Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, 2nd Edition

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, 2nd Edition,Jay Siegel,Pekka Saukko,ISBN9780123821652

Siegel  &   Saukko   

Academic Press




281 X 222

30% more articles in this edition, with a particular increase in coverage of DNA and digital forensics.

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Key Features

*This 4-volume set represents a 30% growth in articles from the first edition, with a particular increase in coverage of DNA and digital forensics
*Includes an international collection of contributors
*The second edition features a new 21-member editorial board, half of which are internationally based
*Includes over 300 articles, approximately 10pp on average
*Each article features a) suggested readings which point readers to additional sources for more information, b) a list of related Web sites, c) a 5-10 word glossary and definition paragraph, and d) cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedia
*Available online via SciVerse ScienceDirect. Please visit www.info.sciencedirect.com for more information
* This new edition continues the reputation of the first edition, which was awarded an Honorable Mention in the prestigious Dartmouth Medal competition for 2001. This award honors the creation of reference works of outstanding quality and significance, and is sponsored by the RUSA Committee of the American Library Association.


Forensic science includes all aspects of investigating a crime, including: chemistry, biology and physics, and also incorporates countless other specialties. Today, the service offered under the guise of "forensic science’ includes specialties from virtually all aspects of modern science, medicine, engineering, mathematics and technology. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition is a reference source that will inform both the crime scene worker and the laboratory worker of each other’s protocols, procedures and limitations.

Written by leading scientists in each area, every article is peer reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. As reflected in the specialties of its Editorial Board, the contents covers the core theories, methods and techniques employed by forensic scientists - and applications of these that are used in forensic analysis.


Forensic practitioners (both at the crime scene and in the lab); university libraries with forensic and criminal justice programs and public libraries.

Jay Siegel

Jay Siegel is Director of the Forensic and Investigative Sciences Program at Indiana University Purdue University, Indianapolis and Chair of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology. He holds a Ph.D. in Analytical Chemistry from George Washington University. He worked for 3 years at the Virginia Bureau of Forensic Sciences, analyzing drugs, fire residues and trace evidence. From 1980 to 2004 he was professor of forensic chemistry and Director of the forensic science program at Michigan State University in the School of Criminal Justice. Dr. Siegel has testified over 200 times as an expert witness in 12 states, Federal Court and Military Court. He is Editor in Chief of the Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, author of Forensic Science: A Beginner’s Guide and Fundamentals of Forensic Science and has over 30 publications in forensic science journals. Dr. Siegel was awarded the 2005 Paul Kirk Award for lifetime achievement in forensic science. In February 2009, he was named Distinguished Fellow by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. In April 2009 he was named the Distinguished Alumni Scholar Award by his alma mater, George Washington University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Forensic and Investigative Sciences Program, Indiana University - Purdue University, Indianapolis, IN, USA

View additional works by Jay A. Siegel

Pekka Saukko

Dr. Saukko is currently Professor of Forensic Medicine and Head of the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Turku, Finland.

He graduated in medicine from the University of Vienna, Austria in 1975 and was certified as a Specialist in Forensic Medicine in 1981 by the National Board of Health, Finland. In 1983 he received a Doctorate in Medical Science (MD) by thesis in Forensic Pathology by the University of Oulu, Finland and was appointed Adjunct Professor of Forensic Medicine of the same University in 1986. From 1978 to 1989 he held the position of the Provincial Medical Officer, Medico-legal Expert, Provincial Government of Oulu. In 1989 he was appointed the Professor of Forensic Medicine of the University of Tampere, Finland and since 1992 he holds the current position at the University of Turku.

He has published widely as an author, co-author in scientific journals, book and encyclopedia chapters and is the co-author of the “Atlas of Forensic Medicine” (CD-ROM) (Elsevier Science, 2003), “Knight’s Forensic Pathology” (Arnold, 2004) and “Forensic Medicine in Europe” (Schmidt-Römhild, 2008).

Dr. Saukko is the recipient of the Ajtai K. Sandor Medal and an Honorary Doctorate in Medicine (Dr. h.c.) from the Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. His expert work as consultant includes needs assessment of the forensic facilities in Cambodia for the UNDP (1996), the Working Party on the Harmonization of Autopsy Rules for the Council of Europe (1997-1998), quality assessment of the Portuguese Departments of Forensic Pathology, as a member of an international team of experts (2001), the external case review panel for the Office of the Chief Coroner, Toronto, Canada (2006) and the consultant panel and expert witness for the Inquiry Into Pediatric Forensic Pathology In Ontario, Canada (2007) and forensic expert for the UNDP/NHRC in Kathmandu, Nepal (2008).

Since 1993, he is the Editor-in-Chief of the journal Forensic Science International, by Elsevier, and Editorial Board Member of a number of other national and international scientific journals of forensic medicine and science.

