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Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney
 
 

Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney, 5th Edition

Physiology & Pathophysiology

 
Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney, 5th Edition,Robert Alpern,Michael Caplan,Orson Moe,ISBN9780123814623
 
 
 

Alpern   &   Caplan   &   Moe   

Academic Press

9780123814623

9780123814630

3352

276 X 216

A classic nephrology 2-volume reference for over 20 years.

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Key Features

  • Offers the most comprehensive coverage on the market of fluid and electrolyte regulation and dysregulation in 85 completely revised chapters and 10 new chapters.
  • Includes 4sections, 62 chapters, devoted to regulation and disorders of acid-base homeostasis, and epithelial and nonepithelial transport regulation. 
  • Includes foreword by Donald Seldin and Gerhard Giebisch, world renowned names in nephrology and editors of the previous three editions.

Description

A classic nephrology reference for over 25years, Seldin & Giebisch’s The Kidney, is the acknowledged authority on renal physiology and pathophysiology. In this 5th edition, such new and powerful disciplines as genetics and cell biology have been deployed to deepen and widen further the explanatory framework. Not only have previous chapters been extensively updated, but new chapters have been added to incorporate additional disciplines. Individual chapters, for example, now provide detailed treatment of the significance of cilia; the role of stem cells is now given special consideration. Finally, there has been a significant expansion of the section of pathophysiology, incorporating the newer findings of cell biology and genetics. If you research the development of normal renal function or the mechanisms underlying renal disease, Seldin & Giebisch’s The Kidney is your number one source for information.

Readership

Academic and medical librarians in kidney physiology, nephrology and renal medicine. This will also serve as an excellent reference for clinical nephrologists and trainees, graduate students, researchers, academic clinicians and any pharmaceutical company working on renal medications.

Robert Alpern

Dr. Alpern has performed research in the area of epithelial physiology, focusing on the mechanisms and regulation of acid transport. He received his MD degree from the University of Chicago and then trained in Internal Medicine at Columbia Presbyterian. Following postdoctoral training in the Cardiovascular Research Institute at the University of California, San Francisco, Alpern joined the faculty at UCSF, then moved to the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School as Chief of Nephrology and later Dean of the medical school. He is now Dean of Yale School of Medicine and Ensign Professor.

Affiliations and Expertise

Dean and Ensign Professor of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Michael Caplan

Dr. Caplan studies epithelial cell biology and physiology. His work focuses on the trafficking and regulation of renal ion transport proteins. His group also studies the signaling pathways involved in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease. He received his MD and PhD degrees from Yale University, having pursued his dissertation work in the Department of Cell Biology under the guidance of Drs. James D. Jamieson and George E. Palade. Following postdoctoral work in the Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology at Yale, Caplan joined that department as a faculty member. He is currently the C.N.H. Long Professor and Chair of Yale University School of Medicine’s Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology.

Affiliations and Expertise

C.N.H. Long Professor and Chair, Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Orson Moe

Dr. Moe received his medical degree from the University of Toronto where he also did his internal medicine residency and clinical nephrology fellowship. Orson Moe moved to the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center for research training in renal physiology. He is currently Professor of Internal Medicine and Physiology and is a member of the Nephrology Division at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. He is also the Director of the Charles and Jane Pak Center of Mineral Metabolism and Clinical Research and holds the Charles and Jane Pak Chair in Mineral Metabolism Research and the Donald Seldin Professorship in Clinical Investigation. Orson Moe conducts both basic science and patient-oriented research on renal physiology and metabolism, and epithelial biology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Internal Medicine and Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA

Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney, 5th Edition

Dedication

Foreword

Preface

List of Contributors

List of Contributors

Volume 1

I: Epithelial and Nonepithelial Transport and Regulation

Chapter 1. Epithelial Cell Structure and Polarity

Introduction

Epithelial Cell Structure: Morphology and Physiology

Biogenesis of Epithelial Polarity

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 2. Mechanisms of Ion Transport across Cell Membranes

Introduction

Mechanisms of ion TRANSPORT

Ion Transport PROTEINS

References

Chapter 3. Renal Ion-Translocating ATPases

P-ATPases

Structure and Function of Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA and PMCA)

