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Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences
 
 

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, 2nd Edition

 
Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, 2nd Edition,Jay Siegel,Pekka Saukko,ISBN9780123821652
 
 
 

Siegel  &   Saukko   

Academic Press

9780123821652

9780123821669

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Key Features

  • This 4-volume set represents a 30% growth in articles from the first edition, with a particular increase in coverage of DNA and digital forensics
  • Includes an international collection of contributors
  • The second edition features a new 21-member editorial board, half of which are internationally based
  • Includes over 300 articles, approximately 10pp on average
  • Each article features a) suggested readings which point readers to additional sources for more information, b) a list of related Web sites, c) a 5-10 word glossary and definition paragraph, and d) cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedia
  • Available online via SciVerse ScienceDirect. Please visit www.info.sciencedirect.com for more information
  • This new edition continues the reputation of the first edition, which was awarded an Honorable Mention in the prestigious Dartmouth Medal competition for 2001. This award honors the creation of reference works of outstanding quality and significance, and is sponsored by the RUSA Committee of the American Library Association

Description

Forensic science includes all aspects of investigating a crime, including: chemistry, biology and physics, and also incorporates countless other specialties. Today, the service offered under the guise of "forensic science’ includes specialties from virtually all aspects of modern science, medicine, engineering, mathematics and technology. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition is a reference source that will inform both the crime scene worker and the laboratory worker of each other’s protocols, procedures and limitations.

Written by leading scientists in each area, every article is peer reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. As reflected in the specialties of its Editorial Board, the contents covers the core theories, methods and techniques employed by forensic scientists – and applications of these that are used in forensic analysis.

Readership

Forensic practitioners (both at the crime scene and in the lab); university libraries with forensic and criminal justice programs and public libraries

Jay Siegel

Jay Siegel, PhD is retired Director of the Forensic and Investigative Sciences Program and Chair of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis. He was Director of the Forensic Science Program at Michigan State University for 25 years from 1980-2004 until his retirement as Professor Emeritus. Dr. Siegel is a Distinguished Member of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences and was named as Distinguished Alumni Scholar by his alma mater, George Washington University in 2011. He is co-editor of Forensic Science Policy and Management: An International Journal. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences Forensic Science Committee from 2006-09.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Forensic and Investigative Sciences Program, Indiana University - Purdue University, Indianapolis, IN, USA

View additional works by Jay A. Siegel

Pekka Saukko

Dr. Saukko is currently Professor of Forensic Medicine and Head of the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Turku, Finland.

He graduated in medicine from the University of Vienna, Austria in 1975 and was certified as a Specialist in Forensic Medicine in 1981 by the National Board of Health, Finland. In 1983 he received a Doctorate in Medical Science (MD) by thesis in Forensic Pathology by the University of Oulu, Finland and was appointed Adjunct Professor of Forensic Medicine of the same University in 1986. From 1978 to 1989 he held the position of the Provincial Medical Officer, Medico-legal Expert, Provincial Government of Oulu. In 1989 he was appointed the Professor of Forensic Medicine of the University of Tampere, Finland and since 1992 he holds the current position at the University of Turku.

He has published widely as an author, co-author in scientific journals, book and encyclopedia chapters and is the co-author of the “Atlas of Forensic Medicine” (CD-ROM) (Elsevier Science, 2003), “Knight’s Forensic Pathology” (Arnold, 2004) and “Forensic Medicine in Europe” (Schmidt-Römhild, 2008).

Dr. Saukko is the recipient of the Ajtai K. Sandor Medal and an Honorary Doctorate in Medicine (Dr. h.c.) from the Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. His expert work as consultant includes needs assessment of the forensic facilities in Cambodia for the UNDP (1996), the Working Party on the Harmonization of Autopsy Rules for the Council of Europe (1997-1998), quality assessment of the Portuguese Departments of Forensic Pathology, as a member of an international team of experts (2001), the external case review panel for the Office of the Chief Coroner, Toronto, Canada (2006) and the consultant panel and expert witness for the Inquiry Into Pediatric Forensic Pathology In Ontario, Canada (2007) and forensic expert for the UNDP/NHRC in Kathmandu, Nepal (2008).

Since 1993, he is the Editor-in-Chief of the journal Forensic Science International, by Elsevier, and Editorial Board Member of a number of other national and international scientific journals of forensic medicine and science.

He is a Member of the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and an Honorary Member of the Hungarian Forensic Science Society, the Royal Belgium Society of Forensic Medicine, the German Society of Legal Medicine, the Japanese Society of Legal Medicine and a Founding and Honorary Fellow of the Faculty of Forensic & Legal Medicine, Royal College of Physicians (London).

Affiliations and Expertise

Chairman, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, 2nd Edition

Editors-in-Chief: Biographies

Senior Editor: Biography

Section Editors

Preface to the Second Edition

Introduction

Permission Acknowledgments

Volume 1: A – B

Anthropology/Odontology

Animal Effects on Bones

Introduction

Search and Recovery

Postmortem Interval Estimation

Assessment of Lesions and Cause of Death

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

History of Forensic Anthropology

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Forensic Anthropology: An Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Forensic Taphonomy

Introduction

History and Development of the Role of Taphonomy in Forensic Anthropology

Time since Death (PMI) Estimation

Trends in Current Research

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Archeology

Background

Search

Recovery

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Postmortem Interval

Entomology

Botany

Other Animal and Cultural Indicators

Tissue Morphology

Mummification

Adipocere

Chemical Approaches

Radiocarbon Analysis

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Species: Human Versus Nonhuman

Introduction

Method Selection

Methodologies

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Sexing

Introduction

Sexual Dimorphism

Sex Estimation in Subadults

The Adult Skeleton: Morphology

The Adult Skeleton: Metric Analysis

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Aging the Dead and the Living

Introduction

The Dead

The Living

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Stature and Build

Introduction

Measures of Body Build and Body Size

Methods of Stature Estimation

Stature Estimation from Long Bones

Stature Estimation from Percutaneous Bone Measurements and Body Parts

Stature Estimation from Radiographically Determined Long Bone Length

Stature Estimation from Small Bones and Other Bones of the Body

Estimation of Stature from Fragments of Bones

Secular Change and Variation in Limb Proportions in Relation to Stature in Different Populations

Factors Affecting Stature Estimation in Forensic Examinations and Making Population Standards and Databases

See also

Further Reading

Ancestry

Introduction

Resources

Why Do Ancestry Estimation?

Estimation from the Cranium

Estimation from the Postcranial Skeleton

Statistics and Probabilities

Conclusions and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Facial Approximation

Introduction

Method History

Contemporary Methods

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Personal Identification in Forensic Anthropology

Introduction

Personal Identification

Types of Personal Identification

Methods of Scientific Identification

Possible Conclusions in a Scientific Identification

Methods Contributing to Identification

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Bone Pathology and Antemortem Trauma

Introduction

Bone Pathology

Antemortem Trauma

See also

Nomenclature

Further Reading

Biomechanics of Bone Trauma

Introduction

Goals of Trauma Analysis

Bone Structure and Material Properties

Fracture Propagation and Fracture Types

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Bone Trauma

Introduction

Ante-, Peri-, or Postmortem Origin of the Bone Lesion

Biomechanics

Classification of the Bone Lesions

Long Bones

Other Locations

Gunshot Wounds

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Identification of the Living

Introduction

Facial Assessment

Further Features on the Skin, Hands, and Genitals

Appendix Morphological Assessment of Facial Features: The DMV Atlas

See also

Abbreviations

Further Reading

Glossary

Odontology

Definitions

The Nature of the Work

Why Is Dental Evidence So Good for Corroborating Identity?