He is a Member of the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and an Honorary Member of the Hungarian Forensic Science Society, the Royal Belgium Society of Forensic Medicine, the German Society of Legal Medicine, the Japanese Society of Legal Medicine and a Founding and Honorary Fellow of the Faculty of Forensic & Legal Medicine, Royal College of Physicians (London).

Affiliations and Expertise

Chairman, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, 2nd Edition

Animal Effects on Bone
History of Forensic Anthropology
Recovery and Retrieval: Forensic Archaeology
Post Mortem Interval
Species: Human vs. Non-human
Aging the Dead and the Living
Stature and Build
Facial Approximation
Personal Identification
Bone Pathology and Ante Mortem Trauma
Biomechanics of Bone Trauma
Bone Trauma
Identification of the Living
Autoerotic death: Criminological aspects
Criminal Profiling
Detection of Deception
Investigative Psychology
Lie Detection
Modus Operandi
Offender Signature
Forensic Linguistics
Psychological Autopsies
Psychiatry and Psychology: Overview
Serial Killing
Basic Principles
DNA Extraction and Quantitation
Short Tandem Repeats
Accreditation in Forensic DNA Analysis
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
Mixture Interpretation
Low Copy Number DNA Testing
X-chromosome markers
Mitochondrial DNA
Non-Human DNA
Biology/DNA/Methods/Analytical Techniques
Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Genetics
Next generation sequencing technologies
Statistical Analysis
Parentage Testing and Kinship Analysis
Future Analytical Techniques 1: DNA mass spectrometry
DNA Databanks
Laboratory automation and LIMS in forensics
Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMS)
Disaster Victim Identification
Advisory Groups: DAB, SWGDAM, ENFSI, BSAG
Forensic Laboratory Efficiency amp; Funding
Bayesian Networks
Internet accessible databases: YHRD, EMPOP, etc.
International Society of Forensic Sciences (ISFG)
Forensic DNA Phenotyping: DNA testing for externally visible characteristics
Missings Persons (NameUS)
mRNA and microRNA for body fluid identification
DNA and endangered species
Cannabis DNA
Microbiology and Bio-terrorism
Chemistry/Trace/Drugs of Abuse
Clandestine Laboratories
Designer Drugs
Clandestine Laboratories
Improvised Explosive Devices
Improvised Explosives
Mechanisms of Explosion
Chemistry/Trace/Trace Evidence
Persistence amp; Recovery
Protocols for Examination
Identification and Comparison
Textile and Fiber Damage
Fiber Microscopy
Colour Analysis
Interpretation of Fiber Evidence
Chemistry/Trace/Fire Investigation
Chemistry of Fire
Thermal Degradation
Analysis of Fire Debris
Interpretation of Fire Debris Analysis
Glass Analysis
Interpretation of Glass Evidence
Chemistry/Trace/Paint and Coating
Architectural Paint
Automotive Paint
Forensic Paint Analysis
Interpretation of Paint Evidence
Chemistry/Trace/Forensic Geosciences
Crime Scene Considerations
Forensic Geosciences
Chemistry/Trace/Firearm Discharge Residues
Overview, Analysis and Interpretation
Chemistry/Trace/Adhesive Tapes
Overview, Analysis and Interpretation
Chemistry/Trace/Environmental Analysis
Overview, Analysis and Interpretation
Chemistry/Trace/Miscellaneous Unknowns
Overview, Analysis and Interpretation
Chemistry/Trace/Decomposition Chemistry
Overview, Analysis and Interpretation
Stomach Content Analysis
Digital Evidence
Child Pornography
Cellular Phones
Digital Evidence/Photography and Digital Imaging
Digital Evidence
Digital Image and Enhancement
Digital Evidence/Audio Forensics
Audio Enhancement and Authentication
Digital Evidence/Black boxes and security cameras
Aircraft Flight Data Recorders
Analytical Methods
Document Dating
Ink Analysis
Paper Analysis
Forensic Engineering / Accident Reconstruction / Biomechanics of Injury | Philosophy, Basic Theory andnbsp;
Accident Reconstruction Methodology / Computer Methods in Accident Reconstruction
Air Bag Technology / Occupant Kinematics / Biomechanics of Injury
Electronic Data Recorders (EDR’s, black boxes)
Analog Tachograph Chart Analysis
Human Factors Investigation and Analysis of Accidents and Incidents
Railroad Accident Investigation
Analysis of Digital Evidence
Investigation and Analysis of Structural Collapses
Biomechanics of Human Gait - Slip and Fall Analysis
Forensic Chemical Engineering Investigation and Analysis
Materials Analysis
Investigation and analysis of electrical accidents
Forensic Medicine/Causes of Death
Blunt trauma
Burns and scalds
Asphyctic deaths - Overview and pathophysiology
Traumatic and postural asphyxia, physical restraint
Immersion deaths
Sharp trauma
Systemic response to trauma
Sudden natural death in adults
Gunshot wounds
Forensic Medicine/Clinical
Clinical forensic medicine - Overview
Domestic violence
Sexual Violence
Child abuse
Defense wounds
Self-inflicted injuries
