Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids

Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, 1st Edition

Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, 1st Edition,Johannes Fink,ISBN9780123838445


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9780123838445 New edition

9780123838452 New edition


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Key Features

    • Chemicals are ordered by use including drilling muds, corrosion inhibitors, and bacteria control
    • Includes cutting edge chemicals and polymers such as water soluble polymers and viscosity control
    • Handy index of chemical substances as well as a general chemical index


    Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids is a comprehensive manual that provides end users with information about oil field chemicals, such as drilling muds, corrosion and scale inhibitors, gelling agents and bacterial control. This book is an extension and update of Oil Field Chemicals published in 2003, and it presents a compilation of materials from literature and patents, arranged according to applications and the way a typical job is practiced. The text is composed of 23 chapters that cover oil field chemicals arranged according to their use. Each chapter follows a uniform template, starting with a brief overview of the chemical followed by reviews, monomers, polymerization, and fabrication. The different aspects of application, including safety and environmental impacts, for each chemical are also discussed throughout the chapters. The text also includes handy indices for trade names, acronyms and chemicals. Petroleum, production, drilling, completion, and operations engineers and managers will find this book invaluable for project management and production. Non-experts and students in petroleum engineering will also find this reference useful.


    Petroleum Engineer, Production Engineer, Drilling Engineer, Completion Engineer, Operations Engineer, Drilling Manager, Operations Manager, Project Production Engineer

    Johannes Fink

    Johannes Fink is a Professor of Polymer Chemistry at Montanuniversität Leoben in Vienna, Austria. Dr. Fink teaches macromolecular chemistry. His career spans for more than thirty years in the field of polymers, including characterization, flame retardancy and pyrolysis of polymers. Johannes has published multiple books and articles, including Petroleum Engineer’s Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, 2nd Edition, Water-Based Chemicals and Technology for Drilling, Completion, and Workover Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluids Technology, all published by Elsevier.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Professor of Polymer Chemistry, Montanuniversität Leoben, Vienna, Austria

