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Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids
 
 

Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, 1st Edition

 
Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, 1st Edition,Johannes Fink,ISBN9780123838445
 
 
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Key Features

    • Chemicals are ordered by use including drilling muds, corrosion inhibitors, and bacteria control
    • Includes cutting edge chemicals and polymers such as water soluble polymers and viscosity control
    • Handy index of chemical substances as well as a general chemical index

    Description

    Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids is a comprehensive manual that provides end users with information about oil field chemicals, such as drilling muds, corrosion and scale inhibitors, gelling agents and bacterial control. This book is an extension and update of Oil Field Chemicals published in 2003, and it presents a compilation of materials from literature and patents, arranged according to applications and the way a typical job is practiced. The text is composed of 23 chapters that cover oil field chemicals arranged according to their use. Each chapter follows a uniform template, starting with a brief overview of the chemical followed by reviews, monomers, polymerization, and fabrication. The different aspects of application, including safety and environmental impacts, for each chemical are also discussed throughout the chapters. The text also includes handy indices for trade names, acronyms and chemicals. Petroleum, production, drilling, completion, and operations engineers and managers will find this book invaluable for project management and production. Non-experts and students in petroleum engineering will also find this reference useful.

    Readership

    Petroleum Engineer, Production Engineer, Drilling Engineer, Completion Engineer, Operations Engineer, Drilling Manager, Operations Manager, Project Production Engineer

    Johannes Fink

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Professor of Polymer Chemistry, Montanuniversität Leoben, Vienna, Austria