Structure of Na,K-ATPase and H,K-ATPase

Properties of Na,K-ATPase and H,K-ATPase

Regulation of Na,K-ATPase

New Physiological Functions of Na,k-ATPase

Na,K-ATPase in the Kidney

H,K-ATPases in Kidney

Structure and Mechanism of Action of V-ATPases

References

Chapter 4. Mechanisms of Water Transport Across Cell Membranes and Epithelia

Introduction

Basic Principles

Water Transport Across the Cell Membrane

Water Transport in Epithelia

References

Chapter 5. Cell Volume Control

Cell Volume Regulatory Mechanisms

Challenges and Functions Affecting Cell Volume

References

Chapter 6. Solute Transport, Energy Consumption, and Production in the Kidney

Introduction

Energy Consumption

Metabolic Basis in the Kidney

Coupling of Transport and Metabolism in the Kidney

NA+,K+-ATPase

Pathophysiological States in Energy Production in the Kidney

Conclusions

References

Chapter 7. Electrophysiological Analysis of Transepithelial Transport

Introduction

Transepithelial Measurements

Conclusions

Intracellular Measurements

Conclusions

Parameters Measured on Single Channels

Number of Channels

Open and Closed Times

Application to Epithelia

Noise Analysis

Conclusions

Appendix 1 The Basic Equations for the General Equivalent Circuit

Relation Between the Real Change in EMF and the Measured Change in Potential

Equations for Partial Ionic Conductance

Contribution of the Electrogenic Na-K Pump to the Membrane Potential

References

Chapter 8. Renal Ion Channels, Electrophysiology of Transport, and Channelopathies

Structure-Function of Tubule Epithelium

Ion Channels: Biophysical Properties

Function of Renal Ion Channels

Ion Channel Structure

Tubulopathies Resulting from Changes in Channel Biophysical Properties

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 9. Microvascular Permeability and the Exchange of Water and Solutes Across Microvascular Walls

Introduction

Microvascular Permeability

The Exchange of Fluid and Solutes by Convection and Diffusion through Microvascular Walls

References

Chapter 10. External Balance of Electrolytes and Acids and Alkali

Principles of Electrolyte Balance

Why is Balance Always Restored?

Is the Capacity of any System Always Limited?

Speed of Balance Restoration

Mechanism of Balance Restoration

Models of External Balance

Infinite Gain Control Mechanism

Common Misconceptions and New Insights

Clinical Application of External Balance

External Balance of Protons

Measurement of Net Acid Excretion

Sources of Acid

Gi Absorption of Acids and Alkali

Bone Buffering in Metabolic Acidosis

References

Chapter 11. Renal Cilia Structure, Function, and Physiology

Introduction

Cilia Ultrastructure and Components

Cilia Transport and Trafficking

Ciliogenesis

Cilia Signaling in the Nephron

Model Systems for the Study of Ciliogenesis and Cilia Disease

The Human Renal Ciliopathies

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 12. Intercellular Junctions

Tight Junctions

Gap Junctions and Connexin Hemichannels

Adherens Junctions and Desmosomes

References

Chapter 13. Principles of Cell Signaling

Introduction

Cell Surface Receptors

Intracellular Signaling Pathways

Examples of Signaling Effectors in the Kidney

References

Chapter 14. Scaffolding Proteins in Transport Regulation

PDZ-Proteins

Classes of PDZ Domains

Structural Basis for PDZ Interaction

Regulation of PDZ Binding

Polarized Expression of PDZ Proteins in Epithelial Cells

MAGUKs, the Archetypal PDZ Scaffolds

Form and Function of PDZ Protein Families in the kidney

Basolateral Membrane PDZ Protein Complexes

Common Properties of AKAP Proteins

Conclusion

References

Chapter 15. The Renin-Angiotensin System

The Components of the renin-angiotensin System

Regulation of Renin

Renal Epithelial Actions of the RAS

References

Chapter 16. Neural Control of Renal Function

Renal Sympathetic Nerves

Neuroanatomy, Pharmacology, and Physiology

Physiology

Control of the Renal Circulation

Control of Renal Tubular Solute and Water Transport

Neural Control of Renin Release

Integration of Renal Nerve Activity and Function

Afferent Renal Sensory Nerves

Neuroanatomy

Renorenal Reflexes

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 17. Eicosanoids and Renal Function

Cellular Origin of Eicosanoids

Cyclooxygenase Derived Prostanoids

Lipoxygenase Derived Eicosanoids: 5-, 12-, and 15-HETEs and Leukotrienes

Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase-Derived Eicosanoids: 20-HETE and EETs