    View additional works by Johannes Fink

    Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, 1st Edition


    1. Drilling Muds

        Classification of Muds

        Dispersed Noninhibited Systems

        Phosphate-treated Muds

        Lignite Muds

        Quebracho Muds

        Lignosulfonate Muds

        Lime Muds

        Sea Water Muds

        Nondispersed Noninhibited Systems

        Low-solids Fresh Water Muds

        Variable Density Fluids

        Gas-based Muds

        Drill-in Fluids

        Mud Compositions

        Inhibitive Water-based Muds

        Water-based Muds

        Oil-based Drilling Muds

        Synthetic Muds

        Inverted Emulsion Drilling Muds

        Foam Drilling

        Chemically Enhanced Drilling

        Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Drilling





        Corrosion Inhibitors

        Viscosity Control

        Clay Stabilization

        Formation Damage

        Shale Stabilizer

        Fluid Loss Additives



        Hydrate Inhibitors

        Weighting Materials

        Organoclay Compositions


        Multicomponent Additives

        Cleaning Operations

        Cuttings Removal

        Junk Removal

        Filter Cake Removal

        Drilling Fluid Disposal


        Conversion Into Cements

        Environmental Regulations

        Characterization of Drilling Muds


        API Filtration

        Alkalinity and pH

        Total Hardness

        Roller Oven



    2. Fluid Loss Additives

        Mechanism of Action of Fluid Loss Agents

        Action of Macroscopic Particles

        Action of Cement Fluid Loss Additives

        Testing of Fluid Loss Additives

        Formation Damage

        Reversible Gels


        Inorganic Additives


        Sodium Metasilicate

        Ultra-fine Filtrate-Reducing Agents

        Bridging Agents for Fluid Loss Control

        Organic Additives

        Tall Oil Pitch

        Mercaptans for Iron Control


        Cellulose-based Fluid Loss Additives


        Borate Crosslinkers



        Polyether-modified Polysaccharides



        Humic Acid Derivates

        Oil-based Well Working Fluids


        Synthetic Polymers


        Polyhydroxyacetic Acid



        Polyvinyl Alcohol




        Phthalimide as a Diverting Material

        Special Applications



    3. Clay Stabilization

        Properties of Clays

        Swelling of Clays



        Mechanisms Causing Instability

         Kinetics of the Swelling of Clays

        Hydrational Stress

        Borehole Stability Model

        Shale Inhibition with Water-based Muds

        Inhibiting Reactive Argillaceous Formations

        Thermal Treatment to Increase the Permeability

        Formation Damage by Fluids

        Formation Damage in Gas Production Shut-in

        Swelling Inhibitors


        Quaternary Ammonium Salts

        Potassium Formate

        Saccharide Derivatives

        Sulfonated Asphalt

        Grafted Copolymers

        Polyoxyalkylene Amines

        Anionic Polymers

        Amine Salts of Maleic Imide

        Comparative Study

        Test Methods

        Shale Erosion Test

        Hassler Cell



    4. Lubricants

        Synthetic Greases

        Base Fluids

        Extreme Pressure Agents

        Anti-seize Agents

        Anti-wear Additives

        Metal Deactivators

        Solubility Aids


        Base stocks

        Lubricant Compositions

        Molybdenum disulfide

        Polarized Graphite

        Ellipsoidal Glass Granules

        Calcium-Sulfonate-based Greases










        Special Issues

        Side Reactions

        Silicate-Based Muds

        Studies on Pipe Sticking

        Differential Sticking Reducer



    5. Bacterial Control

        Mechanisms of Growth

        Growth of Bacteria Supported by Oil Field Chemicals

        Mathematical Models

        Detection of Bacteria

        Sulfate-reducing Bacteria

       Bacterial Corrosion

        Mechanisms of Microbial Corrosion

        Corrosion Monitoring

        Assessment of the Activity of Biocides

        Synergistic Action of Biocides

        Treatments with Biocides

        Previously Fractured Formations

        Intermittent Addition of Biocide

        Nonbiocidal Control


        Various Biocides



    6. Corrosion Inhibitors

        Classification of Corrosion Inhibitors

        Fields of Application


        Oil Storage Tanks


        Production Wells

        Scale Removal Treatments Using Acids

        Application Techniques

        Batch Versus Continuous Application


        Application in Solid Form


        Dye Transfer Method

        Liquid Chromatography

        Thin Layer Chromatography

        Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

        Corrosion Tests

        Side Effects

        Stabilizer for Emulsions

        Antisynergism with Alcohols

        Synergism with Surfactants