    View additional works by Johannes Fink

    Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, 1st Edition


    Preface

    1. Drilling Muds

        Classification of Muds

        Dispersed Noninhibited Systems

        Phosphate-treated Muds

        Lignite Muds

        Quebracho Muds

        Lignosulfonate Muds

        Lime Muds

        Sea Water Muds

        Nondispersed Noninhibited Systems

        Low-solids Fresh Water Muds

        Variable Density Fluids

        Gas-based Muds

        Drill-in Fluids

        Mud Compositions

        Inhibitive Water-based Muds

        Water-based Muds

        Oil-based Drilling Muds

        Synthetic Muds

        Inverted Emulsion Drilling Muds

        Foam Drilling

        Chemically Enhanced Drilling

        Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Drilling

        Additives

        Thickeners

        Lubricants

        Bacteria

        Corrosion Inhibitors

        Viscosity Control

        Clay Stabilization

        Formation Damage

        Shale Stabilizer

        Fluid Loss Additives

        Scavengers

        Surfactants

        Hydrate Inhibitors

        Weighting Materials

        Organoclay Compositions

        Miscellaneous

        Multicomponent Additives

        Cleaning Operations

        Cuttings Removal

        Junk Removal

        Filter Cake Removal

        Drilling Fluid Disposal

        Toxicity

        Conversion Into Cements

        Environmental Regulations

        Characterization of Drilling Muds

        Viscosity

        API Filtration

        Alkalinity and pH

        Total Hardness

        Roller Oven

        References

        Tradenames

    2. Fluid Loss Additives

        Mechanism of Action of Fluid Loss Agents

        Action of Macroscopic Particles

        Action of Cement Fluid Loss Additives

        Testing of Fluid Loss Additives

        Formation Damage

        Reversible Gels

        Bacteria

        Inorganic Additives

        Bentonite

        Sodium Metasilicate

        Ultra-fine Filtrate-Reducing Agents

        Bridging Agents for Fluid Loss Control

        Organic Additives

        Tall Oil Pitch

        Mercaptans for Iron Control

        Polysaccharides

        Cellulose-based Fluid Loss Additives

        Starch

        Borate Crosslinkers

        Guar

        Succinoglycan

        Polyether-modified Polysaccharides

        Scleroglucan

        Gellan

        Humic Acid Derivates

        Oil-based Well Working Fluids

        Lignosulfonates

        Synthetic Polymers

        Polyorthoesters

        Polyhydroxyacetic Acid

        Polydrill

        Latex

        Polyvinyl Alcohol

        Polyethyleneimine

        Acrylics

        Silicones

        Phthalimide as a Diverting Material

        Special Applications

        References

        Tradenames

    3. Clay Stabilization

        Properties of Clays

        Swelling of Clays

        Montmorillonite

        Guidelines

        Mechanisms Causing Instability

         Kinetics of the Swelling of Clays

        Hydrational Stress

        Borehole Stability Model

        Shale Inhibition with Water-based Muds

        Inhibiting Reactive Argillaceous Formations

        Thermal Treatment to Increase the Permeability

        Formation Damage by Fluids

        Formation Damage in Gas Production Shut-in

        Swelling Inhibitors

        Salts

        Quaternary Ammonium Salts

        Potassium Formate

        Saccharide Derivatives

        Sulfonated Asphalt

        Grafted Copolymers

        Polyoxyalkylene Amines

        Anionic Polymers

        Amine Salts of Maleic Imide

        Comparative Study

        Test Methods

        Shale Erosion Test

        Hassler Cell

        References

        Tradenames

    4. Lubricants

        Synthetic Greases

        Base Fluids

        Extreme Pressure Agents

        Anti-seize Agents

        Anti-wear Additives

        Metal Deactivators

        Solubility Aids

        Antioxidants

        Base stocks

        Lubricant Compositions

        Molybdenum disulfide

        Polarized Graphite

        Ellipsoidal Glass Granules

        Calcium-Sulfonate-based Greases

        Paraffins

        Olefins

        Phospholipids

        Alcohols

        Ethers

        Esters

        Polymers

        Starch

        Amides

        Special Issues

        Side Reactions

        Silicate-Based Muds

        Studies on Pipe Sticking

        Differential Sticking Reducer

        References

        Tradenames

    5. Bacterial Control

        Mechanisms of Growth

        Growth of Bacteria Supported by Oil Field Chemicals

        Mathematical Models

        Detection of Bacteria

        Sulfate-reducing Bacteria

       Bacterial Corrosion

        Mechanisms of Microbial Corrosion

        Corrosion Monitoring

        Assessment of the Activity of Biocides

        Synergistic Action of Biocides

        Treatments with Biocides

        Previously Fractured Formations

        Intermittent Addition of Biocide

        Nonbiocidal Control

        Biocides

        Various Biocides

        References

        Tradenames

    6. Corrosion Inhibitors

        Classification of Corrosion Inhibitors

        Fields of Application

        Acidization

        Oil Storage Tanks

        Pipelines

        Production Wells

        Scale Removal Treatments Using Acids

        Application Techniques

        Batch Versus Continuous Application

        Emulsions

        Application in Solid Form

        Characterization

        Dye Transfer Method

        Liquid Chromatography

