Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids

Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, 1st Edition

Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, 1st Edition,Johannes Fink,ISBN9780123838445


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Key Features

    • Chemicals are ordered by use including drilling muds, corrosion inhibitors, and bacteria control
    • Includes cutting edge chemicals and polymers such as water soluble polymers and viscosity control
    • Handy index of chemical substances as well as a general chemical index


    Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids is a comprehensive manual that provides end users with information about oil field chemicals, such as drilling muds, corrosion and scale inhibitors, gelling agents and bacterial control. This book is an extension and update of Oil Field Chemicals published in 2003, and it presents a compilation of materials from literature and patents, arranged according to applications and the way a typical job is practiced. The text is composed of 23 chapters that cover oil field chemicals arranged according to their use. Each chapter follows a uniform template, starting with a brief overview of the chemical followed by reviews, monomers, polymerization, and fabrication. The different aspects of application, including safety and environmental impacts, for each chemical are also discussed throughout the chapters. The text also includes handy indices for trade names, acronyms and chemicals. Petroleum, production, drilling, completion, and operations engineers and managers will find this book invaluable for project management and production. Non-experts and students in petroleum engineering will also find this reference useful.


    Petroleum Engineer, Production Engineer, Drilling Engineer, Completion Engineer, Operations Engineer, Drilling Manager, Operations Manager, Project Production Engineer

    Johannes Fink

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Professor of Polymer Chemistry, Montanuniversität Leoben, Vienna, Austria

