Compressor Performance Curves

    12.12 Compressor Head and Gas Flow Rate

    12.13 Compressor Station Piping Losses

    12.14 Compressor Station Schematic



13. Corrosion Protection


    13.1 Corrosion in Pipelines

    13.2 Causes of Pipeline Failure

    13.3 Types of Corrosion

         13.3.1 General Attack Corrosion

         13.3.2 Localized Corrosion

         13.3.3 Galvanic Corrosion

         13.3.4 Environmental Cracking

         13.3.5 Flow-Assisted Corrosion

         13.3.6 Intergranular Corrosion

         13.3.7 Dealloying

         13.3.8 Fretting Corrosion

         13.3.9 High-Temperature Corrosion

    13.4 Corrosion Control

         13.4.1 Protective Coatings

         13.4.2 Cathodic Protection (CP)

         13.4.3 Materials Selection and Design

         13.4.4 Corrosion Inhibitors



14. Leak Detection


    14.1 Prevention

    14.2 Pressure Regulation

    14.3 Cathodic Protection

    14.4 Corrosion Coupons

    14.5 Pipeline Markers

         14.5.1 Markers

         14.5.2 Aerial Markers

         14.5.3 Water Crossing Markers

    14.6 Smart Pigging

    14.7 Pipeline Security

    14.8 Regulations

    14.9 Purpose

    14.10 Intermediate Block Valves

    14.11 Check Valves

    14.12 Patrolling

    14.13 Detection

    14.14 Measurement

    14.15 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System

    14.16 Hydrostatic Testing


15. Pipeline Pigging and Inspection


    15.1 Pig Use

    15.2 Pipeline Pigging

    15.3 Problem Pipelines

    15.4 Piggable Pipelines

    15.5 Pig Propulsion

    15.6 Utility Pigs

    15.7 Selecting Pigs for Small Bore and Double Diameter Pipelines

    15.8 Poly Pigs

    15.9 My First Experience with Poly Pigs

    15.10 Pig Trains

    15.11 Smart Pigs

    15.12 Smart Pig Types

    15.13 Crack Detection

    15.14 Preparation for Smart Pig Inspection

    15.15 MFL Smart Pig

    15.16 Post Smart Pig Inspection

    15.17 Expert Data Evaluation

    15.18 External Corrosion

    15.19 Internal Corrosion

    15.20 Postinspection Criteria




16. Pipeline Construction


    16.1 Pipeline Construction Sequence

         16.1.1 Clearing and Grading Crew

         16.1.2 Soil Classifications and Considerations

         16.1.3 Trenching Crew

         16.1.4 Stringing Crew

         16.1.5 Bending Crew

         16.1.6 Pipe Gang and Firing Line Welders

         16.1.7 Coating Crew

         16.1.8 Lowering-In Crew

         16.1.9 Backfill Crew

         16.1.10 Tie-In Crew

         16.1.11 Testing Crew

         16.1.12 Clean-Up Crew

    16.2 Restoration of Disturbed Construction R.O.W.

17. Welding and NDT


    17.1 Pipeline Welding Procedures

    17.2 Specimen Preparation

    17.3 Testing

    17.4 Criteria for Weld Acceptance

    17.5 Classic Pipeline Welding

    17.6 Double Joints

    17.7 Using Higher X-Grade Pipe

    17.8 Welders’ Qualification

    17.9 Welders’ Responsibility

    17.10 Automatic Pipeline Welding

    17.11 Verifying Automatic Weld Integrity

    17.12 Semiautomatic Welding

    17.13 Strength of Welded Pipelines

    17.14 Nondestructive Testing of Pipe Girth Welds

    17.15 Radiographic NDT

    17.16 Repair of Defect

    17.17 Welding Rejection Criteria



18. Hydrostatic Testing

    Introduction, Including Risk-Based Alternatives to Testing

    18.1 Testing Pipe

    18.2 Classifying in Service Pipelines

    18.3 Intrastate Pipelines

    18.4 Pretest Planning for an Intrastate Pipeline

    18.5 Test Water Disposal

    18.6 Safety and Equipment Procedures During Test

    18.7 Turning and Operating Valves

    18.8 Training and Judgment

    18.9 Back to Test Procedure

    18.10 Pressurization

    18.11 List of Equipment for Hydrostatic Test

    18.12 Test On

    18.13 Posttest Results

    18.14 Posttest Leak Analysis

    18.15 Entrained Air and Vapor

    18.16 Leaking Isolation Valves and Fittings

    18.17 Changing Test Water Temperature

    18.18 Posttest Report

    18.19 Volume Analysis

    18.20 Testing Interstate Liquid and Natural Gas Transmissions Lines

    18.21 Test Section 12

    18.22 Cross-Country Pipeline Testing

    18.23 Pipeline Rupture


19. Commissioning


    19.1 Plan

    19.2 Plan Sequence

    19.3 Operations and Maintenance Manuals

    19.4 Completion of Construction

    19.5 Sizing or Gauging Pigs

    19.6 System Checkout

    19.7 Pipeline Drying

    19.8 Line Fill


20. Specification Writing, Data Sheet Production, Requisition Development, and Bid Analysis


    20.1 Specification Writing

    20.2 Material Specifications

         20.2.1 Pipe

         20.2.2 External Coating of Line Pipe

         20.2.3 Fittings, Valves, and Components

         20.2.4 Induction Bends

    20.3 Construction Specifications

    20.4 Material Requisition Development

    20.5 Bid Quotation and Bid Analysis

21. Operations and Maintenance Manuals


    21.1 Operating Manuals

    21.2 Regulations

    21.3 Written Emergency Procedures

    21.4 Training Program

    21.5 Details

         21.5.1 Operating Pressures

         21.5.2 Communications

         21.5.3 Line Location and Markers

         21.5.4 ROW Maintenance

         21.5.5 Patrolling

         21.5.6 Integrity Assessments and Repair

         21.5.7 Pump Station, Terminal, and Tank Farm Maintenance and Operations

         21.5.8 Controls and Protective Equipment

         21.5.9 Storage Vessels

         21.5.10 Fencing

         21.5.11 Signs

         21.5.12 Prevention of Accidental Ignition

         21.5.13 Corrosion Control

         21.5.14 Emergency Plan

         21.5.15 Records

         21.5.16 Training

         21.5.17 Modification to Plans

    21.6 Maintenance Manuals

    21.7 Preventative Maintenance

    21.8 Project Data Book

    21.9 Startup Sequential Process

    21.10 Shutdown Sequential Process


Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Appendix 3

Appendix 4

Appendix 5

Appendix 6

Appendix 7

Appendix 8

Appendix 9


Quotes and reviews

"This general purpose guide for engineers provides detailed practical information on the design and construction of pipelines and attendant facilities. Authored by a team of experts with extensive pipeline experience, the volume presents a comprehensive look at design criteria, planning considerations, and testing methodologies for many common tasks involved in pipeline construction. Topics discussed include route selection, environmental impact and regulations, right-of-way concerns, materials options, pipe strength, hydraulic analysis, pump and valve stations, leak detection, hydrostatic testing, and operations and maintenance protocols. Technical drawings, tables, and relevant formulas and equations are provided throughout."--Reference and Research Book News

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