        Thin Layer Chromatography

        Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

        Corrosion Tests

        Side Effects

        Stabilizer for Emulsions

        Antisynergism with Alcohols

        Synergism with Surfactants

        Interactions with Kinetic Gas Hydrate Inhibitors

        Effect of Flow on Inhibitor Film Life

        Inhibitor Chemicals

        Amides and Imidazolines

        Salts of Nitrogenous Bases

        Nitrogen Quaternaries

        Polyoxylated Amines, Amides, and Imidazolines

        Mercaptan Modified Products

        Nitrogen Heterocyclics

        Carbonyl Compounds

        Silicate-based Inhibitors

        Thioacetals

        Miscellaneous Inhibitors

        Antimony Halides

        Aldol-amine Adducts

        Encapsulated Types

        Anti-biofoulant Corrosion inhibitors

        Formic Acid Free Formulation

        Intensifiers

        References

        Tradenames

    7. Scale Inhibitors

        Classification and Mechanism

        Thermodynamic Inhibitors

        Kinetic Inhibitors

        Adherence Inhibitors

        Mathematical Models

        Optimal Dose

        Precipitation Squeeze Method

        Inhibitor Chemicals

        Water-soluble Inhibitors

        Oil-soluble Scale Inhibitors

        Inhibitors for Special Tasks

        Characterization

        Spectroscopic Methods

        Turbidimetry

        Static Bottle Test

        References

        Tradenames

    8. Gelling Agents

        Placing Gels

        Basic Mechanisms of Gelling Agents

        Polymer-Crosslinker-Retarder Systems

        Gelling in Oil-based Systems

        Aluminum Phosphate Ester Salts

        Less Volatile Phosphoric Acid Esters

        Aluminum Trichloride

        Biopolymers

        Organic Polysilicate Ester

        Latex

        Gelling in Water-based Systems

        Xanthan Gum

        Carboxymethyl Cellulose

        Polyacrylamide-based Formulations

        Polyacrylic Acid

        Alkali-Silicate Aminoplast Compositions

        In Situ Formed Polymers

        Epoxide Resins

        Urea-formaldehyde Resins

        Vinyl Monomers

        References

        Tradenames

    9. Filter Cake Removal

        Bridging Agents

        Degradable Bridging Agents

        Dissolvable Bridging Agents

        Degradation by Acids

        Citric Acid

        Acetic Acid

        Acid Generating Coatings

        Acidic Foam

        Orthoesters

        Enzymatic Degradation

        Peroxides

        Hydrogen Peroxide

        Metal Peroxides

        Magnesium Peroxide in Filter Cake

        Degradation by Oligosaccharides

        Breaking by Emulsions

        Surfactant Nanotechnology

        Special Issues

        Manganese tetroxide

        Multiply Active Compositions

        Self-destructing Filter Cake

        Oscillatory Flow

        References

    10. Cement Additives

        Cementing Technologies

        Primary Cementing

        Secondary Cementing

        Squeeze Cementing

        Plug Cementing

        Basic Composition of Portland Cement

        Manufacturing

        Active Components in Cements

        Chemistry of Setting

        Standardization of Cements

        Mixing with Additives

        Important Properties of Cement Slurries and Set Cement

        Special Cement Types

        Resin Cement

        Oil-based Cement

        High-temperature Cement

        Low-temperature Cement

        High-alumina Cement

        Magnesian Cement

        Fiber Cement

        Acid Gas Resistant Cement

        Permeable Cement

        Salt-water Stable Latex Cement

        Settable Drilling Fluids

        Classification of Cement Additives

        Light-weight Cement

        Foam Cement

        Density-increasing or Weighting Agents

        Control of Thickening and Setting Time

        Viscosity Control

        Dispersants

        Expansion Additives

        Set Strength Enhancement

        Adhesion Improvement

        Fluid Loss Control

        Clay Control Additives

        Anti-gas-migration Agents

        Corrosion Inhibitors

        Other Chemical Attack

        Use of Waste from Other Industrial Branches

        References

        Tradenames

    11. Transport

        Pretreatment of the Products

        Pretreatment for Corrosion Prevention

        Natural Gas

        Sulfur Contamination of Refined Products

        Demulsifiers

        Heavy Crudes

        Corrosion Control

        Crude Oil Treatment

        Chemical Inhibition

        Coatings

        Paraffin Inhibitors

        Pour Point Depressants

        Drag Reducers

        Drag Reduction in Gas Transmission Lines

        Synergism with Paraffin Deposition

        Hydrate Control

        Additives for Slurry Transport

        Additives for Odorization

        Cleaning

        Gelled Pigs

        References

    12. Drag Reducers

        Operating Costs

        Mechanism of Drag Reduction

        Damping of Transmission of Eddies

        Viscoelastic Fluid Thread

        Polymer Degradation in Turbulent Flow

        Drag Reduction in Two-phase Flow

        Drag Reduction in Gas Flow

        Microfibrils

        Drag-reducing Surfactant Solutions

        Soapy Industrial Cleaner

        Lyophobic Performance of the Lining Material

        Interpolymer Complexes

        Drag-reducing Chemicals

        Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene

        Copolymers of alpha-Olefins

        Latex Drag Reducers

        Polyether Compounds for Oil-based Well Drilling Fluids

        Tylose

        Microencapsulated Polymers