When No Antemortem Records Exist

Interactions with Other Professionals

Bite Marks, Bruising, and Other Injuries to Skin

Other Skills

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Behavioral

Autoerotic Death

The Literature

The Nature of Autoerotic Death

Autoerotic Asphyxia

Atypical Autoerotic Deaths

Death Scene Characteristics

Male Versus Female Practice

Psychological Autopsy

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Criminal Profiling

The Early History of Criminal Profiling

A Modern History of Criminal Profiling

The Goals of Criminal Profiling

Methods of Criminal Profiling

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Detection of Deception

Introduction

Early Attempts to Detect Deception

Detecting Deception Using Behavioral Cues

The Myths of Hypnosis and Narcoanalysis

Integrity Tests

Detecting Deception from Verbal Content

Psychophysiological Detection of Deception

Other Psychophysiological Measures

Unobtrusive Detection of Deception

Summary and Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Interpretation

Introduction

A Framework for Inference

Current Practices and Possible Improvements

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Investigative Psychology

Introduction

Information Retrieval

Investigative Decision Making

Appropriate Inferences

Further Reading

Lie Detection

Lie Detection and Truth Discovery

Brief History of Lie Detection

Theories of Lie Detection

Psychophysiological Measurements in Modern Lie Detection

Conventional Lie Detection Techniques

Criticisms of Conventional Lie Detection

The Goal of Lie Detection: The Discovery of Truth

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Modus Operandi

A Short History

The Utility of MO Analysis

Elements of MO

Influences on MO

Uniqueness and Reliability

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Offender Signature

Origins

Offender Psychodynamics

Behavioral Consistency Theory

Recognizing Signature Behavior

Active and Passive Signature Behaviors

Limiting Factors

Case Linkage: Offender Signature in Court

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Behavioral Forensic Science: An Overview

Introduction

Education and Training in Forensic Psychology

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Forensic Phonetics

Introduction

Signal Analysis

Speaker Identification

Vocal Behaviors

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Forensic Linguistics

Written Legal Language

Spoken Legal Language

Investigative Linguistics and Provision of Evidence

Conclusions and Future

See also

Further Reading

Psychological Autopsies

Introduction: Definitions and Usage

Validity and Reliability of Psychological Autopsies

Legal Requirements of Psychological Autopsy Testimony

The Methodologies

Other Protocols for Psychological Autopsies

Ethical Elements in Psychological Autopsies

Appendix

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Forensic Psychology and Psychiatry

Introduction

Historical Development

Current Practice

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Forensic Psychiatry

Assessment of Competence

Risk Assessment

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Forensic Psychology

The Psychology of Evidence

Confession Evidence

Psychology in the Courtroom

Jurors

The Strength of the Research

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Serial Killing

Serial Murder

Myths of Serial Murders

An Operationalized Definition of Serial Murder and the San Antonio Symposium

Serial Murderers as Psychopaths

Serial Murder Profiling Strategies

Serial Murder Signatures and Paraphilia

See also

Further Reading

Stalking

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Biology/DNA

Forensic Genetics: History

The Early Times

DNA Typing: Minisatellites and Short Tandem Repeats

Polymorphisms in Sexual Chromosomes and Mitochondrial DNA

Single–Nucleotide Polymorphisms and the Technological Revolution

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Basic Principles

Definition

Genetic Theory and Probabilities

Genetic Information and DNA

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

DNA Extraction and Quantification

DNA Extraction

Organic (Phenol–Chloroform) Extraction

Solid-Phase DNA Extraction Methods

Chelating Resins (Chelex)

DNA from FTA Spots

Differential Lysis

DNA Extraction from Bones and Teeth

Laser Capture Microdissection

Automation of DNA Extraction

Microfluidic DNA Extraction Devices

DNA Quantification

Current Real-Time PCR Chemistries for Human DNA Quantification

Real–Time PCR Nuclear DNA Quantification Assays

Real–Time PCR Mitochondrial DNA Quantification

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Short Tandem Repeats

The Genetics of Short Tandem Repeats. Short Tandem Repeats as a Class of Satellite DNA and the Genomic Characteristics of the Core Forensic Markers. Early Consensus on Ideal Forensic Short Tandem Repeats

The Principles of Forensic Dye-Labeled STR Typing: PCR Amplification, the DNA Profile, and the Match Probability

Irregularities Seen in Routine STR Profiling. Nonstandard Alleles, Complex Forensic STR Profiles, and the Importance of Detection Thresholds

New Developments in STR Typing

Beyond the Core Loci: New STRs

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Accreditation in Forensic DNA Analysis

Introduction

Accreditation or Certification?

A Short Guide to Accreditation for ISO/IEC 17025

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms

Abbreviations

Introduction

SNPs Versus Short Tandem Repeats

SNP Typing Methods

SNP Typing Assays for Human Identification

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

MiniSTRs

Introduction

The Definition of a miniSTR

Benefits of miniSTRs

Limitations of miniSTRs

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Mixture Interpretation (Interpretation of Mixed DNA Profiles with STRs Only)

Introduction

Determining the Number of Contributors

Determining a Ratio of Contributors

Alleles below the Stochastic Threshold

Alleles above the Stochastic Threshold

Loci without Unambiguous Minor Alleles

Indistinguishable from Stutter

Interpretations That Utilize the Assumption of an Individual Being Intimate to the Sample

Mixture Deconvolution

Probative Comparisons

Future Considerations for DNA Mixture Interpretation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Low-Template DNA Testing

Definition

Applications of LT-DNA Testing

Implementation of LT-DNA Testing

Statistical Considerations for LT-DNA Analysis

Casework Examples

Other Case Examples

Additional Considerations

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

X-Chromosome Markers

Abbreviations

The X-Chromosome

X-Chromosome Markers in Forensic Genetics

Genetic Markers

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mitochondrial DNA

Structure and Basics

Biology and Genetics

The Role of the Phylogeny in Forensic mtDNA Testing

Practical Aspects of Forensic mtDNA Testing

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Introduction to Nonhuman DNA Typing

Animal DNA Typing

Plant DNA Typing

Insect DNA Typing

Microbial DNA Typing from Soil Samples

See also

Abbreviations

Further Reading

Glossary

Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies

Introduction

Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies

Targeted Enrichment

Applications in Forensic Sciences

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

DNA – Statistical Probability

Introduction

Probability

Forensic Probabilities

Conclusion

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Parentage Testing and Kinship Analysis

History of Parentage Testing

Technical Considerations

The Methods Used in Parentage Testing

Analysis of the Typical Parentage Trio

Cases Lacking a Known Parent

Special Types of DNA Testing

Mutations and How to Deal with Them

Future Considerations

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Significance

Introduction

A Brief Summary of Approaches to Estimating the Significance of DNA Evidence

Practical Application of Estimates of the Significance of DNA Evidence

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Future Analytical Techniques: DNA Mass Spectrometry

Abbreviations

Background

Mass Spectrometric Methods in Forensic Genetics

MS-Based Genotypes and Haplotypes to Aid Forensic Analysis

Conclusions and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

DNA Databases

Introduction

Criteria for the Inclusion of DNA Profiles in National DNA Databases

Genetic Typing Systems

Privacy Rights, Ethical Considerations, and New Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Laboratory Automation and LIMS in Forensics

Introduction

Selection of an ALH

Validation of Automated Systems and Laboratory Processes

Operation and Maintenance of Automated Instruments in Forensic Environments

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Ancestry Informative Markers

The First Forensic Ancestry Informative Markers: Early Use of Ancestry Informative Protein Polymorphisms Demonstrated Their Value for Investigations

Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Variation

Points of Reference: Defining Populations or Ancestries, Ancestry Informativeness Metrics, Types of Autosomal AIMs, and Population Diversity Reference Panels

Autosomal AIM-SNPs

Indels

STRs

Statistical Analysis of AIM Genotype Data

Developments on the Horizon: Expanding Human SNP Catalogs, Combining Marker Types, Further Differentiation of Continental Population Groups, and X-Chromosome Markers

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Disaster Victim Identification

Introduction

Management of Disaster Victim Identification

Principles of Identification

Methods of Identification

Evaluation of Identification Data

Conclusions

See also

Abbreviations

Further Reading

Forensic DNA Advisory Groups: DAB, SWGDAM, ENFSI, and BSAG

Introduction

The United States

Europe

Australia/New Zealand

Asia

International Cooperation and Coordination

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Forensic Laboratory Efficiency and Funding

General

Method

Discussion

Conclusion

See also

Abbreviations

Further Reading

Glossary

Bayesian Networks

Introduction

Bayesian Networks

Bayesian Networks for Probabilistic Inference in Forensic Science

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Internet Accessible Population Databases: YHRD and EMPOP

Introduction to the Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Database Projects

Haplotype Sampling

The Quality Assessment Scheme of YHRD and EMPOP

The Tool Boxes of YHRD and EMPOP

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

History of the International Society for Forensic Genetics – ISFG

Executive Board of the ISFG

Honorary Members

Membership

The Biannual ISFG Congresses

Proceedings of the ISFG Congresses

Scientific ISFG Prizes

The Language-Based Working Parties

The DNA Commission

The European DNA Profiling Group

Compliance with Statutes

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Forensic DNA Phenotyping: DNA Testing for Externally Visible Characteristics

Definition, Motivation, and Principle

The Proof-of-Principle: Eye Color Prediction from DNA

Additional Appearance Traits with Emerging Genetic and Predictive Knowledge

Outlook: The Near and Distant Future of FDP

See also

Further reading

The National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs)

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Microbiology and Bioterrorism

Introduction

Bioterrorism (and Its Impact)

Biological Agents

Microbiology as a Forensic Science

The 2001 US Anthrax Letters

The Application of Microbiological Procedure to the Forensic Sciences

The Microbiological Investigation of Bioterrorism

Final Remarks

See also

Nomenclature

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Biology/DNA/Botany

Cannabis DNA Typing Methods

Introduction

History of Cannabis Cultivation

History of Classification

DNA Methods to Classify Cannabis

Linking Sample to Source

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Biology/DNA/Entomology

Overview

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Biology/DNA/Methods/Analytical Techniques

Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Genetics

Introduction

Theory of CE

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Biology/DNA/RNA

mRNA and MicroRNA for Body Fluid Identification

Introduction

Messenger RNA

MicroRNA

Other Applications of RNA in Forensic Science

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Biology/DNA/Wildlife

DNA and Endangered Species

Introduction

DNA Analysis Methods

Validation of the DNA Identification Methods

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Volume 2: C – E

Chemistry/Trace

Stomach Contents Analysis

Procedures for the Examination of Gastric Contents and Vomit Stains

Microscopic Examinations

Gastric Enzyme Screening Test

Case Studies

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chemistry/Trace/Adhesive Tapes

Adhesive Tapes

Duct Tape

Packaging Tape

Electrical Tape

Forensic Analysis of Tape Components

Interpretation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Chemistry/Trace/Decomposition Chemistry

Decomposition Chemistry: Overview, Analysis, and Interpretation

Abbreviations

Introduction

Decomposition Stages

Lipid Degradation

Protein Degradation

Carbohydrate Degradation

Volatile Organic Compounds

Preservation of Soft Tissue

Vitreous Humor

Bone Degradation

Analytical Methods

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chemistry/Trace/Drugs of Abuse

Clandestine Laboratories

Introduction

Scope of the Problem

Recognition

Forensic Components

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Analysis of Controlled Substances

Introduction

Analytical Strategy

Physical Examination

Presumptive Tests

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Chromatography

Thin-Layer Chromatography

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Gas Chromatography

Quantitative Chromatographic Analysis

Mass Spectrometry

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

Conclusions

See also

Abbreviations

Further Reading

Classification

Introduction

Natural Drugs

Semisynthetic Drugs

Synthetic Drugs

See also

Further Reading

Designer Drugs

Introduction

Designer Drugs of Various Structural Types

Forensic Relevance

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chemistry/Trace/Environmental Analysis

Overview, Analysis, and Interpretation of Environmental Forensic Evidence

Introduction

Dating the Release of Contaminants from Underground Storage Tanks

Additives for Age Dating TCE

Compound Specific Isotope Analysis for Source Identification of TCE

Surrogate Analysis

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chemistry/Trace/Explosives

Clandestine Explosive Laboratories

Introduction

Recognition of Clandestine Explosive Laboratories

Objectives of Clandestine Explosive Laboratory Examination

The Examination of Clandestine Explosive Laboratories

Case Study – The Explosions in London on 7 July 2005

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Improvised Explosive Devices

Introduction

Elements of IEDs

Effects of IEDs

Detection and Countermeasures to IEDs

Forensic Science and IEDs

The Courts

See also

Further Reading

Explosives: Analysis

Introduction

Methods and Procedures

Postexplosion and Trace Analysis of Explosives

Criteria of Identification

Interpretation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Commercial

Introduction

Performance Parameters

Nitroglycerine-containing Explosives

Ammonium Nitrate-based Explosives

Detonating Cords

Boosters (Primers)

Detonators

See also

Further Reading

Military

Introduction

High Explosives

Propellants

See also

Further Reading

Improvised Explosives

Abbreviations

Introduction

History

Classifications

Mixtures

Synthetics

See also

Further Reading

Explosions

Explosives Effects

Types of Explosions

Primary Effects of an Explosion

Results of Explosions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chemistry/Trace/Fibers

Fibers: Overview

Introduction

Classification of Fibers

Fiber Properties and Textile Fabrics

Transfer and Persistence

Recovery of Fibers

Case Management

Laboratory Examinations and Analysis

Interpretation of Fiber Evidence

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Transfer

Introduction

Transfer

Factors Affecting Transfer

Differential Shedding

Primary and Secondary Transfer

Special Cases

Mechanism of Fiber Transfer

Fiber transfer: A Dynamic Process

Fiber Transfer Modeling

Concluding Comments

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Persistence and Recovery

Introduction

Persistence

Factors Affecting Persistence

Effect of Fiber Size and Morphology

Differential Loss

Effect of Garment Cleaning

Fiber Binding

Fiber Redistribution

Methods of Recovery

Choice of Recovery Method

Documentation and Packaging

Contamination Issues

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Fiber: Protocols for Examination

Introduction

Laboratory Protocols for Fiber Examination

Microscopic Examination

Color Analysis

Fiber Identification

Comparative Examinations

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Identification and Comparison

Introduction

Identification

Microscopy

Birefringence

Infrared Spectroscopy

Pyrolysis

Comparison

Microscopic Appearance

Color Comparison

Microspectrophotometry

Spectral Comparison

Color Matching

Dye Comparison

Raman Spectroscopy

Chemical Composition

Chemical/Physical Tests

Scheme of Analysis

Documentation

Resources

See also

Further Reading

Textile and Fiber Damage

Introduction

Mechanical Damage

Environmental and Laundering Effects

The Influence of Heat

Microbiological Damage

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Fiber Microscopy

Introduction

Instruments Used for Fiber Microscopy

Role of Microscopy in Fiber Examinations

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Color Analysis

Introduction

What is Color?

Microspectroscopy Techniques

Transmission Microspectroscopy

Fluorescence Microspectroscopy

Sample Preparation

Spectral Analysis

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Interpretation of Fiber Evidence

Introduction

Factors Influencing the Value of Fiber Evidence

Information Available to Assist the Interpretation of Fiber Evidence

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chemistry/Trace/Fire Investigation

Chemistry of Fire

Introduction

Conditions for a Fire

Fire as a Chemical Reaction

Phase Change and Pyrolysis

Heat Source and Transfer

Flammability Limits, Flash Point, and Fire Point

Ignition

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Physics/Thermodynamics

Introduction and Overview

Physical Thermodynamics: The Relevant Background

The Role of Thermodynamics in Fire Investigation

Fire: Ignition and Propagation

Thermodynamic Classification of Ignition Sources

Smoldering

Flames

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Thermal Degradation

Introduction

Thermal Degradation Effects

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Analysis of Fire Debris

Introduction

Evidence Collection – Sampling Containers

Preliminary Examination of Fire Debris Samples

Extraction and Sampling Techniques

Analysis

See also

Further Reading

Interpretation of Fire Debris Analysis

Abbreviations

Introduction

Classification

Interpretation of Neat Liquids

Interpretation of Ignitable Liquid Residues

Systematic Approach

Significance of Findings

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chemistry/Trace/Firearm Discharge Residues

Overview, Analysis, and Interpretation

Abbreviations

Introduction

The Ammunition for Firearms from the Chemical Point of View

Looking for FDR on Surfaces

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chemistry/Trace/Forensic Geosciences

Crime Scene Considerations

Introduction

A Team Approach to Crime Scenes

Crime Scene Reminders

Soil Forensic Crime Scene Specifics

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Soils

Introduction

Classification of Soils

Why is Soil Evidence so Good?

Historical Perspective

Basic Principles Used in Forensic Soil Criminal Investigations

Soil Evidence Collection and Characterization

Example Case Studies

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Forensic Geoscience

Introduction

From the Macro- to the Microscale

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Botany

Introduction and Scope

Forensic Botany Starts at the Crime Scene

Typical Sample Types Encountered in Forensic Botany

Plant Fibers Used in Paper and Textiles

Plant DNA Analysis

Summary and Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Chemistry/Trace/Glass

Overview (Glass)

Collection and Packaging of Glass Exhibits

Types of Glass

Glass Manufacture

The Transfer and Persistence of Breaking Glass

Background Glass in the Population

Glass Analysis

Assessing the Evidential Value

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Glass Analysis

Introduction

Physical Examination

Elemental Analysis

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Interpretation of Glass Evidence

Nomenclature

Transfer of Glass Fragments

Persistence of Glass Fragments on Clothing

Presence of Background Glass

Interpretation of Analytical Results

Evaluating the Evidential Value of the Results

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Chemistry/Trace/Miscellaneous Unknowns

The Forensic Analysis of Chemical Unknowns

Introduction

Common Submissions

Safety Considerations and Presumptive Testing

Contextual Information

Analytical Approach

Interpretation of Results

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Chemistry/Trace/Paint and Coating

Overview

Paint as Protection

Paint as Decoration

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Architectural Paint

Substrates and Their Appropriate Primer and Coating

Solvents

Resin or Binder: The Film-Forming Portion of the Paint

Pigments

Coatings Application and Film Formation

Additives

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Automotive Paint

The Binder or Resin

Pigments

Solvents

Order of Deposition and Identification of Paint Layers

Application Techniques

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Forensic Paint Analysis

Forensic Considerations About Paint Evidence

Evidence Collection

Optical Examination

IR Spectroscopy

Raman Spectroscopy

Pyrolysis–Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

Elemental Analysis (Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive x-Ray Analysis, Micro x-Ray Fluorescence)

Microspectrophotometry

Other Analytical Techniques

Illustration of Different Techniques

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Interpretation of Paint Evidence

Evaluation of the Paint Samples for Analysis

Variations in the Samples

Interpretation of Data from Instruments Commonly Used in Paint Analysis

Determination of the Significance of an Association

Example of Levels of Association

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Chemistry/Trace/Trace Evidence

Trace Evidence Overview

Introduction

Trace, Physical Evidence, or Trace Evidence?