Summary

References

Chapter 18. Extracellular Nucleotides and Renal Function

P2 Receptors

P2 Receptors and Renal Function

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 19. Paracrine Regulation of Renal Function by Dopamine

II: Structural and Functional Organization of the Kidney

Chapter 20. Structural Organization of the Mammalian Kidney

Kidney types and Renal Pelvis

Renal Vasculature

Nephrons and Collecting Duct System

Interstitium

Periarterial Connective Tissue and Lymphatics

Nerves

Topographical Relationships

Glomerulus (Renal Corpuscle)

Structural Organization of Renal Electrolyte Transporting Epithelia

Proximal Tubule

Thin Limbs of Henle’s Loop (Intermediate Tubule)

Thick Ascending Limb of Henle’s Loop

Segments Downstream of the Tal: Distal Convoluted Tubule, Connecting Tubule, and Collecting Duct

Architectural-Functional Relationships

The Renal Medulla

Conclusion

References

Chapter 21. Biophysical Basis of Glomerular Filtration

Introduction

The Magnitude of Renal Blood Flow and Glomerular Filtration

Glomerular Hemodynamics by Inference

Glomerular Hemodynamics and Micropuncture

The Filtration Barrier and Filtration of Macromolecules

Summary

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 22. Glomerular Cell Biology

Cell Biology of the Glomerulus

Glomerular Endothelial Cells

Mesangial Cells

The Glomerular Basement Membrane

Podocytes

Glomerular Parietal Epithelium

The Glomerular Filtration Barrier

References

Chapter 23. Function of the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus: Control of Glomerular Hemodynamics and Renin Secretion

Cellular Elements of the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JGA)

Macula Densa Control of Vascular Tone

Macula Densa Control of Renin Secretion

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 24. Renal Cortical and Medullary Microcirculations: Structure and Function

Anatomy of the Renal Circulation

Transport Functions and Properties

Intrarenal Hematocrit

Methods for Measurement of Regional Blood flow to the Cortex and Medulla

Methods for Direct Measurements of Microvessel Reactivity

Vasoactivity of the Renal Microcirculation: Ion Channel Architecture

Regulation of Blood flow and Microvessel Contraction

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 25. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Kidney Development

Overview

Development of the Metanephros

Experimental Approaches to Kidney Development

Molecular Approaches to Kidney Development

Transcription Factors in Metanephrogenesis

Ureteric Bud Outgrowth from the Wolffian Duct

Ureteric Bud Branching Morphogenesis

Tubulogenesis after Induction of the Metanephric Mesenchyme

Vascular and Glomerular Development

Termination of Kidney Development

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 26. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Glomerular Capillary Development

Glomerular Morphogenesis

Origin of the Glomerular Endothelium

Endothelial Cell Recruitment and Differentiation

Development of the Mesangium

Factors Regulating Podocyte Differentiation

Formation of the Slit Diaphragm Complex

Developmental-Organizational Role of the Glomerular Basement Membrane

Receptors and Receptor-Associated Proteins Mediating Glomerular cell Interactions with The GBM

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 27. Postnatal Renal Development

Renal Blood Flow and Glomerular Filtration Rate

Sodium Chloride Transport

Regulation of Sodium Transport

Renal Acidification

Induction of Nephron Maturation

Phosphate Transport

Potassium Transport

Urinary Concentrating and Diluting Ability

References

Chapter 28. Renal Hyperplasia and Hypertrophy

Introduction

Measurement of Cell Growth

Cell Cycle and Cell Cycle Regulatory Proteins

Hyperplasia: An Increase in Cell Number Due to Proliferation

Hypertrophy

Tubular Hypertrophy

Conclusions

References

Chapter 29. Stem Cells and Generation of New Cells in the Adult Kidney

III: Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation and Dysregulation

Chapter 30. Epithelial Na+ Channels

Introduction

ENaC Structure and Function

ENaC Regulation

ENaC and Human Disorders

References

Chapter 31. Anion Channels

Introduction

Major Classes of Identified Anion Channels

Anion Channelopathies of the Kidney

Summary

References

Chapter 32. Physiology and Pathophysiology of the NaCl Co-Transporters in the Kidney

Introduction

The Physiology of NaCl Co-Transporters in the Kidney

Molecular Biology of the Sodium-Dependent Chloride Co-Transporters

Functional Properties

Structure-Function Relationships

Regulation of Sodium Cation-Coupled Co-Transporters

The Role of the Sodium-Coupled Cation Chloride Co-Transporters in Inherited Disease