        Interactions with Kinetic Gas Hydrate Inhibitors

        Effect of Flow on Inhibitor Film Life

        Inhibitor Chemicals

        Amides and Imidazolines

        Salts of Nitrogenous Bases

        Nitrogen Quaternaries

        Polyoxylated Amines, Amides, and Imidazolines

        Mercaptan Modified Products

        Nitrogen Heterocyclics

        Carbonyl Compounds

        Silicate-based Inhibitors


        Miscellaneous Inhibitors

        Antimony Halides

        Aldol-amine Adducts

        Encapsulated Types

        Anti-biofoulant Corrosion inhibitors

        Formic Acid Free Formulation




    7. Scale Inhibitors

        Classification and Mechanism

        Thermodynamic Inhibitors

        Kinetic Inhibitors

        Adherence Inhibitors

        Mathematical Models

        Optimal Dose

        Precipitation Squeeze Method

        Inhibitor Chemicals

        Water-soluble Inhibitors

        Oil-soluble Scale Inhibitors

        Inhibitors for Special Tasks


        Spectroscopic Methods


        Static Bottle Test



    8. Gelling Agents

        Placing Gels

        Basic Mechanisms of Gelling Agents

        Polymer-Crosslinker-Retarder Systems

        Gelling in Oil-based Systems

        Aluminum Phosphate Ester Salts

        Less Volatile Phosphoric Acid Esters

        Aluminum Trichloride


        Organic Polysilicate Ester


        Gelling in Water-based Systems

        Xanthan Gum

        Carboxymethyl Cellulose

        Polyacrylamide-based Formulations

        Polyacrylic Acid

        Alkali-Silicate Aminoplast Compositions

        In Situ Formed Polymers

        Epoxide Resins

        Urea-formaldehyde Resins

        Vinyl Monomers



    9. Filter Cake Removal

        Bridging Agents

        Degradable Bridging Agents

        Dissolvable Bridging Agents

        Degradation by Acids

        Citric Acid

        Acetic Acid

        Acid Generating Coatings

        Acidic Foam


        Enzymatic Degradation


        Hydrogen Peroxide

        Metal Peroxides

        Magnesium Peroxide in Filter Cake

        Degradation by Oligosaccharides

        Breaking by Emulsions

        Surfactant Nanotechnology

        Special Issues

        Manganese tetroxide

        Multiply Active Compositions

        Self-destructing Filter Cake

        Oscillatory Flow


    10. Cement Additives

        Cementing Technologies

        Primary Cementing

        Secondary Cementing

        Squeeze Cementing

        Plug Cementing

        Basic Composition of Portland Cement


        Active Components in Cements

        Chemistry of Setting

        Standardization of Cements

        Mixing with Additives

        Important Properties of Cement Slurries and Set Cement

        Special Cement Types

        Resin Cement

        Oil-based Cement

        High-temperature Cement

        Low-temperature Cement

        High-alumina Cement

        Magnesian Cement

        Fiber Cement

        Acid Gas Resistant Cement

        Permeable Cement

        Salt-water Stable Latex Cement

        Settable Drilling Fluids

        Classification of Cement Additives

        Light-weight Cement

        Foam Cement

        Density-increasing or Weighting Agents

        Control of Thickening and Setting Time

        Viscosity Control


        Expansion Additives

        Set Strength Enhancement

        Adhesion Improvement

        Fluid Loss Control

        Clay Control Additives

        Anti-gas-migration Agents

        Corrosion Inhibitors

        Other Chemical Attack

        Use of Waste from Other Industrial Branches



    11. Transport

        Pretreatment of the Products

        Pretreatment for Corrosion Prevention

        Natural Gas

        Sulfur Contamination of Refined Products


        Heavy Crudes

        Corrosion Control

        Crude Oil Treatment

        Chemical Inhibition


        Paraffin Inhibitors

        Pour Point Depressants

        Drag Reducers

        Drag Reduction in Gas Transmission Lines

        Synergism with Paraffin Deposition

        Hydrate Control

        Additives for Slurry Transport

        Additives for Odorization


        Gelled Pigs


    12. Drag Reducers

        Operating Costs

        Mechanism of Drag Reduction

        Damping of Transmission of Eddies

        Viscoelastic Fluid Thread

        Polymer Degradation in Turbulent Flow

        Drag Reduction in Two-phase Flow

        Drag Reduction in Gas Flow


        Drag-reducing Surfactant Solutions

        Soapy Industrial Cleaner

        Lyophobic Performance of the Lining Material

        Interpolymer Complexes

        Drag-reducing Chemicals

        Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene

        Copolymers of alpha-Olefins

        Latex Drag Reducers

        Polyether Compounds for Oil-based Well Drilling Fluids


        Microencapsulated Polymers

        Aluminum Carboxylate