        Aluminum Carboxylate

        References

    13. Gas Hydrate Control

        Naturally Occurring Gas Hydrates

        Problems with Gas Hydrates in Petroleum Technology

        Nature of Inclusion Compounds

        Gas Hydrates

        Conditions for Formation

        Water Content

        Decomposition

        Stability Diagram

        Clausius-Clapeyron Equation

        Hammerschmidt Equation

        Formation and Properties of Gas Hydrates

        Two-Step Mechanism of Formation

        Nucleation Particle Sizes

        Clustering Before Nucleation

        Experimental Methods

        Modeling the Formation of Gas Hydrates

        Test Procedures for Inhibitors

        Screening Method

        High Pressure Sapphire Cell

        Circulating Loop

        Inhibition of Gas Hydrate Formation

        Drying

        Thermodynamic Inhibition with Additives

        Kinetic Inhibition

        Nucleation Inhibitors

        Crystal Growth Inhibitors

        Agglomeration Inhibitors

        Gas Hydrate Inhibitors with Corrosion Inhibition

        Recyclable Antifreeze Agents

        Hydrate Inhibitors for Drilling Fluids

        References

        Tradenames

    14. Antifreeze Agents

        Theory of Action

        Antifreeze Chemicals

        Heat Transfer Liquids

        Brines

        Alcohols

        Glycols

        Toxicity and Environmental Aspects

        Special Uses

        Hydraulic Cement Additives

        Pipeline Transportation of Aqueous Emulsions of Oil

        Low Temperature Drilling Fluids

        References

    15. Odorization

        General Aspects

        Limits of Explosion

        Desirable Properties of Odorants

        Measurement and Odor Monitoring

        Olfactoric Response

        Physiological Methods

        Chemical and Physical Methods

        Additives for Odorization

        Sulfur Compounds

        Other Compounds

        Industrial Synthesis of Odorants

        Uses and Properties

        Odorant Injection Techniques

        Leak Detection

        Fuel Cells

        Odor-fading

        Environmental Problems

        References

        Tradenames

    16. Enhanced Oil Recovery

        Waterflooding

        Surfactants

        Interphase Structure

        Interfacial Rheological Properties

        Microemulsion Phase Diagrams

        Interfacial Tension

        Imbibition Experiments

        Caustic Waterflooding

        Injection Strategies

        Foam-enhanced Caustic Waterflooding

        Alkaline Surfactant Polymer Flooding

        Interphase Properties

        Clay Dissolution

        Acid Flooding

        Hydrochloric Acid

        Sulfuric Acid

        Emulsion Flooding

        Micellar Polymer Flooding

        Chemical Injection

        Ammonium Carbonate

        Hydrogen Peroxide

        Alcohol-Waterflooding

        Chemical Injection of Waste Gases

        Polymer Waterflooding

        Low-tension Polymer Flood Technique

        Influence of Viscosity on Ionic Strength

        Modified Acrylics

        Biopolymers

        Combination Flooding

        Low-tension Polymer Flood

        Effect of Alkaline Agents on the Retention

        Alkaline Steamflooding

        Sediment-forming Materials

        Water-alternating Gas Technology

        Hydrocarbon-assisted Steam Injection

        Foam Flooding

        Basic Principles of Foam Flooding

        Ambient Pressure Foam Tests

        Polymer-enhanced Foams

        Carbon Dioxide Flooding

        Steamflooding

        Carbon Dioxide

        Air Injection

        Chemical Reactions

        In Situ Combustion

        Special Techniques

        Viscous Oil Recovery

        Low-permeability Flooding

        Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques

        Basic Principles and Methods

        Economics

        Strict Anaerobic Bacteria

        Ultramicrobacteria

        Scale Inhibitors as a Microbial Nutrient

        Interfacial Properties

        Tracers

        Thermal Stability of Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate

        Asphaltene Deposition

        Stabilizer Dispersant

        Reservoir Properties

        Reservoir Models

        Profile Control

        Formation Damage

        Wettability

        Flooding of Oil in Chalk

        Treatment of Produced Water

        Soil Remediation

        References

    17. Fracturing Fluids

        Stresses and Fractures

        Comparison of Stimulation Techniques

        Action of a Fracturing Fluid

        Stages in a Fracturing Job

        Types of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids

        Comparison of Different Techniques

        Expert Systems for Assessment

        Water-Based Systems

        Thickeners and Gelling Agents

        Concentrates

        Friction Reducers

        Fluid Loss Additives

        pH Control Additives

        Clay Stabilizers

        Biocides

        Surfactants

        Crosslinkers

        Gel Breaking in Water-based Systems

        Scale Inhibitors

        Oil-Based Systems

        Organic Gel Aluminum Phosphate Ester

        Increasing the Viscosity of Diesel

        Gel Breakers

        Foam-Based Fracturing Fluids

        Defoamers

        Fracturing in Coal-Beds

        Propping Agents

        Sand

        Ceramic Particles

        Bauxite

        Light-weight Proppants

        Porous Pack with Fibers

        Coated Proppants

        Anti-settling Additives

        Proppant Flowback

        Acid Fracturing

        Encapsulated Acids

        The In Situ Formation of Acids