Potential Role in Polygenic Diseases

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 33. Sodium and Chloride Transport: Proximal Nephron

Introduction

Epithelial Function

The Transcellular Pathway

The Paracellular Pathway

Regulation of Proximal NaCl Transport

Perspective

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 34. Sodium Chloride Transport in the Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted Tubule, and Collecting Duct

Introduction

Anatomic Considerations

Na+ Transport in the Loop of Henle

Na+ Transport in Distal Convoluted Tubule

Na+ Transport in the Connecting Tubule and Collecting Duct

References

Chapter 35. Mineralocorticoid Action in the Aldosterone Sensitive Distal Nephron

Introduction

Sodium Transport Regulation by Aldosterone: Physiological and Biophysical Mechanisms

Sodium Transport Regulation by Aldosterone: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms

Conclusion

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 36. Inherited Disorders of Renal Salt Homeostasis: Insights from Molecular Genetics Studies

Introduction

Genetic Disorders Causing Hypertension

Genetic Disorders Causing Renal Salt Loss

Genetic Studies of Essential Hypertension in the General Population

New Insights into Basic Physiology, Prevention, and Therapeutics from Genetic Studies

References

Chapter 37. Natriuretic Hormones

Introduction

History of Atrial (Cardiac) Natriuretic Peptide Hormones

Family of Cardiac Natriuretic Hormones: Synthesis of Three Prohormones

Cardiac Peptide Hormones Originating from Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Prohormone

Origination of Peptide Hormones from Prohormones

Molecular Biology of the Cardiac Natriuretic Hormonal System

Processing of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Prohormone in Kidney

Regulation of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Prohormone Gene

Transgenic Knockout and/or Mice Overexpressing Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Prohormone Gene

Human Diseases with Upregulation of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Prohormone Gene

Localization of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Prohormone Gene on Chromosomes

Brain Natriuretic Peptide Prohormone Gene

Secretion of Cardiac Natriuretic Peptides

Biologic Effects of the Cardiac Natriuretic Hormones and Their Mechanisms of Action

Natriuretic Peptide Receptors A, B, and C

Degradation of Natriuretic Peptides by Kidney

Influence of Acute Renal Failure on Circulating Concentration of Cardiac Hormones

Hemodialysis

Renal Transplantation

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Prohormone Gene Expression in Invertebrates and Plants

Protective and Therapeutic Effects of Cardiac and Renal Hormones in Acute Renal Failure

Treatment of other Diseases with Abnormal Blood Volume

Antiproliferative and Anti-Cancer Properties of Cardiac Natriuretic Hormones

Brain Natriuretic Peptide and C-Natriuretic have Less Significant Anti-Cancer Effects

The Kidney Hormone Urodilatin also has Anti-Cancer Effects

Cardiac Natriuretic Hormones Eliminate up to 80% of Human Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas in Vivo

Cardiac Hormones Eliminate Two-Thirds of Human Breast Cancers in Vivo without any Surgery

Cardiac and Kidney Hormones Eliminate up to 86% of Human Small-Cell Lung Cancers in Mice in Vivo

Anti-Cancer Mechanism Within Cancer Cells of the Cardiac Hormones

Cardiac Hormones’ Mechanism of Action: Inhibition of DNA Synthesis

Localization of Cardiac Hormones to the Nucleus of Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas

Summary and Future Directions

References

Chapter 38. Pathophysiology of Sodium Retention and Wastage

Introduction

Sodium Intake and Sodium Balance

Primary and Secondary Edema

Concept of Effective Arterial Blood volume

Congestive Heart Failure

Cirrhosis

Nephrotic Syndrome

Sodium-Wastage

References

Chapter 39. Physiology and Pathophysiology of Hypertension

Introduction

Blood Pressure Classification for Hypertension Treatment

Basic Physiology of Blood Pressure Regulation

Renal Mechanisms of Hypertension

Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms of Hypertension

Primary Essential Hypertension

Genetic Causes of Hypertension

Secondary Causes of Hypertension

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 40. Physiology and Pathophysiology of Diuretic Action

Introduction

Osmotic Diuretics

Proximal Tubule Diuretics

Loop Diuretics

Renal Hemodynamics and Oxygenation

Distal Convoluted Tubule Diuretics

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics

Aquaretics (Vasopressin Receptor Antagonists)