    View additional works by Johannes Fink

    Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, 1st Edition

    Preface 1. Drilling Muds     Classification of Muds     Dispersed Noninhibited Systems     Phosphate-treated Muds     Lignite Muds     Quebracho Muds     Lignosulfonate Muds     Lime Muds     Sea Water Muds     Nondispersed Noninhibited Systems     Low-solids Fresh Water Muds     Variable Density Fluids     Gas-based Muds     Drill-in Fluids     Mud Compositions     Inhibitive Water-based Muds     Water-based Muds     Oil-based Drilling Muds     Synthetic Muds     Inverted Emulsion Drilling Muds     Foam Drilling     Chemically Enhanced Drilling     Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Drilling     Additives     Thickeners     Lubricants     Bacteria     Corrosion Inhibitors     Viscosity Control     Clay Stabilization     Formation Damage     Shale Stabilizer     Fluid Loss Additives     Scavengers     Surfactants     Hydrate Inhibitors     Weighting Materials     Organoclay Compositions     Miscellaneous     Multicomponent Additives     Cleaning Operations     Cuttings Removal     Junk Removal     Filter Cake Removal     Drilling Fluid Disposal     Toxicity     Conversion Into Cements     Environmental Regulations     Characterization of Drilling Muds     Viscosity     API Filtration     Alkalinity and pH     Total Hardness     Roller Oven     References     Tradenames 2. Fluid Loss Additives     Mechanism of Action of Fluid Loss Agents     Action of Macroscopic Particles     Action of Cement Fluid Loss Additives     Testing of Fluid Loss Additives     Formation Damage     Reversible Gels     Bacteria     Inorganic Additives     Bentonite     Sodium Metasilicate     Ultra-fine Filtrate-Reducing Agents     Bridging Agents for Fluid Loss Control     Organic Additives     Tall Oil Pitch     Mercaptans for Iron Control     Polysaccharides     Cellulose-based Fluid Loss Additives     Starch     Borate Crosslinkers     Guar     Succinoglycan     Polyether-modified Polysaccharides     Scleroglucan     Gellan     Humic Acid Derivates     Oil-based Well Working Fluids     Lignosulfonates     Synthetic Polymers     Polyorthoesters     Polyhydroxyacetic Acid     Polydrill     Latex     Polyvinyl Alcohol     Polyethyleneimine     Acrylics     Silicones     Phthalimide as a Diverting Material     Special Applications     References     Tradenames 3. Clay Stabilization     Properties of Clays     Swelling of Clays     Montmorillonite     Guidelines     Mechanisms Causing Instability      Kinetics of the Swelling of Clays     Hydrational Stress     Borehole Stability Model     Shale Inhibition with Water-based Muds     Inhibiting Reactive Argillaceous Formations     Thermal Treatment to Increase the Permeability     Formation Damage by Fluids     Formation Damage in Gas Production Shut-in     Swelling Inhibitors     Salts     Quaternary Ammonium Salts     Potassium Formate     Saccharide Derivatives     Sulfonated Asphalt     Grafted Copolymers     Polyoxyalkylene Amines     Anionic Polymers     Amine Salts of Maleic Imide     Comparative Study     Test Methods     Shale Erosion Test     Hassler Cell     References     Tradenames 4. Lubricants     Synthetic Greases     Base Fluids     Extreme Pressure Agents     Anti-seize Agents     Anti-wear Additives     Metal Deactivators     Solubility Aids     Antioxidants     Base stocks     Lubricant Compositions     Molybdenum disulfide     Polarized Graphite     Ellipsoidal Glass Granules     Calcium-Sulfonate-based Greases     Paraffins     Olefins     Phospholipids     Alcohols     Ethers     Esters     Polymers     Starch     Amides     Special Issues     Side Reactions     Silicate-Based Muds     Studies on Pipe Sticking     Differential Sticking Reducer     References     Tradenames 5. Bacterial Control     Mechanisms of Growth     Growth of Bacteria Supported by Oil Field Chemicals     Mathematical Models     Detection of Bacteria     Sulfate-reducing Bacteria    Bacterial Corrosion     Mechanisms of Microbial Corrosion     Corrosion Monitoring     Assessment of the Activity of Biocides     Synergistic Action of Biocides     Treatments with Biocides     Previously Fractured Formations     Intermittent Addition of Biocide     Nonbiocidal Control     Biocides     Various Biocides     References     Tradenames 6. Corrosion Inhibitors     Classification of Corrosion Inhibitors     Fields of Application     Acidization     Oil Storage Tanks     Pipelines     Production Wells     Scale Removal Treatments Using Acids     Application Techniques     Batch Versus Continuous Application     Emulsions     Application in Solid Form     Characterization     Dye Transfer Method     Liquid Chromatography     Thin Layer Chromatography     Ultraviolet