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Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual

Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual, 1st Edition

Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual, 1st Edition,E. Shashi Menon,ISBN9780123838674


Gulf Professional Publishing




229 X 152

A handy problem-solving guide written by a former Chief Engineer with over 32 years of experience

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Key Features

  • Back-of-the envelope calculations
  • Checklists for maintenance operations
  • Checklists for environmental compliance
  • Simulations, modeling tools and equipment design
  • Guide for pump and pumping station placement


Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual aims to guide engineers and technicians in the processes of planning, designing, and construction of a pipeline system, as well as to provide the necessary tools for cost estimations, specifications, and field maintenance. The text includes understandable pipeline schematics, tables, and DIY checklists. This source is a collaborative work of a team of experts with over 180 years of combined experience throughout the United States and other countries in pipeline planning and construction. Comprised of 21 chapters, the book walks readers through the steps of pipeline construction and management. The comprehensive guide that this source provides enables engineers and technicians to manage routine auditing of technical work output relative to technical input and established expectations and standards, and to assess and estimate the work, including design integrity and product requirements, from its research to completion. Design, piping, civil, mechanical, petroleum, chemical, project production and project reservoir engineers, including novices and students, will find this book invaluable for their engineering practices.


Piping Engineers, Designers, Civil Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, Petroleum Engineers, Chemical Engineers, Project Production Engineers and Project Reservoir Engineers

E. Shashi Menon

E. Shashi Menon, Vice President of SYSTEK Technologies, Inc. is a registered Professional Engineer in California, with Bachelors and Masters degrees in Mechanical Engineering. He has over 35 years of experience in the Pipeline industry.

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice President, SYSTEK Technologies, Inc., Lake Havasu City, AZ, USA