Locard Exchange Principle

The Three Rs of Trace Evidence – Recognition, Recording, and Recovery

Recovery of Trace Evidence

Examination of Trace Evidence

Interpretation of Trace Evidence

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Microchemistry

Introduction

Types of Microchemical Reactions

Microchemical Analysis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Digital Evidence

Child Pornography

Introduction

International Law

Harm

Typologies of Child Pornography

Internet Sex Offenders

Risk

Digital Child Pornography

User-Generated Content and Sexting

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Cellular Phones

Introduction

Mobile Phone Network Technology

Mobile Phone Hardware Components

Mobile Phone Software

The Mobile Phone Forensics Hierarchy

Seizing and Handling Cell Phones

Mobile Phone Forensic Tools

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Digital Imaging: Enhancement and Authentication

Abbreviations

Introduction

Digital Imagery: Legal Constraints

Digital Image Enhancement Techniques

Digital Image Authentication Techniques

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Digital Evidence/Audio Forensics

Audio Enhancement and Authentication

Introduction

Forensic Audio Enhancement

Forensic Audio Authentication

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Digital Evidence/Black Boxes and Security Cameras

Aircraft Flight Data Recorders

Introduction

Pursuit of Truth

Desired Knowledge

Role of Evidence in Establishing Truth

Aircraft Flight Data Recorder History

Current Recorder State-of-the-Art

Cultural Repercussion of Recorders

Technical Investigation

Criminal Investigation

Expanded Employment of Recorders

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Digital Evidence/Photography and Digital Imaging

Digital Imaging and Photography: An Overview

History of Images in Forensic Science

Forensic

Technical Photography Versus Creative Photography

The Film Camera

The Digital Camera

Digital Imaging

Digital SLR

Scientific Working Group on Imaging Technology

Admissibility in Court of Digital Photo Images

Official Images

Photographic Filters

Fuji IS Pro

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Documents

Analytical Methods

Introduction

The Traditional Methods

The Newer Trends

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Document Dating

Paper Products

Inks and Writing Instruments

Commercially Printed Documents

Handwriting and Signatures

Contents of a Document

Computer-Printed Documents

Facsimile Documents

Cachet Impressions

Glues, Tapes, and Paper Fasteners

Indented Writing

Guillotine Marks

See also

Further Reading

Forgery/Counterfeits

Introduction

The Nature of Documents Used for Deceit

Combating Counterfeit and Forged Documents

The Examination Role

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Handwriting

Introduction

Theoretical Basis for Handwriting Comparison

Handwriting Comparison Method

Feature Comparison

Evaluation and Opinion

Signature Comparison Method

Un-Natural Handwriting Behaviors

Examination of Nonoriginal Writing

Recent Research in Handwriting Comparisons

Reporting Opinions

Other Examinations

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Ink Analysis

Introduction

Composition of Major Types of Writing Inks

Ink Comparisons and Identifications

Dating of Inks

Accelerated Aging

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Paper Analysis

Paper Manufacturing Process

Forensic Examination of Paper

Dating

Miscellaneous

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

History of the Forensic Examination of Documents

Introduction

The Letters of Junius

The Dreyfus Case

The Lindbergh Case

The Peter Weinberger Case

The Hitler Diaries

The Mormon Forgeries and Murders

The Howard Hughes ‘Mormon Will’ Case

The Alger Hiss Case

The Unabomber

The Killian Memos

The Jon Benet Ramsey Case

The Zodiac Killer

Admissibility

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Overview of Forensic Document Examination

What is a Forensic Document Examiner?

What are the Duties of a FDE?

Exploring FDE Casework

Qualifications of a Modern FDEs

Issues for the Future

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Engineering

Forensic Engineering/Accident Reconstruction/Biomechanics of Injury/Philosophy, Basic Theory, and Fundamentals

Introduction

Basic Principles

Methodology

Accident Reconstruction

See also

Further Reading

Accident Investigation – Determination of Cause

Introduction

Targets

Accident Analysis

Material Properties in the Contact Area

Eccentric Impacts

The Full Impact

The Sliding Impact

Energy Equivalent Speed

The Driver’s Reaction

Sample Case

Results

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Airbag Related Injuries and Deaths

Introduction

Historical Context

Automotive Industry

Human Injuries

Specific Injury Patterns

Sample Cases

Forensics of Air Bag Injuries

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Electronic Data Recorders (EDRs, Black Boxes)

Abbreviations

Background of Electronic Data in Ground Vehicles

Retrieving ECU NVRAM Data for Use in Crash Investigations

The Use of ECU NVRAM Data in Crash Investigations

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Analog Tachograph Chart Analysis

Introduction

The Forensic Use of Tachograph Data

The Tachograph Chart

The Tachograph Instrument

The Principles of Chart Analysis

The Accuracy of the Speed Record

Falsifications and Diagnostic Signals

Case Example

Digital Tachographs

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Human Factors Investigation and Analysis of Accidents and Incidents

HFACS – A Human Factors Investigative Tool

Using HFACS to Identify and Address Threats to Quality and Safety

Closing Thoughts

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Railroad Accident Investigation and Reconstruction

Introduction

Types of Railroad Accidents

Event Recorders

Procedural Steps to Follow in Railroad Accident Investigation and Reconstruction

Human Factors Considerations – Level Crossing Accidents

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Analysis of Digital Evidence

History/Background

Current Context

Standards

Digital Evidence Life Cycle

DE Process Model

Digital Evidence Artifacts

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary (SWGDE, 2011)

Investigation and Analysis of Structural Collapses

Overview

First Steps

The Investigation

The Investigator/Expert

Postinvestigation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Biomechanics of Human Gait – Slip and Fall Analysis

Biomechanics of Human Gait

Gait Characteristics Influencing Slip Initiation, Detection, and Recovery

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Forensic Chemical Engineering Investigation and Analysis

Introduction

Fires and Explosions

Pollution and Toxic Substances

Unrecognized Hazards and Unexpected Consequences

Epilog

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Materials Analysis and Failure Analysis

The Role of Materials Analysis in Determining Causation of Failure

Techniques for Determining Morphology

Techniques for Determining Composition

Selecting the Appropriate Technique

See also

Further Reading

Investigation and Analysis of Electrical Accidents

Investigation

Analysis

Casework/Examples

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Volume 3: F – M

Forensic Medicine/Causes of Death

Blunt Injury

Introduction

Blunt Injuries to the Integument

Head Injuries

Injuries of the Chest

Abdominal Injuries

Injuries to the Extremities

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Burns and Scalds

Introduction

External Findings

Internal Findings

Toxicology

Histology

Diagnosis of Vitality

Determination of the Cause of Death

Scalds

External Findings

Internal Findings

See also

Further Reading

Asphyctic Deaths – Overview and Pathophysiology

Introduction

Signs of Asphyxia

Mechanisms of Asphyxia

Suffocation

Smothering

Plastic Bag Asphyxia

Choking

Compression of the Neck

Traumatic (Crush) Asphyxia

Burking

Positional and Restraint Asphyxia

Drowning

Autoerotic Sexual Asphyxia

The Choking Game

Chemical Asphyxiants

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Strangulation

Airway Occlusion

Compression of the Cervical Arteries

Occlusion of the Neck Veins

Autopsy Findings

Reflex Mechanisms

Hanging

Strangulation by Ligature

Manual Strangulation

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Traumatic and Postural Asphyxia, Physical Restraint