Spectroscopy     Corrosion Tests     Side Effects     Stabilizer for Emulsions     Antisynergism with Alcohols     Synergism with Surfactants     Interactions with Kinetic Gas Hydrate Inhibitors     Effect of Flow on Inhibitor Film Life     Inhibitor Chemicals     Amides and Imidazolines     Salts of Nitrogenous Bases     Nitrogen Quaternaries     Polyoxylated Amines, Amides, and Imidazolines     Mercaptan Modified Products     Nitrogen Heterocyclics     Carbonyl Compounds     Silicate-based Inhibitors     Thioacetals     Miscellaneous Inhibitors     Antimony Halides     Aldol-amine Adducts     Encapsulated Types     Anti-biofoulant Corrosion inhibitors     Formic Acid Free Formulation     Intensifiers     References     Tradenames 7. Scale Inhibitors     Classification and Mechanism     Thermodynamic Inhibitors     Kinetic Inhibitors     Adherence Inhibitors     Mathematical Models     Optimal Dose     Precipitation Squeeze Method     Inhibitor Chemicals     Water-soluble Inhibitors     Oil-soluble Scale Inhibitors     Inhibitors for Special Tasks     Characterization     Spectroscopic Methods     Turbidimetry     Static Bottle Test     References     Tradenames 8. Gelling Agents     Placing Gels     Basic Mechanisms of Gelling Agents     Polymer-Crosslinker-Retarder Systems     Gelling in Oil-based Systems     Aluminum Phosphate Ester Salts     Less Volatile Phosphoric Acid Esters     Aluminum Trichloride     Biopolymers     Organic Polysilicate Ester     Latex     Gelling in Water-based Systems     Xanthan Gum     Carboxymethyl Cellulose     Polyacrylamide-based Formulations     Polyacrylic Acid     Alkali-Silicate Aminoplast Compositions     In Situ Formed Polymers     Epoxide Resins     Urea-formaldehyde Resins     Vinyl Monomers     References     Tradenames 9. Filter Cake Removal     Bridging Agents     Degradable Bridging Agents     Dissolvable Bridging Agents     Degradation by Acids     Citric Acid     Acetic Acid     Acid Generating Coatings     Acidic Foam     Orthoesters     Enzymatic Degradation     Peroxides     Hydrogen Peroxide     Metal Peroxides     Magnesium Peroxide in Filter Cake     Degradation by Oligosaccharides     Breaking by Emulsions     Surfactant Nanotechnology     Special Issues     Manganese tetroxide     Multiply Active Compositions     Self-destructing Filter Cake     Oscillatory Flow     References 10. Cement Additives     Cementing Technologies     Primary Cementing     Secondary Cementing     Squeeze Cementing     Plug Cementing     Basic Composition of Portland Cement     Manufacturing     Active Components in Cements     Chemistry of Setting     Standardization of Cements     Mixing with Additives     Important Properties of Cement Slurries and Set Cement     Special Cement Types     Resin Cement     Oil-based Cement     High-temperature Cement     Low-temperature Cement     High-alumina Cement     Magnesian Cement     Fiber Cement     Acid Gas Resistant Cement     Permeable Cement     Salt-water Stable Latex Cement     Settable Drilling Fluids     Classification of Cement Additives     Light-weight Cement     Foam Cement     Density-increasing or Weighting Agents     Control of Thickening and Setting Time     Viscosity Control     Dispersants     Expansion Additives     Set Strength Enhancement     Adhesion Improvement     Fluid Loss Control     Clay Control Additives     Anti-gas-migration Agents     Corrosion Inhibitors     Other Chemical Attack     Use of Waste from Other Industrial Branches     References     Tradenames 11. Transport     Pretreatment of the Products     Pretreatment for Corrosion Prevention     Natural Gas     Sulfur Contamination of Refined Products     Demulsifiers     Heavy Crudes     Corrosion Control     Crude Oil Treatment     Chemical Inhibition     Coatings     Paraffin Inhibitors     Pour Point Depressants     Drag Reducers     Drag Reduction in Gas Transmission Lines     Synergism with Paraffin Deposition     Hydrate Control     Additives for Slurry Transport     Additives for Odorization     Cleaning     Gelled Pigs     References 12. Drag Reducers     Operating Costs     Mechanism of Drag Reduction     Damping of Transmission of Eddies     Viscoelastic Fluid Thread     Polymer Degradation in Turbulent Flow     Drag Reduction in Two-phase Flow     Drag Reduction in Gas Flow     Microfibrils     Drag-reducing Surfactant Solutions     Soapy Industrial Cleaner     Lyophobic Performance of the Lining Material     Interpolymer Complexes     Drag-reducing Chemicals     Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene     Copolymers of alpha-Olefins     Latex Drag Reducers     Polyether Compounds for Oil-based Well Drilling Fluids     Tylose     Microencapsulated Polymers     Aluminum Carboxylate     References 13. Gas