View additional works by E. Shashi Menon

Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual, 1st Edition

List of Contributors Author Biography Preface 1. Design Basis     Introduction     1.1 Units of Measurement          1.1.1 Base Units          1.1.2 Supplementary Units          1.1.3 Derived Units     1.2 Physical Properties of Liquids and Gases     Summary     Bibliography 2. Route Selection     Introduction     2.1 Community and Local Agencies     2.2 Population Density          2.2.1 Subpart A: General     2.3 Technical and Project Necessities     2.4 Constructibility     2.5 Right-of-Way     2.6 Environmental Issues     2.7 Route Beginning and Ending Points     2.8 Connections     2.9 Mapping System     2.10 Field Review     2.11 Parallel Other Lines     2.12 Integrity     2.13 Established Corridors     Bibliography 3. Pipeline Regulatory and Environmental Permits     Introduction     3.1 Regulation of Interstate Pipelines          3.1.1 FERC-Regulated Natural Gas Pipelines          3.1.2 FERC-Regulated Oil Pipelines          3.1.3 Safety Regulations of Oil, Gas, and Hazardous Materials Pipelines     3.2 Regulation of Intrastate Pipelines     3.3 Environmental Permits for Interstate Pipelines     3.4 Environmental Permits for Intrastate Pipelines     3.5 Local Permits          3.5.1 Identifying Permits and Determining Requirements along a Proposed Linear Facility 4. Right-of-Way     Introduction     4.1 Right-of-Way Deliverables and Requirements          4.1.1 Right-of-Way Deliverables          4.1.2 Right-of-Way Requirements     4.2 Project Planning     4.3 Right-of-Way Budgeting     4.4 Right-of-Way Database and Records          4.4.1 Right-of-Way Database          4.4.2 Land Title Research          4.4.3 Right-of-Way Documents     4.5 Field Support     4.6 Right-of-Way Negotiations and Condemnation          4.6.1 Negotiations          4.6.2 Condemnation Through the Power of Eminent Domain (Provided the Project Qualifies)     4.7 Construction Support     4.8 Project Completion and Pipeline Operations          4.8.1 Project Completion          4.8.2 Pipeline Operations 5. Alignment Sheets     Introduction     5.1 Uses     5.2 Alignment Sheet Development     5.3 Quantity of Alignment Sheets     5.4 Stationing     5.5 Survey     5.6 Drawing Issuance     5.7 Changes to the Route     5.8 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Requirements     5.9 Existing Systems     Bibliography 6. Overview of Pipeline Materials     Introduction     6.1 Criteria     6.2 Product to Be Transported     6.3 Operating Pressure     6.4 Operating Temperature     6.5 Handling and Welding     6.6 Volume or Throughput     6.7 Codes and Regulations          6.7.1 Gas Pipelines          6.7.2 Hazardous Liquid Pipelines     6.8 Coating     6.9 Joint Coating     6.10 Fittings     Bibliography 7. Pipe Strength and Wall Thickness     Introduction     7.1 Allowable Operating Pressure     7.2 Barlow’s Equation for Internal Pressure     7.3 Derivation of Barlow’s Equation     7.4 Modified Barlow’s Equation     7.5 Gas Pipelines: Class Locations          7.5.1 Class 1          7.5.2 Class 2          7.5.3 Class 3          7.5.4 Class 4     7.6 Thick-Walled Pipes     7.7 Mainline Valves     7.8 Blowdown Calculations     7.9 Determining Pipe Tonnage     Summary     Bibliography 8. Pipeline Hydraulic Analysis     Introduction     8.1 Velocity of Flow in Liquid Pipelines     8.2 Reynolds Number in Liquid Flow     8.3 Pressure and Head of a Liquid     8.4 Pressure Drop in Liquid Flow     8.5 Friction Factor     8.6 Colebrook-White Equation     8.7 Moody Diagram     8.8 Hazen-Williams Equation     8.9 Minor Losses     8.10 Flow of Gas in Pipelines     8.11 Erosional Velocity     8.12 Reynolds Number in Gas Flow     8.13 Friction Factor in Gas Flow     8.14 Colebrook-White Equation for Gas Flow     8.15 Transmission Factor     8.16 Pressure Drop in Gas Flow     8.17 Effect of Pipe Elevations     8.18 The Average Gas Pressure     Summary     Bibliography 9. Series and Parallel Piping and Power Required     Introduction     9.1 Total Pressure Required to Transport Liquids     9.2 Hydraulic Pressure Gradient in Liquids     9.3 Series Piping in Liquid Pipelines     9.4 Parallel Piping in Liquid Pipelines     9.5 Transporting High Vapor Pressure Liquids     9.6 Pumping Power Required in Liquid Pipelines          9.6.1 Hydraulic Horsepower          9.6.2 Brake Horsepower     9.7 System Head Curves - Liquid Pipelines     9.8 Injections and Deliveries - Liquid Pipelines     9.9 Pipe Loops in Liquid Pipelines     9.10 Gas Pipelines          9.10.1 Total Pressure Required to Transport Gases     9.11 Hydraulic Pressure Gradient in Gas Pipeline     