Traumatic Asphyxia

Postural or Positional Asphyxia

Restraint Asphyxia

Other Mechanical Asphyxia Cases

Mechanical Asphyxia during Institutional Restraint

Incaprettamento

Burking

Constrictor Snakes

See also

Further Reading

Immersion Deaths

Introduction

Physiopathology

Autopsy Findings

Histology

The Biochemical Markers

The Diatom Test

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Sharp Trauma

Introduction

Epidemiology

Wound Morphology and Biomechanics

Sequelae and Causes of Death

Homicide, Suicide, and Accident

Capability of Acting

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Systemic Response to Trauma

Introduction

Systemic Responses Immediately Caused by Traumas

Shock: A Systemic Response to Traumas in Acute Phase

Advanced Systemic Responses to Traumas in Early Phase

Delayed Complications

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Sudden Natural Death

Definition

Criminalistic Aspects

Special Categories

Classification According to the Morphological Substrate

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

Introduction

Definition

Epidemiology and Risk Factors

Results of Autopsy

Typical Macroscopic Findings

Histological Changes

Postmortem Investigation

Death Scene

Autopsy

Clinical History

Cause of Death

Hypotheses of Possible Causes of SIDS

See also

Further Reading

Gunshot Wounds

Introduction

Wound Ballistics

Criminalistic Aspects

Entrance and Exit Wounds

Classification of Entrance Wounds in Relation to the Range from Muzzle to Target

Shotgun Injuries

Internal Findings

Forensic Examination and Documentation

Manner of Death

Injuries Caused by Explosives

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Forensic Medicine/Clinical

Clinical Forensic Medicine – Overview

Introduction

Clinical Examination of Living Victims

Injuries of Surviving Victims and of Assailants Following Attempted Manual or Ligature Strangulation

Medical Hazards in Police Custody

Torture

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Domestic Violence

Introduction

Definition

Epidemiology

Diagnosis of DV

Aspects for the Criminal Prosecution

Sexual Violence and DV

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Sexual Violence

Definition and Epidemiology

Risk Factors

Forms of Sexual Assault

Examination

Documentation

Case Management

See also

Further Reading

Child Abuse

Introduction

Physical Abuse

Sexual Abuse

The Interpretation of Medical Findings

Recording the Findings in Possible Child Abuse Cases

Interpretation of Findings

See also

Further Reading

Defense Wounds

Introduction

Defense Wounds from Knife Attacks

Defense Wounds due to Blunt Force

Defense Wounds from Other Weapons

Misleading Findings Similar to Defense Wounds

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Self-Inflicted Injury

Introduction

Simulation of Criminal Offenses

Self-Mutilation for the Purpose of Insurance Fraud

Voluntary Self-Mutilation and/or Malingering Among Prisoners and Soldiers

Artifacts in Patients with Psychic Disturbances or Mental Diseases

Attempted Suicide

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Elder Abuse

Age-Related Changes in the Body of an Elder

Who, Where, Why, When

Physical Neglect

Physical Abuse

Restraints

Toxicology

Sexual Abuse

Institutions

Autopsy

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Torture

Introduction

Forms

Fingers

Hands and Arms

Foot and Leg

Head

Neck

Trunk

Electric Torture

Psychological Torture

Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis

Ethics

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Forensic Age Estimation

Introduction

Age Estimation in Adolescents and Young Adults

Age Diagnostics in Child Victims in Child Pornographic Image Documents

Age Diagnostics in Older Adults for Clarification of Pension Entitlements

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Hyperthermia and Hypothermia

Introduction

Hyperthermia

Hypothermia

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Electrocution and Lightning Strike

Introduction

Low-Voltage Effects

Electric Burn

High-Voltage Effects

Lightning Strikes

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Neonaticide

Introduction

Incidence

Methods

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Identification

Introduction

Part I. Unidentified Cadavers

Part II. Personal Identification: Comparison between Antemortem and Postmortem Data

Conclusions

Well-Preserved Body

Putrefied, Burnt, Partly, or Completely Skeletonized Human Remains

See also

Further Reading

Deaths in Custody

Introduction

Frequency of Death in Police Custody

Distribution of Age and Gender

Manner and Cause of Death

Error Analysis for Deaths in Police Custody

Forensic Assessment

Criminal Prosecution in Cases of Death in Custody

A Case History

Prevention of Death in Custody

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Suicide

Introduction

Epidemiology

Fundamentals and Definitions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Traffic Injuries and Deaths

Road Traffic

Railway

Air Traffic

See also

Further Reading

Airplane Crashes and Other Mass Disasters

Definition

Tasks

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Forensic Medicine/Pathology

Forensic Pathology – Principles and Overview

Introduction

Role of the Forensic Pathologist

Medicolegal Systems and Investigation of Deaths

Aims of Medicolegal Autopsy

Cause of Death

Manner of Death

Medicolegal Autopsy

External Examination

Internal Examination

Importance of Additional Investigations

Evidentiary Material Collected at Autopsy

Attendance of a Forensic Pathologist at the Scene of Crime/Death

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

External Postmortem Examination

Introduction

External Examination Before Death Certification

Determination of Death/Death and Dying

Apparent Death

Brain Death

Time Since Death

Determining the Cause of Death

Consistency Between Cause of Death Diagnosis on the Death Certificate and Following Autopsy

Manner of Death

Problem Areas

See also

Further Reading

Autopsy

Short Historical Overview

The Present Use of Autopsy

See also

Further Reading

Histopathology

Brief Historical Introduction to Histopathology

Pathology/Histopathology as a Medical Specialty

Autopsy Histopathology

Forensic Histopathology

Quality

Guidelines

Methods

Histopathological Diagnosis

Histological Findings as Forensic Evidence

Problem Areas

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Early and Late Postmortem Changes

Introduction

Supravitality

Mechanical Excitability of the Muscle

Electrical Excitability of the Skeletal Muscle

Pharmacological Excitability of the Iris

Algor Mortis, Postmortem Body Cooling

Postmortem Changes

Preservation of Decomposing Bodies

Preservation Processes in Cadavers

See also

Further Reading

Estimation of the Time Since Death

Introduction

Temperature of Corpses

Rectal Temperature Time of Death Nomogram

Brain Temperature Time of Death Nomogram(s1)

Field Studies

Cooling Dummy

Compound Method

Further Methods

Putrefaction

Putrefaction in Water

Immunohistochemical Detection of Insulin, Thyroglobulin, and Calcitonin

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Vital Reactions and Wound Healing

Physiology of Skin Wound Healing

Principles of Forensic Wound Age Estimation

See also

Further Reading

Postmortem Imaging

Introduction

Postmortem Changes: Gas and Fluids

Fluid

Gunshot

Explosion

Sharp Trauma

Suffocation and Strangulation

Deceleration Trauma, Compression, Blunt Trauma, and Blows

Water-Logged Corpse, Drowning, and Aspiration

Sudden Death

Identification

Reanimation

Invasive Medicine and Care

Child Abuse, Infanticide, Neonaticide, and Stillbirth

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Deaths Associated with Medical Procedures

Introduction

An Overview of Procedural Complications Commonly Encountered in Forensic Practice

The Forensic Evaluation of Periprocedural Deaths

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Foundations

History of Forensic Sciences

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Principles of Forensic Science

What Is Forensic Science?

The Trace as the Basic Unit of Forensic Science

Two Native Principles

Nonnative Principles

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Evidence/Classification

Introduction

Relevant Evidence

Direct and Circumstantial Evidence

Real Evidence

Parole Evidence

Class and Individual Evidence

Reliable Evidence

Hearsay Evidence

Tendency, Coincidence, and Propensity Evidence

Expert and Lay Evidence

Fact and Opinion Evidence

See also

Further Reading

The Frequentist Approach to Forensic Evidence Interpretation

Example

Range Tests

Formal Hypothesis Tests

Significance Levels and Small or Big Values

The Two-Sample t-Test

Confidence Intervals

Controversies and Issues

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Statistical Interpretation of Evidence: Bayesian Analysis

Introduction

Bayes’ Rule

The Value of Evidence

Categorical Data and Discrete Hypotheses

Continuous Data and Discrete Hypotheses

Principles of Evidence Evaluation

Interpretation

Pitfalls of Intuition

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Forensic Intelligence

Introduction

Traces as Forensic Case Data, Sign, Information, Evidence, and Intelligence

Intelligence-Led Policing

Intelligence-Led Systems and Examples of Forensic Intelligence Activities

Limits of Forensic Intelligence, and Requirements

Challenges and Tensions

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Overview and Meaning of Identification/Individualization

The Identification Process: A Reduction Process to a Single Source

The Inferential Schemes

Relationship with Probabilities

The Bayesian Framework for Evaluating Identification Findings

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Semiotics, Heuristics, and Inferences Used by Forensic Scientists

General Consideration and Semiotics

Inferences

Heuristics

Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning

Investigation and Evaluation

Bayesian Reasoning

Synthesis

The Interest of a Coordination

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Interpretation/The Comparative Method

Introduction

Analogy and Comparison Within a Forensic Process

The Comparative Method Within Forensic Science

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Forensic Classification of Evidence

Introduction

Methods of Classification

Class Level Information

Uniqueness and Individualization

Relationships and Context

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Foundations/Fundamentals

Measurement Uncertainty

Nomenclature

Measurement

Measurement to Meaning

Measurement Uncertainty

Meaning Requires Uncertainty

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Investigations

Collection and Chain of Evidence

Introduction

Scene Examination

Evidence Collection

Control Samples

Chain of Custody

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Contamination

Definition

Background

Steps to Avoid Contamination

Choosing Who Should Examine the Scene (Location, Person, or Item)

Actions Within the Examination

The Use of Blanks and Controls

Demonstrating the Integrity of Items and Investigations

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Relevant Website

Forensic Intelligence Analysis

Intelligence Analysis and Forensic Science

What Is Forensic Intelligence Analysis?