General Principles of Diuretic Action

Diuretic Adaptations anD diuretic Resistance

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 41. Aquaporin Water Channels in Mammalian Kidney

Introduction

Discovery of Aquaporin-1 (AQP1)

Structure and Function of Aquaporins

Distribution of AQP1 in Kidney and Other Tissues

AQP1 Deficiency

Additional Functions of AQP1

Aquaporins in Kidney

Aquaglyceroporins

Vasopressin Regulation of Kidney Aquaporins

Dysregulation of Renal Aquaporins in Water Balance Disorders

Urinary Concentrating Defects

Water Retention

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 42. Thirst and Vasopressin

Introduction

Vasopressin and Related Peptides

Anatomy

Biosynthesis

Secretion

Assay

Regulation

Non-Osmotic

Other Influences

Distribution and Clearance

Actions

Renal Actions

Extrarenal Actions

Thirst

Anatomy

Regulation

Other Influences

Effects

Vasopressin and Thirst in Osmoregulation

References

Chapter 43. The Urine Concentrating Mechanism and Urea Transporters

Kidney Structure

Transport Properties of Individual Nephron Segments

Thin Descending Limb

GeneRal Features of Urinary Concentration and Dilution

Urine Concentrating Mechanism: History and Theory

Osmoprotective Osmolytes

Role of Urea

Long-Term Regulation of Urea Transporters

Urea Recycling

Development of Urine Concentrating Ability

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 44. Hyponatremia

The Plasma Sodium Concentration and Body Fluid Tonicity

Physiologic Control of Water Excretion

Hypotonic Hyponatremia: Classification and Pathogenesis

Water Intoxication with Maximally Dilute Urine

Vasopressin-Independent Defects in Water Excretion

Vasopressin-Dependent Defects in water Excretion

Hemodynamic Causes of Vasopressin-Mediated Hyponatremia

Inappropriate Vasopressin Secretion (SIADH)

Adaptations to Hypotonic Hyponatremia

Rapid Correction of Hyponatremia and Osmotic Demyelination

Bone Disease in Hyponatremia

Treatment of Hypotonic Hyponatremia

Non-Hypotonic Hyponatremia

References

Chapter 45. Hypernatremic States

Regulation of Water Homeostasis

Defense Mechanisms Against Water Depletion

Cellular Response to Hypernatremia

Etiology of Hypernatremic States

Classification of Hypernatremia Based on Total Body Sodium

Clinical Features in Hypernatremia

Therapy for Hypernatremia

Clinical Studies and Outcome

References

Chapter 46. Polyuria and Diabetes Insipidus

Arginine Vasopressin

The Brattleboro Rat with Autosomal Recessive Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Knockout Mice with Urinary Concentration Defects

Quantitating Renal Water Excretion

Clinical Characteristics of Diabetes Insipidus Disorders

Loss-of-Function Mutations of AVPR2

Loss-of-Function Mutations of Aqp2 (Omim 222000, 125800, 107777)

Complex Polyuropolydipsic Syndrome

Acquired Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

Investigation of a Patient with Polyuria

Radioimmunoassay of AVP and other Laboratory Determinations

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with diabetes Insipidus

Treatment

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 47. The Molecular Biology of Renal K+ Channels

Introduction

The Molecular Biology of ROMK, a Distal K+ Secretory Channel

Other Renal Potassium Channels

Summary and Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 48. Extrarenal Potassium Metabolism

Potassium Depletion and Repletion

Insulin

Glucagon

Catecholamines

Thyroid

Acid-Base

Aldosterone

Renal Failure

Magnesium

Drugs

Other Factors

References

Chapter 49. Regulation of K+ Excretion

Overview of K+ Distribution and Excretion-Internal and External Balance

Internal K+ Balance

External K+ Balance: The Role of the Kidney

Distal Convoluted Tubule Cell: Direction, Magnitude, and Mechanism of Transport

K+ Reabsorption

Control of Renal K+ Transport

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 50. Physiopathology of Potassium Deficiency