        Fluid Loss

        Gel Breaker for Acid Fracturing

        Special Problems

        Corrosion Inhibitors

        The Problem of Iron Control in Fracturing

        Enhanced Temperature Stability

        Chemical Blowing

        Frost-resistant Formulation

        Formation Damage in Gas Wells

        Characterization of Fracturing Fluids

        Rheological Characterization

        Zirconium-based Crosslinking Agent

        Oxidative Gel Breaker

        Size Exclusion Chromatography

        Assessment of Proppants

        References

        Tradenames

    18. Water Shutoff

        Classification of Methods

        In Situ Polymerization

        Acrylic Gels

        Crosslinkers

        Special Applications

        Shear-Initiated Inversion of Emulsions

        Thermally Stable Gels

        Disproportionate Permeability Reduction

        Field Experience

        Silicate-based Agents

        Combined Polymer-Silicate Technology

        Gel-Foam Technique

        Resin Types

        Epoxide Resins

        Urea-Formaldehyde Resins

        Furan-Silicone Resins

        Cement with Additives

        Polymethyl Methacrylate Modified with Monoethanolamine

        Crude Light Pyridine Bases

        Granulated Fly Ash

        Phosphonic Acid Derivates

        Phosphonium Complexone

        Aerated Plugging Solution

        Compressed Foam Mixture

        Furfuramide

        Cellulosics and Polyacrylics

        Smectite Clays

        Plasticizers

        Water Glass

        Organosilicones

        Formaldehyde Resin

        Liquid Metal Alloy

        Bentonite

        Blast Furnace Slag

        Fiber Reinforcement

        Gels from Aluminum Hydroxychloride

        Organosilicones

        Non-Crosslinked Copolymers

        Anchoring

        Inorganic Colloids

        Water Swelling Additives

        Water-swelling Cellulose

        Hydrolyzed Polyacrylonitrile

        Guar

        Clays

        Wastes

        Waste Oil Sludge

        Aluminum Trichloride

        Antifoaming with Sulfite-waste Liquor

        Surfactants

        Polymeric Surfactants

        Viscoelastic Surfactant Solutions

        Tailoring the Hydrodynamic Volume

        Temperature-Sensitive Latex Particles

        References

        Tradenames

    19. Oil Spill Treating Agents

        History

        List of Major Oil Spills

        General Requirements

        Mechanisms

        Application

        Environmental Aspects

        Implementation Application Programs

        Tests

        Subsurface, Soil, and Ground Water

        In Situ Chemical Oxidation

        Ground Water

        Chemicals in Detail

        References

    20. Waste Disposal

        Drilling Fluids

        Bioremediation

        Assessment of Biodegradability

        Supercritical Fluid Extraction

        Cuttings

        Environmental Impact

        Modeling the Discharge

        Microwave Treatment

        Discharge in Cement

        Fillers in Bitumen

        Chromium Removal

        Injection Techniques

        Acid Gas Injection

        Storage of Carbon Dioxide

        Slurry Fracture Injection Technique

        Use as Sealants

        References

        Tradenames

    21. Dispersions, Emulsions, and Foams

        Dispersions

        Dispersants

        Emulsions

        Oil-in-water Emulsions - Invert Emulsions

        Water-in-water Emulsions

        Oil-in-water-in-oil Emulsions

        Microemulsions

        Solids-stabilized emulsion

        Biotreated Emulsion

        Shale Inhibition

        Transportation

        Acid-rich Oils

        Characterization of Emulsions

        Low Fluorescence Emulsifiers

        Foams

        Aphrons

        References

        Tradenames

    22. Defoamers

        Theory of Defoaming

        Stability of Foams

        Action of Defoamers

        Classification of Defoamers

        Active Ingredients

        Ancillary Agents

        Uses in Petroleum Technology

        Aqueous Fluid Systems

        Well Treatment and Cementation

        Plugging Agents

        Gas-Oil Separation

        Natural Gas

        Distillation and Petroleum Production

        Antimicrobial Antifoam Compositions

        References

    23. Demulsifiers

        Emulsions in Produced Crude Oil

        Waterflooding

        Oil Spill Treatment

        Desired Properties

        Mechanisms of Demulsification

        Stabilization of Water-oil Emulsions

        Interfacial Tension Relaxation

        Performance Testing

        Spreading Pressure

        Characterization by Dielectric Constant

        Shaker Test Methods

        Viscosity Measurements

        Screening

        Classification of Demulsifiers

        Common Precursor Chemicals

        Demulsifiers in Detail

        Polyoxyalkylenes

        Vinyl Polymers

        Polyamines

        Polyamides

        Phenolics

        Alkoxylated Fatty Oils

        Biodemulsifiers

        References

        Appendix 1: List of Tradenames

        Appendix 2: List of Acronyms

    Index

        Chemical Index

        Subject Index






    Quotes and reviews

    "If you are new to oil field chemicals or just not technically inclined, this book is a good first reference that introduces the what, where, how, and why of the chemicals that are used in the oil field. The book is designed for engineers; however, it would be useful for anyone not familiar with the topic in order to frame the chemistry that is applied in oil recovery."--AOCS, Inform, May 2012, Vol. 23 (5), page 302

     
     
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