Similarities between Forensic Science and Intelligence Analysis

Intelligence Failures

The Benefits of Structured Analytic Techniques

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Fingerprints

Introduction

What Is a Fingerprint?

Recovery of Fingerprints from Scenes

Fingerprint Practice

Current Issues in the Field

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Major Incident Scene Management

Background

Scene Control and Coordination

Approach to Crime Scene Investigation

Initial Assessment

Scene Security

Occupational Health and Safety

Systematic Collection of Potential Evidence

Systematic and Sequential Approach to the Search and Recovery of Potential Evidence

Examination Records

Ongoing Case Management

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Packaging

Background

Paper as a Packaging Medium

Infested Material

Collection of Items

Labeling

Collection

Summary

Appendix 1 Collection and Packaging

Ammunition

Bite Marks

Suspect

Blood

Whole Blood

Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation

Cigarette Butts

Clothing

Documents

Fibers

Fire Debris

Firearms Discharge Residue

Projectile Hole in Clothing

Projectile Hole in Dead Skin

Glass

Hairs

Control Samples

Insects: Flies

Paint

Postmortem Samples

Safe Insulation and Safe Surface Paint

Saliva

Seminal Stains

Soil from Scene and Suspect’s Clothing and/or Environment

Tools

Toolmark(s)

Vegetation

Wires

Notes

See also

Further Reading

Preservation

Preservation: A Time Frame Process

Threats to Evidence

See also

Further Reading

Recording

Background

Notes

Photographs

Digital Photography

Video Recording

Plans

Computer-Aided Design

Photogrammetry

Sketch Plan

Coordinate and Triangulation Methods of Measuring Crime Scenes

Procedure for Measuring Crime Scenes

Scale Plan

Computers

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Recovery of Human Remains

Introduction

Search Techniques

Recovery of Human Remains

Forensic Anthropology

Other Considerations at the Crime Scene

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Crime Scene Analysis and Reconstruction

Crime Analysis and Reconstruction

Phases of a Crime

Evidence Dynamics

Role of Physical Evidence

Reconstruction – Historical Perspective

Who Does Reconstruction

Methods of Reconstruction

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Suspicious Deaths

Cause of Death

Manner of Death

Death Scene

Postmortem Examination

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Evidence Collection at Fire Scenes

Introduction and Overview

Sample Selection and Documentation

Comparison Samples

Packaging Options

Clothing and Shoes

Liquids for Comparison

Evidence Collection for Other Types of Testing

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Fire Scene Inspection Methodology

Introduction and Overview

First Assumptions

Planning the Investigation

Initial Evaluation: Can This Inspection Be Conducted Safely?

Documentation

Reconstruction

Inventory

Avoiding Spoliation

Origin Determination

Cause Determination

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Fire Patterns and Their Interpretation

Introduction and Overview

Plume-Generated Patterns

Confinement Patterns

Movement Patterns

Irregular Patterns

Spalling

Electrical Damage

Clean Burn

Intensity Patterns

Ventilation-Generated Fire Patterns

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Types of Fires

Theory of Fire

Physical States of Fuel

The Fire Triangle

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Counterfeit Goods

Introduction

Counterfeits as an Insight to Classification

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Counterfeit Currency

Genuine Currency

Applied Security Features

Currency Authentication

Counterfeit Examinations

Chemical and Instrumental Examinations

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Identity Theft

Introduction

Identity Related to Biometrics

Virtual Identities

Forensic Properties of Verification and Identification Systems

Examples of Identity Fraud (Skimming, Wrong Persons in Prisons, Banking Fraud, and Spoofing) and Relating them to Other Articles

Future Expectations

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Forensic Accounting

Introduction

Forensic Accounting for Criminal Investigations

Forensic Accounting Tools

Surveillance and Investigation Tools

Forensic Accounting for Civil Litigation

Forensic Accounting to Discover Hidden Assets

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Payment Cards

Payment Cards and Criminal Activity

What Are Payment Cards?

Payment Card Fraud

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Crime Scene to Court

Introduction

Task

Models

Forensic Strategies

Integrated Case Management

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Explosions

Preface

Scope

Introduction

The Initial Response

Postexplosion Scene Control

Health and Safety

Preparation and Planning for Forensic Recovery

Contamination Control, Continuity, and Evidence Integrity

What Might be Recovered?

Types of Explosives

Recovery of Chemical and Physical Evidence

Evidence from Bodies

Incident Reconstruction

Interpretation

Political Considerations

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Legal

The Innocence Project

Overview of the Innocence Project and Innocence Network

History

The Educational Mission

The Policy Mission

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

DNA Exonerations

Discovery of Wrongful Convictions Through DNA Testing

Emergence of DNA as a Forensic Tool

Preservation of and Access to DNA Evidence

DNA Exonerations Today

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Expert Witness Qualifications and Testimony

Introduction

Selecting an Expert

Qualifications

Experience as an Expert Witness

Education and Training

Membership in Professional Associations

Increased Scrutiny of Experts

Weight of the Evidence

Conclusion

Further Reading

Forensic Laboratory Reports

Contents of a Report – A ‘Science’ Standard

Contents of Report: Legal Standards

Reports: Stand-Alone Evidence or Support for a Testifying Expert

Ethical Considerations and Forensic Reports

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Legal Aspects of Forensic Science

Introduction

Chain of Custody: Collection, Transport, Handling, and Storage of Samples

Admissibility of Forensic Science

Expert Evidence at Trial

Appellate Review and Postconviction

Lay Assessment of Forensic Science

Plea Bargains and Interrogations

Wrongful Convictions

Expert Witness Immunity

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Legal Systems: Adversarial and Inquisitorial

Introduction

Some Historical Watersheds in Criminal Procedure Reform

The Adversarialization of the Inquisitorial Preliminary Investigation

The Decline of the Inquisitorial Trial Judge

The Eclipse of Adversarial and Inquisitorial Procedure?

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

When Science Changes, How Does Law Respond

Introduction

The Filtering of Scientific Evidence into Courtrooms

Law as an Adversarial System

Law’s Reliance on Past Decisions

Law as an Arbiter of Disputes

The Law Requires Binary Decisions

Judges May Lack the Scientific Expertise to Judge the Reliability of Scientific Evidence

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

History of the Law’s Reception of Forensic Science

Origins

Legal Reception Generally

Legal Control over Admission of Expert Evidence

Reception of Science-Based Forensic Sciences and Semi-Science-Based Forensic Sciences

Reception of Individualization Claims

Lessons of Legal History for Future Law–Forensic Science Interaction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

International Courts and Forensic Science

The Current Contribution of Forensic Science to the ICTs

Problems for Forensic Science in ICTs

The Future of Forensic Science Within ICTs

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Management/Administration of Forensic Science

International Organizations and Cooperation

Introduction

A History Lesson – The Road to IFSA

Challenges for Success

Progress

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

The International Forensic Summit

Business Networks

Obstacles to Cooperation – The Gill Report

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Principles for the Organization of Forensic Support

Scope of Forensic Support

An Ideal Organizational model?

Organizational Theory

Forensic Organizations – A Special case?

Public Versus Private Providers

People Are Our Most Valuable Asset!

Conclusions

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Management/Quality in Forensic Science

Principles of Quality Assurance

Quality Assurance

General Principles

Essential Elements of a QA Program

ISO, ISO 17025, and ISO 17020

Standard Procedures

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Accreditation

Introduction

Defining Accreditation

Competence

Cost of Accreditation

Certification and Registration

Validation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Certification

Introduction – What Is certification?

First-, Second-, and Third-Party Certification

Certification of Individuals

Certification versus Accreditation

International Certification Schemes

Certification Overview and Conclusions

Certification of Objects

See also

Relevant Websites

Standard Methods

Introduction

Why Standards Are Required?

The United States National Academy of Sciences Report 2009

Global Standard Environment

Challenges in Developing Standards

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Risk Management

Introduction – Why Do We Need Risk Management?