Elder abuse
Forensic age estimation
Death from electrocution and lightning
Deaths in custody
Traffic injuries and deaths
Airplane crashes and other mass disasters
Forensic Medicine/Pathology
Forensic pathology - principles and overview
External postmortem examination
Early and late postmortem changes
Post Mortem Time Since Death
Vital reactions and wound healing
Postmortem imaging
Deaths associated with medical procedures
History / Forensic Sciences
Basic Principles of Forensic Sciences
Legal Classification of Evidence
Evidence / Statistical Interpretation of Evidence / Classical-Frequentist Approach
Evidence / Statistical Interpretation of Evidence / Bayesian Analysis
Interpretation / Forensic Intelligence
Interpretation / Identification - Individualization
Interpretation / Semiotics amp; Heuristics: Inferences used by Forensic Scientists
Interpretation / The Comparative Method
Forensic Classification of Evidence
Measurement Uncertainty
Collection and Chain of Evidence
Forensic Intelligence Analysis
Major Incident Scene Management
Recovery of Human Remains
Scene Analysis and Reconstruction
Suspicious Deaths
Evidence Recovery at the Fire-scene
Fire Scene Inspection Methodology
Fire-scene Patterns
Types of Fire
Counterfeit Goods
Counterfeit Currency
Identity Theft
Forensic Accounting
Payment Cards
From Crime Scene to Court
Innocence Project
DNA Exonerations
Expert Witness Qualifications and Testimony
Forensic Laboratory Reports
Legal Aspects of Forensic Science
Legal Systems - Adversarial and Inquisitorial
When Science Changes, How Does Law Respond
History of law/forensics
International Courts and Forensic Sciencenbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;
Management/Administration of Forensic Science
International Organisations and Cooperation
Principles for Field/Police Organisation
Management/Quality in Forensic Science
Principles of Quality Assurance
Standard Methods
Risk Management
Health and Safety
Observer Bias Issues/Sequential Unmasking
Capillary Electrophoresis: Basic Principles
Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Biology
Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Chemistry
Chromatography: Basic Principles
Gas Chromatography
Liquid and Thin-Layer Chromatographic
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Mass Spectrometry
Analytical Light Microscopy
Microscopy (Electron)
Presumptive Chemical Tests
Non-chromatographic Separation Techniques
Spectroscopic Techniques
Spectroscopy: Basic Principles
Field deployable devices
Pattern Evidence/Fingerprints (Dactyloscopy)
Friction Ridge Print Examination
Authomated methods, including Criminal Records Administration
Chemistry of Print Residue
Identification and Classification
Sequential Treatment and Enhancement
Standards of Proof
Pattern Evidence/Firearms
Humane Killing Tools
Laboratory Analysis
Pattern Evidence/History
Fingerprint Sciences
Pattern Evidence
Vehicle Tire Marks and Tire Track Measurement
Plastic Bag Striations
Bare Footprint Marks
Palm Prints
Footwear Marks
Serial Number
Shotgun Ammunition on a Target
Physical match
Accreditation of educational programs
Certification and licensing
Continuing professional development
Education and Accreditation in Forensic Science
Research and publishing
Training to competency
American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS)
Australian-New Zealand Forensic Science Society (ANZFSS)
American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (ASCLD)
European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI)
International Association for Identification (IAI)
National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME)
Senior Managers of Australian-New Zealandnbsp; Forensic Laboratories (SMANZFL)
Urine and Body Fluids
Congener Analysis
Toxicology/Drugs of Abuse
Oral Fluid
Drug Facilitated Crimes
Drugs and Driving
Drugs in Hair
Postmortem Blood
Validation of twelve chemical spot tests for the detection of drugs of abuse
Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action of Drugs
Overview and Applications
Sports Drug Testing
Volatile Substances and Inhalants
Interpretation of Results
Methods of Analysis-Initial Testing
Methods of Analysis-ConfirmatoryTesting
Post-Mortem Specimens
Herbal psychoactive substances
Herbal Medicines and Phytopharmaceuticals - contamination
Behavioral toxicology
Post-mortem toxicology: artifacts


Quotes and reviews

"This encyclopedia's second edition…in online format is a major accomplishment. It brings updated/new information to readers in a convenient and flexible format. Vividly colored tables and figures abound. References are current. The various specialties and related disciplines continue to be included.  Summing Up: Highly Recommended."--CHOICE Reviews Online, February 2014


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