Volume 2

Chapter 51. Clinical Disorders of Hyperkalemia

Introduction

Regulation of K+ Homeostasis

Long-Term Regulation of K+ Homeostasis

Clinical Tools to Assess the Control of the Renal Excretion of K+

Clinical Approach to the Patient with Hyperkalemia

specific Causes of Hyperkalemia

Therapy of Hyperkalemia

References

Chapter 52. Control of Intracellular pH

Methods for Measuring pHi

Forces Affecting the Passive Movement of H+ and Other Charged Acids and Bases

Effects of Weak Acids and Bases on pHi

Intracellular Buffering

Acid-Base Transport Systems

Factors Influencing pHi

References

Chapter 53. SLC4 Sodium-Driven Bicarbonate Transporters

Functional Categorization of the SLC4 Family

Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters (Electrogenic)

Systemic Factors Affecting NBCe-1 Function in the Kidney

Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters (Electroneutral)

Na+-Driven Exchanger

SLC4 Transporters whose Function is Controversial

References

Chapter 54. The SLC4 Anion Exchanger Gene Family

Introduction

AE Domain Structure and Alternative Transcripts

Localization and Function of Anion Exchangers in Tissues

AE1 N-Terminal Cytoplasmic Domain Structure and Binding Proteins

AE1 C-Terminal Transmembrane Domain Structure and Binding Proteins

Mechanisms of SLC4/AE Anion Transport

Pharmacology of SLC4/AE Anion Exchangers

The Anion Translocation Pathway of AE1

Anion Conductance Associated with AE1

The AE1 C-Terminal Cytoplasmic Tail: Carbonic Anhydrase Binding, Anion Selectivity, and Other Functions

Acute Regulation of Anion Exchangers

Developmental and Chronic Regulation of Anion Exchangers

AE1 Deficiency Diseases of Erythrocytes

Benign Erythroid Phenotypes of AE1 Polypeptide Variants

AE1 and Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis (dRTA)

Knockout Mouse Models of Deficiency of AE2/SLC4A2 and AE3/SLC4A3

Conclusion

References

Chapter 55. Cellular Mechanisms of Renal Tubular Acidification

Proximal Tubule

Loop of Henle and Thick Ascending Limb

Distal Nephron

References

Chapter 56. Chemoreceptors, Breathing and pH

Introduction

CO2

Peripheral Chemoreceptors

Central Chemoreceptors

Paradox: Central Chemoreceptors Located in an Environment with Tight pH Regulation

Summary

Breathing and pH Regulation

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 57. Renal Ammonium Ion Production and Excretion

Introduction

Role of Renal Ammonium Ion Production and Excretion in the Maintenance of Acid-Base Balance

Pathways of Renal Ammoniagenesis

Acute Regulation of Renal Ammoniagenesis

Chronic Adaptations to Metabolic Acidosis

Signal Trandsduction Pathways that Mediate the Adaptive Responses to Acidosis

Countercurrent Transport of Ammonium Ions

Excretion of Ammonium Ions

Pathophysiology

Future Directions

References

Chapter 58. Clinical Syndromes of Metabolic Alkalosis

Introduction

Defense Against Excess Extracellular Fluid (ECF) HCO3

Mechanisms of Metabolic Alkalosis

Clinical Syndromes of Metabolic Alkalosis

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 59. Clinical Syndromes of Metabolic Acidosis

Introduction

Definition of Metabolic Acidosis

Systemic and Renal Acid-Base Homeostasis

Clinical Consequences

Clinical Disorders

Poison-Associated Anion Gap Acidosis

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 60. Respiratory Acid-Base Disorders

Respiratory Acidosis

Pathophysiology

Cerebrospinal Fluid Composition during Respiratory Acidosis

Pathophysiologic Effects and Clinical Manifestations of Respiratory Acidosis

Diagnosis of Respiratory Acidosis

Management of Respiratory Acidosis

Mixed Acid-Base Disorders Associated with Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Alkalosis

Pathophysiology

Pathophysiologic Effects and Clinical Manifestations of Respiratory Alkalosis

Diagnosis of Respiratory Alkalosis

Management of Respiratory Alkalosis

Mixed Acid-Base Disorders Associated with Respiratory Alkalosis

References

Chapter 61. Mechanisms and Disorders of Magnesium Metabolism

Introduction

Physiology of Renal Magnesium Handling

Pathophysiology of Renal Magnesium Handling

References

Chapter 62. Calcium Channels

CA2+ Channels in the KIDNEY

Epithelial CA2+ Channels: TRPV5 and TRPV6

Regulation of the Epithelial Ca2+ CHANNELS

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 63. The Calcium-Sensing Receptor