9.12 Series Piping in Gas Pipelines     9.13 Parallel Piping in Gas Pipelines     Summary     Bibliography 10. Valve Stations     Introduction     10.1 What to Expect     10.2 Valve Usage     10.3 Some Other Valves Not Listed by API-6D     10.4 Valve Pressure Class     10.5 Pipeline Design and Valve Selection     10.6 Mainline Valve Locations     10.7 Valve Station Design     10.8 Buried Valve Vaults     10.9 Direct Burial of Valves     10.10 Natural Gas Pipeline Valves     10.11 Valve Placement on Gas Pipelines     10.12 Block Valve Spacing on Gas Transmission Lines     10.13 Valve Maintenance for Liquid and Gas Pipelines as per Code     10.14 Overpressure Safety Valves and Pressure Limiting Devices for Hazardous Liquid Pipelines     10.15 Natural Gas Pipeline Valves Maintenance     10.16 Pressure Limiting and Regulating Stations for Gas Pipelines     10.17 General Valve Station Protection     10.18 Pipeline Valve Selection - Ball or Gate?     References     Bibliography 11. Pump Stations     Introduction     11.1 Multipump Station Pipelines     11.2 Hydraulic Balance and Pump Stations Required     11.3 Telescoping Pipe Wall Thickness     11.4 Change of Pipe Grade - Grade Tapering     11.5 Slack Line and Open Channel Flow     11.6 Batching Different Liquids     11.7 Centrifugal Pumps Versus Reciprocating Pumps     11.8 Centrifugal Pump Head and Efficiency Versus Flow Rate     11.9 BHP Versus Flow Rate     11.10 NPSH Versus Flow Rate     11.11 Specific Speed     11.12 Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Pumps     11.13 Effect of Specific Gravity and Viscosity on Pump Performance     11.14 Pump Configuration - Series and Parallel     11.15 Pump Head Curve Versus System Head Curve     11.16 Multiple Pumps Versus System Head Curve     11.17 NPSH Required Versus NPSH Available     11.18 Pump Station Configuration     11.19 Control Pressure and Throttle Pressure     11.20 Variable Speed Pumps     11.21 VSD Pump Versus Control Valve     Summary     Bibliography 12. Compressor Stations     Introduction     12.1 Compressor Station Locations     12.2 Hydraulic Balance     12.3 Isothermal Compression     12.4 Adiabatic Compression     12.5 Polytropic Compression     12.6 Discharge Temperature of Compressed Gas     12.7 Compression Power Required     12.8 Optimum Compressor Locations     12.9 Compressors in Series and Parallel     12.10 Types of Compressors - Centrifugal and Positive Displacement     12.11 Compressor Performance Curves     12.12 Compressor Head and Gas Flow Rate     12.13 Compressor Station Piping Losses     12.14 Compressor Station Schematic     Summary     Bibliography 13. Corrosion Protection     Introduction     13.1 Corrosion in Pipelines     13.2 Causes of Pipeline Failure     13.3 Types of Corrosion          13.3.1 General Attack Corrosion          13.3.2 Localized Corrosion          13.3.3 Galvanic Corrosion          13.3.4 Environmental Cracking          13.3.5 Flow-Assisted Corrosion          13.3.6 Intergranular Corrosion          13.3.7 Dealloying          13.3.8 Fretting Corrosion          13.3.9 High-Temperature Corrosion     13.4 Corrosion Control          13.4.1 Protective Coatings          13.4.2 Cathodic Protection (CP)          13.4.3 Materials Selection and Design          13.4.4 Corrosion Inhibitors     Summary     Bibliography 14. Leak Detection     Introduction     14.1 Prevention     14.2 Pressure Regulation     14.3 Cathodic Protection     14.4 Corrosion Coupons     14.5 Pipeline Markers          14.5.1 Markers          14.5.2 Aerial Markers          14.5.3 Water Crossing Markers     14.6 Smart Pigging     14.7 Pipeline Security     14.8 Regulations     14.9 Purpose     14.10 Intermediate Block Valves     14.11 Check Valves     14.12 Patrolling     14.13 Detection     14.14 Measurement     14.15 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System     14.16 Hydrostatic Testing     Bibliography 15. Pipeline Pigging and Inspection     Introduction     15.1 Pig Use     15.2 Pipeline Pigging     15.3 Problem Pipelines     15.4 Piggable Pipelines     15.5 Pig Propulsion     15.6 Utility Pigs     15.7 Selecting Pigs for Small Bore and Double Diameter Pipelines     15.8 Poly Pigs     15.9 My First Experience with Poly Pigs     15.10 Pig Trains     15.11 Smart Pigs     15.12 Smart Pig Types     15.13 Crack Detection     15.14 Preparation for Smart Pig Inspection     15.15 MFL Smart Pig     15.16 Post Smart Pig Inspection     15.17 Expert Data Evaluation     15.18 External Corrosion     15.19 Internal Corrosion     15.20 Postinspection Criteria     Summary     References     Bibliography 16. Pipeline Construction     Introduction     16.1 Pipeline Construction Sequence          