Hydrate Control     Naturally Occurring Gas Hydrates     Problems with Gas Hydrates in Petroleum Technology     Nature of Inclusion Compounds     Gas Hydrates     Conditions for Formation     Water Content     Decomposition     Stability Diagram     Clausius-Clapeyron Equation     Hammerschmidt Equation     Formation and Properties of Gas Hydrates     Two-Step Mechanism of Formation     Nucleation Particle Sizes     Clustering Before Nucleation     Experimental Methods     Modeling the Formation of Gas Hydrates     Test Procedures for Inhibitors     Screening Method     High Pressure Sapphire Cell     Circulating Loop     Inhibition of Gas Hydrate Formation     Drying     Thermodynamic Inhibition with Additives     Kinetic Inhibition     Nucleation Inhibitors     Crystal Growth Inhibitors     Agglomeration Inhibitors     Gas Hydrate Inhibitors with Corrosion Inhibition     Recyclable Antifreeze Agents     Hydrate Inhibitors for Drilling Fluids     References     Tradenames 14. Antifreeze Agents     Theory of Action     Antifreeze Chemicals     Heat Transfer Liquids     Brines     Alcohols     Glycols     Toxicity and Environmental Aspects     Special Uses     Hydraulic Cement Additives     Pipeline Transportation of Aqueous Emulsions of Oil     Low Temperature Drilling Fluids     References 15. Odorization     General Aspects     Limits of Explosion     Desirable Properties of Odorants     Measurement and Odor Monitoring     Olfactoric Response     Physiological Methods     Chemical and Physical Methods     Additives for Odorization     Sulfur Compounds     Other Compounds     Industrial Synthesis of Odorants     Uses and Properties     Odorant Injection Techniques     Leak Detection     Fuel Cells     Odor-fading     Environmental Problems     References     Tradenames 16. Enhanced Oil Recovery     Waterflooding     Surfactants     Interphase Structure     Interfacial Rheological Properties     Microemulsion Phase Diagrams     Interfacial Tension     Imbibition Experiments     Caustic Waterflooding     Injection Strategies     Foam-enhanced Caustic Waterflooding     Alkaline Surfactant Polymer Flooding     Interphase Properties     Clay Dissolution     Acid Flooding     Hydrochloric Acid     Sulfuric Acid     Emulsion Flooding     Micellar Polymer Flooding     Chemical Injection     Ammonium Carbonate     Hydrogen Peroxide     Alcohol-Waterflooding     Chemical Injection of Waste Gases     Polymer Waterflooding     Low-tension Polymer Flood Technique     Influence of Viscosity on Ionic Strength     Modified Acrylics     Biopolymers     Combination Flooding     Low-tension Polymer Flood     Effect of Alkaline Agents on the Retention     Alkaline Steamflooding     Sediment-forming Materials     Water-alternating Gas Technology     Hydrocarbon-assisted Steam Injection     Foam Flooding     Basic Principles of Foam Flooding     Ambient Pressure Foam Tests     Polymer-enhanced Foams     Carbon Dioxide Flooding     Steamflooding     Carbon Dioxide     Air Injection     Chemical Reactions     In Situ Combustion     Special Techniques     Viscous Oil Recovery     Low-permeability Flooding     Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques     Basic Principles and Methods     Economics     Strict Anaerobic Bacteria     Ultramicrobacteria     Scale Inhibitors as a Microbial Nutrient     Interfacial Properties     Tracers     Thermal Stability of Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate     Asphaltene Deposition     Stabilizer Dispersant     Reservoir Properties     Reservoir Models     Profile Control     Formation Damage     Wettability     Flooding of Oil in Chalk     Treatment of Produced Water     Soil Remediation     References 17. Fracturing Fluids     Stresses and Fractures     Comparison of Stimulation Techniques     Action of a Fracturing Fluid     Stages in a Fracturing Job     Types of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids     Comparison of Different Techniques     Expert Systems for Assessment     Water-Based Systems     Thickeners and Gelling Agents     Concentrates     Friction Reducers     Fluid Loss Additives     pH Control Additives     Clay Stabilizers     Biocides     Surfactants     Crosslinkers     Gel Breaking in Water-based Systems     Scale Inhibitors     Oil-Based Systems     Organic Gel Aluminum Phosphate Ester     Increasing the Viscosity of Diesel     Gel Breakers     Foam-Based Fracturing Fluids     Defoamers     Fracturing in Coal-Beds     Propping Agents     Sand     Ceramic Particles     Bauxite     Light-weight Proppants     Porous Pack with Fibers     Coated Proppants     Anti-settling Additives     Proppant Flowback     Acid Fracturing     Encapsulated Acids     The In Situ Formation of Acids     Fluid Loss     Gel Breaker for Acid