Defining Risk

Risk Appetite or Attitude

Risk Management Principles, Process, and Framework

Risk Considerations for the Forensic Industry

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Effectiveness

Introduction

Knowledge Workers

Effectiveness and Efficiency

The FORESIGHT Project

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Health and Safety

Occupational Health and Safety Policy

Specific Laboratory Hazards

Hazards in the Field

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Sequential Unmasking: Minimizing Observer Effects in Forensic Science

The Concept of Sequential Unmasking

The Foundational Basis for Cognitive Effects

Support for Blind Testing in Forensic Science

Arguments Against Blind Testing in Forensic Science

Sequential Unmasking in Forensic Science

Domain-Relevant (and Domain-Irrelevant) Information

Exemplar Line-Ups

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Methods

Capillary Electrophoresis: Basic Principles

Abbreviations

Introduction

Fundamentals of CE

Background Electrolytes

Modes of Separation in Electrophoresis

Instrumentation and Sample Handling

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Biology

Introduction

CE Methodology

CE Typing Methodologies Used by Forensic Biologists

The Future of CE in Forensic Biology

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Chemistry

Abbreviations

Introduction

Applications

See also

Further Reading

Chromatography: Basic Principles

Introduction

Classification of Chromatographic Techniques

Chromatographic Distribution Equilibria

Band Broadening in Chromatography

Additional Comments on Band Broadening

Optimization of Chromatographic Performance

See also

Abbreviations

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Gas Chromatography

Abbreviations

Introduction

GC Columns

Gas Pressure and Flow Control

Oven Temperature

Sample Introduction

Pyrolysis GC

Simple Injection – Dual Detection

Detectors

See also

Further Reading

Liquid and Thin-Layer Chromatography

Abbreviations

Introduction

Column (or Liquid–Solid) Chromatography

HPLC and Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Thin-Layer Chromatography

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

Introduction

Ionization Techniques

Sample Preparation and Injection Techniques

Matrix Effects

Overview of State-of-the-Art LC–MS Instrumentation

Application of LC–MS to Forensic Sciences

See also

Abbreviations

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

Abbreviations

Introduction

Multiplied Powers

Different Ways of Looking at Data

Requirements

Instrumentation

Forensic Applications

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Mass Spectrometry

Introduction

Instrumentation

Sample Introduction

Ion Source

Mass Analyzer

Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Ion Detector

Data Interpretation

Forensic Applications of MS

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Analytical Light Microscopy

Introduction

Microscopes Used in Analysis in the Forensic Sciences

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Microscopy (Electron)

Introduction

Additional Instrumentation for Electron Microscope Applications

Forensic Applications of SEM

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Presumptive Chemical Tests

Introduction

Chemical Tests on Drug Evidence

Chemical Tests on Explosives Evidence

Chemical Tests on Biological Specimens

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Nonchromatographic Separation Techniques

Introduction

Physical Separations

Volatile Materials

Chemical Separations

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Spectroscopic Techniques

Nomenclature

Introduction

Identification of Substances

Quantification of Substances

Related Techniques

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Spectroscopy: Basic Principles

Introduction

Electromagnetic Radiation and Light

Matter

Interaction Between Radiation and Matter

Instrumentation and Techniques

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Field-Deployable Devices

Introduction

Hazardous Material Identification

Explosives Detection and Identification

Clandestine Laboratories

The Challenge of ‘In-Field’ Monitoring, Detection, and Identification

Principles of Operation of Field-Deployable Devices

Spectroscopic Techniques

Flame Ionization Techniques

Photoionization Detection

Ion Mobility Spectroscopy

MS and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS)

Other Detection Technologies

Discussion

See also

Further Reading

Chemometrics

Introduction

Preprocessing Techniques

Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering

Principal Component Analysis

Discriminant Analysis

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Volume 4: P – T

Pattern Evidence

Vehicle Tire Marks and Tire Track Measurement

Introduction

Sidewall Information

Tire Construction

Tire Designs and Databases

Original Equipment Tires Versus Replacement Tires

Noise Treatment

Tread-Wear Indicators

Known Standards of Tires

Examination of Tire Impressions

Vehicle Dimensions and Turning

Recovery Methods Specific to Tires

Retreaded Tires

See also

Further Reading

Plastic Bag Striations

Introduction

Background

Physical Features

Methods for Visualization of Physical Features

Chemical Methods

Protocol for Forensic Examination of Plastic Bags and Films

Value of Plastic Bag Evidence

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Bare Footprint Marks

History

Crime Scene Evidence Collection

Collection of Exemplars from a Person of Interest

Methodology for Examination of Foot Morphology Cases

Analysis of Crime Scene Impressions

Analysis of the Known Exemplars

Comparison

Evaluation

Verification

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

The Friction Ridge Skin of the Feet

Introduction

History

Embryology and Development of the Friction Ridges of the Foot

Recording Known Impressions of the Foot

Ridge Flow of the Feet

Toes

See also

Further Reading

Palm Prints

Interdigital Region

Hypothenar

Thenar

See also

Further Reading

Footwear Marks

Introduction

Types of Footwear Marks

Recovery of Impressions

Examination Process

The Footwear Expert

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Serial Number

Introduction

Methods of Application

Removal Methods

Restoration Methods: Metals

Reagent Recipes

Photography

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Shotgun Ammunition on a Target

Introduction

The Shot Shell

The Barrel

Shooting Range Estimation

Adaptations

Some Misconceptions

See also

Further Reading

Physical Match

Introduction: What is a ‘Physical Match’

The Uniqueness of a Fracture Line

Obstacles to Performing a Physical Match

Mathematical and Statistical Evaluation

On ‘Identification’ and ‘Degree of Certainty’

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Tools

Introduction

Definitions

Brief History of Toolmark Identification Applied to Forensic Science

Application of Toolmark Identification in Forensic Science

Important Considerations

Casework Examples

Future of Toolmark Identification

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Analysis, Comparison, Evaluation, and Verification (ACE-V)

Introduction

History and Etiology

The Process

Quality and Quantity of Detail

Testing

Forensic Disciplines that Have not Adopted ACE-V

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Pattern Evidence/Fingerprints (Dactyloscopy)

Friction Ridge Print Examination – Interpretation and the Comparative Method

Friction Ridge Print Examination – Interpretation and the Comparative Method

Analysis, Comparison, Evaluation, and Verification

ACE-V as an Applied Science

Blind Verification

Consultation

Complex Prints

Conflict Resolution

Documentation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Automated Methods, Including Criminal Records Administration

Introduction

Brief History of Fingerprint Classification

History of Criminal Identification

History of Fingerprint Automation

Criminal History Information Systems

Current Practice and Future Improvement

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS)

Introduction

Exemplar Database

Searching Latent Prints in AFIS

AFIS Results

Interoperability

The Future of AFIS

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Chemistry of Print Residue

Abbreviations

Introduction

Sources of Fingerprint Residue

Factors Affecting Fingerprint Composition

Future Directions and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Identification and Classification

Introduction

Development of Friction Ridge Skin

Structure of Friction Ridge Skin

Historical Scientific Research into Friction Ridge Skin

Uniqueness and Permanence – The Foundations of Friction Ridge Identification

Early Applications of Friction Ridge Identification

Criminal Identification Prior to the Use of Fingerprints

Development of Friction Ridge Classification Systems

Incorporation of Computers into the Science of Friction Ridge Identification

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Sequential Treatment and Enhancement

Introduction

Sequential Application of Fingerprint Development Techniques

Process Compatibility

Other Factors to be Considered

Photographic Recording of Developed Fingerprints

Fingerprints in Contaminants

Contaminated Exhibits

Packaging and Handling of Evidence

Preliminary Procedures

Sequence Selection and Complex Exhibits

Initial Visual Examination – All Exhibits

Initial Fluorescence Examination – All Exhibits

Surface Compatibility and Performance

Operational Performance

Process Selection Charts

Difficult Surface Types

Metal Surfaces

Fabrics

Skin

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Friction Ridge Skin Impression Evidence – Standards of Proof

Introduction

Historical Milestone

Current Views and Practice

Range of Possible Conclusions in the Field

The Move Toward Quality

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Visualization or Development of Crime Scene Fingerprints

Introduction

Origins of Fingerprint Deposits

Fingerprint Patterns, Characteristics, and Detail

Imaging of Developed Fingerprints

Development or Visualization of Latent Fingerprints

Latent Fingerprint Chemical Constituents

Operational Methods of Visualizing Fingerprints

Choice of Technique

Packaging and Handling of Evidence

Operational Fingerprint Development Processes

Health and Safety Procedures

1, 8-Diazafluoren-9-one (DFO)

Gun Bluing and Similar Metal-Toning Treatments

Iodine Vapor Fuming

Indanedione

Ninhydrin

Physical Developer

Powders

Powder Suspensions

Small Particle Reagent

Basic Violet 3 (Gentian Violet, Crystal Violet, CI 42555)

Superglue

Vacuum Metal Deposition

Development of Contaminated Fingermarks

Other Reported Techniques

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Pattern Evidence/Firearms

Humane Killing Tools

Introduction

Captive-Bolt Humane Killers

Injuries from Captive-Bolt Narcotic Devices

Fatalities from Humane Killers

Stud Guns

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Laboratory Analysis

Examination of Firearms

Examination of Fired Ammunition Components

Recent Developments

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Range

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Residues

See also

Further Reading

Pattern Evidence/History

Fingerprint Sciences

Introduction

Early History (221 BC–AD 220)

Recognition of Friction Ridge Skin (1684–1858)

Criminal Applications and as a Means of Identification (1880–1905)

Developments in Comparison and Identification (1914–73)

Recent (1990–Present)

Early Scientific Foundation

Further Scientific Research

Fingerprint Detection and Enhancement

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Professional

Accreditation of Educational Programs

Introduction

What Is Accreditation?