    13. Gas Hydrate Control

        Naturally Occurring Gas Hydrates

        Problems with Gas Hydrates in Petroleum Technology

        Nature of Inclusion Compounds

        Gas Hydrates

        Conditions for Formation

        Water Content


        Stability Diagram

        Clausius-Clapeyron Equation

        Hammerschmidt Equation

        Formation and Properties of Gas Hydrates

        Two-Step Mechanism of Formation

        Nucleation Particle Sizes

        Clustering Before Nucleation

        Experimental Methods

        Modeling the Formation of Gas Hydrates

        Test Procedures for Inhibitors

        Screening Method

        High Pressure Sapphire Cell

        Circulating Loop

        Inhibition of Gas Hydrate Formation


        Thermodynamic Inhibition with Additives

        Kinetic Inhibition

        Nucleation Inhibitors

        Crystal Growth Inhibitors

        Agglomeration Inhibitors

        Gas Hydrate Inhibitors with Corrosion Inhibition

        Recyclable Antifreeze Agents

        Hydrate Inhibitors for Drilling Fluids



    14. Antifreeze Agents

        Theory of Action

        Antifreeze Chemicals

        Heat Transfer Liquids




        Toxicity and Environmental Aspects

        Special Uses

        Hydraulic Cement Additives

        Pipeline Transportation of Aqueous Emulsions of Oil

        Low Temperature Drilling Fluids


    15. Odorization

        General Aspects

        Limits of Explosion

        Desirable Properties of Odorants

        Measurement and Odor Monitoring

        Olfactoric Response

        Physiological Methods

        Chemical and Physical Methods

        Additives for Odorization

        Sulfur Compounds

        Other Compounds

        Industrial Synthesis of Odorants

        Uses and Properties

        Odorant Injection Techniques

        Leak Detection

        Fuel Cells


        Environmental Problems



    16. Enhanced Oil Recovery



        Interphase Structure

        Interfacial Rheological Properties

        Microemulsion Phase Diagrams

        Interfacial Tension

        Imbibition Experiments

        Caustic Waterflooding

        Injection Strategies

        Foam-enhanced Caustic Waterflooding

        Alkaline Surfactant Polymer Flooding

        Interphase Properties

        Clay Dissolution

        Acid Flooding

        Hydrochloric Acid

        Sulfuric Acid

        Emulsion Flooding

        Micellar Polymer Flooding

        Chemical Injection

        Ammonium Carbonate

        Hydrogen Peroxide


        Chemical Injection of Waste Gases

        Polymer Waterflooding

        Low-tension Polymer Flood Technique

        Influence of Viscosity on Ionic Strength

        Modified Acrylics


        Combination Flooding

        Low-tension Polymer Flood

        Effect of Alkaline Agents on the Retention

        Alkaline Steamflooding

        Sediment-forming Materials

        Water-alternating Gas Technology

        Hydrocarbon-assisted Steam Injection

        Foam Flooding

        Basic Principles of Foam Flooding

        Ambient Pressure Foam Tests

        Polymer-enhanced Foams

        Carbon Dioxide Flooding


        Carbon Dioxide

        Air Injection

        Chemical Reactions

        In Situ Combustion

        Special Techniques

        Viscous Oil Recovery

        Low-permeability Flooding

        Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques

        Basic Principles and Methods


        Strict Anaerobic Bacteria


        Scale Inhibitors as a Microbial Nutrient

        Interfacial Properties


        Thermal Stability of Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate

        Asphaltene Deposition

        Stabilizer Dispersant

        Reservoir Properties

        Reservoir Models

        Profile Control

        Formation Damage


        Flooding of Oil in Chalk

        Treatment of Produced Water

        Soil Remediation


    17. Fracturing Fluids

        Stresses and Fractures

        Comparison of Stimulation Techniques

        Action of a Fracturing Fluid

        Stages in a Fracturing Job

        Types of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids

        Comparison of Different Techniques

        Expert Systems for Assessment

        Water-Based Systems

        Thickeners and Gelling Agents


        Friction Reducers

        Fluid Loss Additives

        pH Control Additives

        Clay Stabilizers




        Gel Breaking in Water-based Systems

        Scale Inhibitors

        Oil-Based Systems

        Organic Gel Aluminum Phosphate Ester

        Increasing the Viscosity of Diesel

        Gel Breakers

        Foam-Based Fracturing Fluids


        Fracturing in Coal-Beds

        Propping Agents


        Ceramic Particles


        Light-weight Proppants

        Porous Pack with Fibers

        Coated Proppants

        Anti-settling Additives