Fracturing     Special Problems     Corrosion Inhibitors     The Problem of Iron Control in Fracturing     Enhanced Temperature Stability     Chemical Blowing     Frost-resistant Formulation     Formation Damage in Gas Wells     Characterization of Fracturing Fluids     Rheological Characterization     Zirconium-based Crosslinking Agent     Oxidative Gel Breaker     Size Exclusion Chromatography     Assessment of Proppants     References     Tradenames 18. Water Shutoff     Classification of Methods     In Situ Polymerization     Acrylic Gels     Crosslinkers     Special Applications     Shear-Initiated Inversion of Emulsions     Thermally Stable Gels     Disproportionate Permeability Reduction     Field Experience     Silicate-based Agents     Combined Polymer-Silicate Technology     Gel-Foam Technique     Resin Types     Epoxide Resins     Urea-Formaldehyde Resins     Furan-Silicone Resins     Cement with Additives     Polymethyl Methacrylate Modified with Monoethanolamine     Crude Light Pyridine Bases     Granulated Fly Ash     Phosphonic Acid Derivates     Phosphonium Complexone     Aerated Plugging Solution     Compressed Foam Mixture     Furfuramide     Cellulosics and Polyacrylics     Smectite Clays     Plasticizers     Water Glass     Organosilicones     Formaldehyde Resin     Liquid Metal Alloy     Bentonite     Blast Furnace Slag     Fiber Reinforcement     Gels from Aluminum Hydroxychloride     Organosilicones     Non-Crosslinked Copolymers     Anchoring     Inorganic Colloids     Water Swelling Additives     Water-swelling Cellulose     Hydrolyzed Polyacrylonitrile     Guar     Clays     Wastes     Waste Oil Sludge     Aluminum Trichloride     Antifoaming with Sulfite-waste Liquor     Surfactants     Polymeric Surfactants     Viscoelastic Surfactant Solutions     Tailoring the Hydrodynamic Volume     Temperature-Sensitive Latex Particles     References     Tradenames 19. Oil Spill Treating Agents     History     List of Major Oil Spills     General Requirements     Mechanisms     Application     Environmental Aspects     Implementation Application Programs     Tests     Subsurface, Soil, and Ground Water     In Situ Chemical Oxidation     Ground Water     Chemicals in Detail     References 20. Waste Disposal     Drilling Fluids     Bioremediation     Assessment of Biodegradability     Supercritical Fluid Extraction     Cuttings     Environmental Impact     Modeling the Discharge     Microwave Treatment     Discharge in Cement     Fillers in Bitumen     Chromium Removal     Injection Techniques     Acid Gas Injection     Storage of Carbon Dioxide     Slurry Fracture Injection Technique     Use as Sealants     References     Tradenames 21. Dispersions, Emulsions, and Foams     Dispersions     Dispersants     Emulsions     Oil-in-water Emulsions - Invert Emulsions     Water-in-water Emulsions     Oil-in-water-in-oil Emulsions     Microemulsions     Solids-stabilized emulsion     Biotreated Emulsion     Shale Inhibition     Transportation     Acid-rich Oils     Characterization of Emulsions     Low Fluorescence Emulsifiers     Foams     Aphrons     References     Tradenames 22. Defoamers     Theory of Defoaming     Stability of Foams     Action of Defoamers     Classification of Defoamers     Active Ingredients     Ancillary Agents     Uses in Petroleum Technology     Aqueous Fluid Systems     Well Treatment and Cementation     Plugging Agents     Gas-Oil Separation     Natural Gas     Distillation and Petroleum Production     Antimicrobial Antifoam Compositions     References 23. Demulsifiers     Emulsions in Produced Crude Oil     Waterflooding     Oil Spill Treatment     Desired Properties     Mechanisms of Demulsification     Stabilization of Water-oil Emulsions     Interfacial Tension Relaxation     Performance Testing     Spreading Pressure     Characterization by Dielectric Constant     Shaker Test Methods     Viscosity Measurements     Screening     Classification of Demulsifiers     Common Precursor Chemicals     Demulsifiers in Detail     Polyoxyalkylenes     Vinyl Polymers     Polyamines     Polyamides     Phenolics     Alkoxylated Fatty Oils     Biodemulsifiers     References     Appendix 1: List of Tradenames     Appendix 2: List of Acronyms Index     Chemical Index     Subject Index

    Quotes and reviews

    "If you are new to oil field chemicals or just not technically inclined, this book is a good first reference that introduces the what, where, how, and why of the chemicals that are used in the oil field. The book is designed for engineers; however, it would be useful for anyone not familiar with the topic in order to frame the chemistry that is applied in oil recovery."--AOCS, Inform, May 2012, Vol. 23 (5), page 302


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