Accreditation of Educational Programs in North America

Accreditation of Educational Programs in the United Kingdom

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Certification and Licensing

Certifying Bodies

Other Certification Programs

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Continuing Professional Development

Types of Continuing Professional Development

Sources of Continuing Professional Development

Administration of Continuing Professional Development

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Education and Accreditation in Forensic Science

Historical Perspectives

Forensic Science as a Recognized Discipline

1999 NIJ Review of Forensic Science

TWGED

Undergraduate Curriculum

Graduate Curriculum

Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission

NAS Report – Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Future Educational Needs

See also

Further Reading

Ethics

Introduction

Forensic Science Ethics and Personal Ethics

Organizational Forensic Science Ethics

Basic Minimal Ethics and Aspirational Ethics

Codes of Ethics in Forensic Science Practice

Standards for Good Forensic Practice

Ethical Problems in the Forensic Sciences

Foundations of Ethics

Ethical Dilemmas

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Research and Publishing

Introduction

Research

Publication

The Publication Process

Types of Publications

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Training to Competence

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

National Academy of Sciences (NAS)

Introduction

Relevance to Forensic Science

Funding

Rationale for Reports

Scope

Composition of Committees

Additions and Subtractions from Committees

Data-Gathering Process

Committee Deliberation

Dissension Within Committees

Peer Review

Primary Findings

NRC Reports and Legal Issues

Dissemination

Impact

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS)

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society (ANZFSS)

Introduction

See also

Relevant Website

American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (ASCLD)

Introduction

Accreditation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI)

Introduction

See also

Relevant Website

International Association for Identification (IAI)

Introduction

The IAI Collection

See also

Further Reading

National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME)

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

Senior Managers of Australian and New Zealand Forensic Laboratories (SMANZFL)

Introduction

See also

Relevant Website

Toxicology

Toxicology: History

Introduction

Important Historical Milestones

Evolution of Drugs and Poisons

Recent Developments in Analytical Methods

Alternative Matrices

Drug-Facilitated Crime

Drugs and Driving

Famous Poisoning Cases

See also

Abbreviations

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Glossary

Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action of Drugs

Introduction

Affinity, Efficacy, and Potency

Antagonism and Potentiation

Signal Transduction

Tolerance and Dependence

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Toxicology: Overview and Applications

Introduction

Applications of Forensic Toxicology

Initial Tests and Confirmation

Common Drugs and Poisons

Scope of Testing Protocols

Specimens

General Techniques

Quality Assurance and Validation

Estimation of Dose

Interpretation of Toxicological Results

Court Testimony

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Drug Screening in Sport

Introduction

What is Doping in Sport?

Context of Adjudication of Anti-Doping Rule Violations in Sport

The List of Prohibited Compounds and Methods to be Screened

Biological Sample Identity and Integrity

Specific Procedures in Dedicated Laboratories

Practical Analytical Approach

The Biological Passport

Developments for the Future

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Volatile Substances and Inhalants

Diagnosis of VSA

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Interpretation of Results

Abbreviations

Introduction

Forensic Urine Drug Testing

Human Performance Toxicology

Postmortem Toxicology

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Methods of Analysis – Initial Testing

Abbreviations

Introduction

Sample Selection

Immunoassays

Sample Extraction

Screening by Liquid Chromatography

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Methods of Analysis – Confirmatory Testing

Abbreviations

Principles of Confirmatory Testing

Certified Reference Standards

MS in Confirmatory Testing

Internal Standardization

Minimum Required Identification Criteria

Minimum Required Quantification Criteria

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Postmortem Specimens

Introduction

Blood, Serum, and Plasma

Urine

Vitreous Humor

Bile

The Liver

The Brain

Lungs

The Kidney

Skeletal Muscle

Other Tissues and Fluids

Special Considerations

See also

Further Reading

Herbal Psychoactive Substances

Abbreviations

Introduction

Traditional Drugs of Abuse of Herbal Origin

Emerging and Popular Herbal Drugs of Abuse

Analytical Methods

Summary and Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Herbal Medicines and Phytopharmaceuticals – Contaminations

Abbreviations

Introduction

Common Forms of Contamination/Adulterants

Analytical Strategy

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Behavioral Toxicology

What Is Behavioral Toxicity?

Mechanisms of Action

Alcohol

Stimulants (Amphetamines and Cocaine)

Anabolic Steroids

Hallucinogens

Benzodiazepines

Cannabis

Psychoses

Tolerance and Withdrawal

See also

Further Reading

Postmortem Toxicology: Artifacts

Introduction

The Pre-Final Phase

The Corpse

The Sample

The Compound

The Analytical Assay

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Toxicology/Alcohol

Blood

Introduction

Blood Collection

Analysis

See also

Further Reading

Urine and Other Body Fluids

Introduction

Absorption

Distribution

Elimination

Analysis of Urine and Other Body Fluids for Alcohol

Urine

Saliva/Oral Fluid

Vitreous Humor

Cerebrospinal Fluid

Synovial Fluid

Bile

Liver and Other Tissues

Sequestered Hematomas

Stomach Contents

Putrefactive Blisters

Sweat

Tears

See also

Further Reading

Breath Alcohol

Abbreviations

Introduction

Historical Aspects

Alcohol in the Blood and Breath

Analytical Methods

Types of Breath Alcohol Testing Instruments

Forensic Issues

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Alcohol Congeners and the Source of Ethanol

Abbreviations

Introduction

Congener Content of Beverages

Methods

Disposition

Toxicity of Congeners

Hip Flask Defense

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Alcohol: Interpretation

Abbreviations

Symbols

Introduction

Pharmacokinetics of Ethanol

Estimation of Dose and BAC

Effects of Alcohol

Activities Associated with Alcohol Abuse

Alcohol-Derived Driving Limits

Drug Interactions with Alcohol

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Alcohol: Postmortem

Introduction

Collection of Specimens

Analysis

Postmortem Changes in Blood Concentration

Reporting Alcohol Concentrations

Examples

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Metabolites of Ethanol

Abbreviations

Introduction

Ethyl Glucuronide

Ethyl Sulfate

Ethyl Phosphate

Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters

Phosphatidylethanol

Summary and Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Toxicology/Drugs of Abuse

Blood

Introduction

Types of Blood Specimens

Drug Monographs

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Oral Fluid

Introduction

What is Oral Fluid?

Collection of Oral fluid

Factors Affecting Drug Presence in Oral Fluids

Applications of Oral Fluid Drug Testing

Analytical Testing Methods

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Drug-Facilitated Crimes

Introduction

Definitions

Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault

Typical Drugs in DFC

Alcohol in DFC

The Role of the Forensic Medical Examiner/Forensic Nurse in DFC Cases

Samples Types in DFC

Analytical Issues in DFC

Interpretation of Toxicological Results in DFC

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Abbreviations

Drug-Impaired Driving

Introduction

Influence of Drugs on Performance

Epidemiology and Crash Risk

Legislation

‘Per se’ Legislation

Detection of Drugs in Drivers

Evidentiary Analysis

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Drugs in Hair

Introduction

Biology of Hair

Hair Analysis

Applications

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Glossary

Postmortem Blood

Introduction

Sample Collection and Chain of Custody

Toxicology Testing

Postmortem Changes in Drug Concentration

See also

Further Reading

Glossary

Urine

Introduction

Urine Specimen Characteristics and Specimen Integrity

Application of Immunoassays to Urine Drug Testing

Application of GC-MS in Urine Drug Testing

Correlation of Immunoassay and GC-MS Test Results

Issues in the Interpretation of Urine Drug-Testing Results

See also

Further Reading

Validation of Twelve Chemical Spot Tests for the Detection of Drugs of Abuse

Introduction

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

Conclusions

See also

References

Index

Author Index

Quotes and reviews

"This encyclopedia's second edition…in online format is a major accomplishment. It brings updated/new information to readers in a convenient and flexible format. Vividly colored tables and figures abound. References are current. The various specialties and related disciplines continue to be included.  Summing Up: Highly Recommended." --CHOICE Reviews Online, February 2014

 
 
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