        Proppant Flowback

        Acid Fracturing

        Encapsulated Acids

        The In Situ Formation of Acids

        Fluid Loss

        Gel Breaker for Acid Fracturing

        Special Problems

        Corrosion Inhibitors

        The Problem of Iron Control in Fracturing

        Enhanced Temperature Stability

        Chemical Blowing

        Frost-resistant Formulation

        Formation Damage in Gas Wells

        Characterization of Fracturing Fluids

        Rheological Characterization

        Zirconium-based Crosslinking Agent

        Oxidative Gel Breaker

        Size Exclusion Chromatography

        Assessment of Proppants



    18. Water Shutoff

        Classification of Methods

        In Situ Polymerization

        Acrylic Gels


        Special Applications

        Shear-Initiated Inversion of Emulsions

        Thermally Stable Gels

        Disproportionate Permeability Reduction

        Field Experience

        Silicate-based Agents

        Combined Polymer-Silicate Technology

        Gel-Foam Technique

        Resin Types

        Epoxide Resins

        Urea-Formaldehyde Resins

        Furan-Silicone Resins

        Cement with Additives

        Polymethyl Methacrylate Modified with Monoethanolamine

        Crude Light Pyridine Bases

        Granulated Fly Ash

        Phosphonic Acid Derivates

        Phosphonium Complexone

        Aerated Plugging Solution

        Compressed Foam Mixture


        Cellulosics and Polyacrylics

        Smectite Clays


        Water Glass


        Formaldehyde Resin

        Liquid Metal Alloy


        Blast Furnace Slag

        Fiber Reinforcement

        Gels from Aluminum Hydroxychloride


        Non-Crosslinked Copolymers


        Inorganic Colloids

        Water Swelling Additives

        Water-swelling Cellulose

        Hydrolyzed Polyacrylonitrile




        Waste Oil Sludge

        Aluminum Trichloride

        Antifoaming with Sulfite-waste Liquor


        Polymeric Surfactants

        Viscoelastic Surfactant Solutions

        Tailoring the Hydrodynamic Volume

        Temperature-Sensitive Latex Particles



    19. Oil Spill Treating Agents


        List of Major Oil Spills

        General Requirements



        Environmental Aspects

        Implementation Application Programs


        Subsurface, Soil, and Ground Water

        In Situ Chemical Oxidation

        Ground Water

        Chemicals in Detail


    20. Waste Disposal

        Drilling Fluids


        Assessment of Biodegradability

        Supercritical Fluid Extraction


        Environmental Impact

        Modeling the Discharge

        Microwave Treatment

        Discharge in Cement

        Fillers in Bitumen

        Chromium Removal

        Injection Techniques

        Acid Gas Injection

        Storage of Carbon Dioxide

        Slurry Fracture Injection Technique

        Use as Sealants



    21. Dispersions, Emulsions, and Foams




        Oil-in-water Emulsions - Invert Emulsions

        Water-in-water Emulsions

        Oil-in-water-in-oil Emulsions


        Solids-stabilized emulsion

        Biotreated Emulsion

        Shale Inhibition


        Acid-rich Oils

        Characterization of Emulsions

        Low Fluorescence Emulsifiers





    22. Defoamers

        Theory of Defoaming

        Stability of Foams

        Action of Defoamers

        Classification of Defoamers

        Active Ingredients

        Ancillary Agents

        Uses in Petroleum Technology

        Aqueous Fluid Systems

        Well Treatment and Cementation

        Plugging Agents

        Gas-Oil Separation

        Natural Gas

        Distillation and Petroleum Production

        Antimicrobial Antifoam Compositions


    23. Demulsifiers

        Emulsions in Produced Crude Oil


        Oil Spill Treatment

        Desired Properties

        Mechanisms of Demulsification

        Stabilization of Water-oil Emulsions

        Interfacial Tension Relaxation

        Performance Testing

        Spreading Pressure

        Characterization by Dielectric Constant

        Shaker Test Methods

        Viscosity Measurements


        Classification of Demulsifiers

        Common Precursor Chemicals

        Demulsifiers in Detail


        Vinyl Polymers




        Alkoxylated Fatty Oils



        Appendix 1: List of Tradenames

        Appendix 2: List of Acronyms


        Chemical Index

        Subject Index

    Quotes and reviews

    "If you are new to oil field chemicals or just not technically inclined, this book is a good first reference that introduces the what, where, how, and why of the chemicals that are used in the oil field. The book is designed for engineers; however, it would be useful for anyone not familiar with the topic in order to frame the chemistry that is applied in oil recovery."--AOCS, Inform, May 2012, Vol. 23 (5), page 302


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