16.1.1 Clearing and Grading Crew          16.1.2 Soil Classifications and Considerations          16.1.3 Trenching Crew          16.1.4 Stringing Crew          16.1.5 Bending Crew          16.1.6 Pipe Gang and Firing Line Welders          16.1.7 Coating Crew          16.1.8 Lowering-In Crew          16.1.9 Backfill Crew          16.1.10 Tie-In Crew          16.1.11 Testing Crew          16.1.12 Clean-Up Crew     16.2 Restoration of Disturbed Construction R.O.W. 17. Welding and NDT     Introduction     17.1 Pipeline Welding Procedures     17.2 Specimen Preparation     17.3 Testing     17.4 Criteria for Weld Acceptance     17.5 Classic Pipeline Welding     17.6 Double Joints     17.7 Using Higher X-Grade Pipe     17.8 Welders’ Qualification     17.9 Welders’ Responsibility     17.10 Automatic Pipeline Welding     17.11 Verifying Automatic Weld Integrity     17.12 Semiautomatic Welding     17.13 Strength of Welded Pipelines     17.14 Nondestructive Testing of Pipe Girth Welds     17.15 Radiographic NDT     17.16 Repair of Defect     17.17 Welding Rejection Criteria     References     Bibliography 18. Hydrostatic Testing     Introduction, Including Risk-Based Alternatives to Testing     18.1 Testing Pipe     18.2 Classifying in Service Pipelines     18.3 Intrastate Pipelines     18.4 Pretest Planning for an Intrastate Pipeline     18.5 Test Water Disposal     18.6 Safety and Equipment Procedures During Test     18.7 Turning and Operating Valves     18.8 Training and Judgment     18.9 Back to Test Procedure     18.10 Pressurization     18.11 List of Equipment for Hydrostatic Test     18.12 Test On     18.13 Posttest Results     18.14 Posttest Leak Analysis     18.15 Entrained Air and Vapor     18.16 Leaking Isolation Valves and Fittings     18.17 Changing Test Water Temperature     18.18 Posttest Report     18.19 Volume Analysis     18.20 Testing Interstate Liquid and Natural Gas Transmissions Lines     18.21 Test Section 12     18.22 Cross-Country Pipeline Testing     18.23 Pipeline Rupture     References 19. Commissioning     Introduction     19.1 Plan     19.2 Plan Sequence     19.3 Operations and Maintenance Manuals     19.4 Completion of Construction     19.5 Sizing or Gauging Pigs     19.6 System Checkout     19.7 Pipeline Drying     19.8 Line Fill     Bibliography 20. Specification Writing, Data Sheet Production, Requisition Development, and Bid Analysis     Introduction     20.1 Specification Writing     20.2 Material Specifications          20.2.1 Pipe          20.2.2 External Coating of Line Pipe          20.2.3 Fittings, Valves, and Components          20.2.4 Induction Bends     20.3 Construction Specifications     20.4 Material Requisition Development     20.5 Bid Quotation and Bid Analysis 21. Operations and Maintenance Manuals     Introduction     21.1 Operating Manuals     21.2 Regulations     21.3 Written Emergency Procedures     21.4 Training Program     21.5 Details          21.5.1 Operating Pressures          21.5.2 Communications          21.5.3 Line Location and Markers          21.5.4 ROW Maintenance          21.5.5 Patrolling          21.5.6 Integrity Assessments and Repair          21.5.7 Pump Station, Terminal, and Tank Farm Maintenance and Operations          21.5.8 Controls and Protective Equipment          21.5.9 Storage Vessels          21.5.10 Fencing          21.5.11 Signs          21.5.12 Prevention of Accidental Ignition          21.5.13 Corrosion Control          21.5.14 Emergency Plan          21.5.15 Records          21.5.16 Training          21.5.17 Modification to Plans     21.6 Maintenance Manuals     21.7 Preventative Maintenance     21.8 Project Data Book     21.9 Startup Sequential Process     21.10 Shutdown Sequential Process     Bibliography Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5 Appendix 6 Appendix 7 Appendix 8 Appendix 9 Index

Quotes and reviews

"This general purpose guide for engineers provides detailed practical information on the design and construction of pipelines and attendant facilities. Authored by a team of experts with extensive pipeline experience, the volume presents a comprehensive look at design criteria, planning considerations, and testing methodologies for many common tasks involved in pipeline construction. Topics discussed include route selection, environmental impact and regulations, right-of-way concerns, materials options, pipe strength, hydraulic analysis, pump and valve stations, leak detection, hydrostatic testing, and operations and maintenance protocols. Technical drawings, tables, and relevant formulas and equations are provided throughout."--Reference and Research Book News


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