Ligand Binding: the CaSR is a Ca2+/Mg2+ and an “Extracellular Environment” Sensor

Binding Partners of the CaSR

Regulation of CaSR Gene Expression

Overview of the CaSR’s Role in Ca2+ Homeostasis

CaSR Function in Parathyroid

CaSR and C-Cell Function

CaSR and Kidney Function

CaSR and the Skeleton

The CaSR and the Gastrointestinal Tract

Modulation of the CaSR in 2° HPT

Other Applications of Calcimimetics in CKD

Other Applications of Calcimimetics

Summary and Perspectives

Conflict of Interest

References

Chapter 64. Renal Calcium Metabolism

Introduction

Calcium Chemistry

Calcium Transport Along the Nephron

Regulation of Renal Calcium Transport

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 65. The Hormonal Regulation of Calcium Metabolism

Introduction

Calcium Balance

Vitamin D Endocrine System

Parathyroid Hormone

Calcitonin

Conclusion

References

Chapter 66. Disorders of Calcium Metabolism

Introduction

Regulators of Calcium Homeostasis

Calcitonin

Integrated Regulation of Calcium Metabolism

Hypercalcemia

Parathyroid-Independent Hypercalcemia

Hypocalcemia

References

Chapter 67. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Nephrolithiasis

Stones, Clinical Presentation, and Natural History

Natural History

Primary Process of Crystallization

Control of Supersaturation

Inhibitors of Crystallization and Cell Crystal Interactions

Disorders of Calcium Stone Formation

Idiopathic Calcium Stones: Pathology

Calcium Stones Arising from Systemic Diseases

Uric Acid (And Other Purines) in Stones

Cystinuria and Cystine Stones

Plaque and Deposits in all Forms of Stone Disease: An Integration

Infection (Struvite) Stones

Final Thoughts

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 68. Proximal Tubular Handling of Phosphate

Introduction

Proximal Tubular Reabsorption of Phosphate

Gene Products Involved in Proximal Tubular Phosphate Reabsorption

Protein-Protein Interactions of Type II Na/Pi-co-Transporters

Regulation of Proximal Tubular Reabsorption of Pi

Genetic Alterations Leading to Imbalance of Pi Homeostasis

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 69. Clinical Disturbances of Phosphate Homeostasis

The Importance of Phosphorus in Biological Systems

The Regulation of Phosphate Balance

The Physiology of Phosphate in the Kidney

Factors Regulating Renal Phosphate Excretion

Acute and Chronic Hypophosphatemia

Acute and Chronic Hyperphosphatemia

References

Chapter 70. Glucose Reabsorption in The Kidney

Overview of Glucose Homeostasis

Glucose Transporters in glucose Homeostasis

Cellular and Molecular Physiology of SGLTs

SGLTs and Renal Glucose Reabsorption

Genetic Ablation of SGLTs

Genetics of Renal Glycosuria

Diabetes Mellitus: A Disease of Hyperglycemia

Blocking Renal Glucose Reabsorption as a Treatment for Diabetes

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 71. Kidney Transport of Amino Acids and Oligopeptides, and Aminoacidurias

Filtration and Reabsorption of Amino Acids and Oligopeptides

From “Transport Systems” to Transporters

Functional Schema of Amino Acid Reabsorption by Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells

Transporters Involved in the Luminal Uptake of Amino Acids and Oligopeptides

Transporters Involved in Basolateral Efflux of Amino Acids

Aminoacidurias

Perspectives

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 72. Organic Anion and Cation Transporters in Renal Elimination of Drugs

Introduction

Organic Anion Transport Systems

Drug Transporters in the Basolateral Membrane of Proximal Tubule Cells

The Organic Anion Transporter 3 (OAT3/Oat3; SLC22A8/Slc22a8)

Drug Transporters in the Apical Membrane of Proximal Tubule Cells

Overview of Transporters Involved in Transport of Selected Anionic Drugs

Organic Cation Transport Systems

Outlook

References

Chapter 73. Renal Filtration, Transport, and Metabolism of Albumin and Albuminuria

Introduction

Albumin

Glomerular Filtration

Renal Tubular Albumin Metabolism

Mechanisms of Albuminuria in Disease

References

IV: Pathophysiology of Renal Disease

Chapter 74. Physiologic Principles in the Clinical Evaluation of Electrolyte, Water, and Acid-Base Disorders

Concept of External Balance and Steady-State

Urinary Constituents as Clinical Indices: General Considerations

Evaluation of Disorders of Water Excretion

Evaluation of Potassium Disorders

Evaluation of Metabolic Acidosis

References

Chapter 75. Biomarkers for Assessment of Renal Function During Acute Kidney Injury

Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury-an Un-Met Need

Desirable Characteristics of aki Biomarkers

Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) as an AKI Biomarker

Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) as an AKI Biomarker

Liver-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (L-FABP) as an AKI Biomarker

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) as an AKI Biomarker

AKI Biomarker Combinations

Limitations of Existing Studies Examining AKI Biomarkers

References

Chapter 76. Pathophysiology of Acute Kidney Injury

Clinical Overview

Models of Acute Kidney Injury

Pathophysiology of Acute Kidney Injury

Microvascular Insult in AKI-Functional Basis and Morphological Changes

Role of Endothelin

Endothelial Cell Injury in AKI

Endothelium and Coagulation Abnormalities In AKI

Inflammation in Acute Kidney Injury

AKI in Sepsis

Cellular Repair, Regeneration and Recovery

Clinical Course & Diagnostic Tests in AKI

Pathophysiologic Basis of Therapy of AKI

Conclusion

References

Chapter 77. Ischemic Renal Disease

Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis: A Common Disorder With Increasing Clinical Recognition and Public Health Importance

Clinical Presentations of Ischemic Nephropathy

Diagnosis of Ischemic Nephropathy

Clinical Significance of Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis

Pathophysiology of Renal Underperfusion and Ischemic Nephropathy

Adaptive Responses to Renal Underperfusion

Pathology of the Kidney in Ischemic Nephropathy

Natural History of Ischemic Nephropathy

Medical Management

Summary

References

Chapter 78. Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy

Epidemiology

Clinical Course of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Pathology of Kidney Disease in Diabetes Mellitus

The Central Role of Podocytes in the Pathophysiology of Diabetic Proteinuria

Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in the Pathophysiology of Diabetic Nephropathy

Role of Amadori-Glycated Albumin

Role of Advanced Glycation End Products

Metabolic Syndrome/Obesity and Renal Disease

Regression

Summary and Outlook

References

Chapter 79. Renal Failure in Cirrhosis

Definition

Management

Liver Transplantation

Prevention

Reference

Chapter 80. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

Clinical Features of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

Cilia and the Spectrum of Inherited Cystic Disease

Genetics of ADPKD

The PKD Genes and Their Protein Products

Cellular Pathways Affected by Polycystins

Prospects for Therapy in ADPKD

References

Chapter 81. Renal Physiology and Disease in Pregnancy

Anatomical Changes

Renal Hemodynamics

Renal Tubular Function

Osmoregulation and Renal Water Handling

Volume Homeostasis

Renal Disorders and Gestation

Chronic Parenchymal Renal Disease

Hypertension

Cardiovascular Changes in Normal Pregnancy

References

Chapter 82. Immune and Inflammatory Glomerular Diseases

Glomerulonephritis

Primary Renal Diseases Causing Nephrotic Syndrome

Infectious Causes of the Nephrotic Syndrome

Malignancy-Associated Glomerular Diseases

Drug-Induced Glomerular Diseases

References

Chapter 83. Immunologic Mechanisms of Vasculitis

Immunopatholgic Categories of Vasculitis

Basic Pathogenic Events in Small-Vessel Vasculitis

Adhesion Strengthening

Immune Complex-Mediated Vasculitis

Pauci-Immune Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody Vasculitis

References

Chapter 84. Genetic Abnormalities in Glomerular Function

Introduction

Disorders of Extracellular Matrix

Storage Disorders

Other Storage Disorders Associated with Glomerular Dysfunction

Disorders of the Podocyte Slit Diaphragm

Disorders of the Podocyte Cytoskeleton

Disorders of Podocyte Gene Regulation

References

Chapter 85. Cellular Mechanisms of Drug Nephrotoxicity

Introduction

Localization of Injury

Cellular Targets

Cell Injury Pathways

Biomarkers of Nephrotoxic Injury

Cyclosporin A

Cisplatin

Acetaminophen Nephrotoxicity

Aminoglycosides

Lithium

References

Chapter 86. Role of Glomerular Mechanical Stress in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Kidney Disease

Determinants of Glomerular Ultrafiltration and How They are Influenced by the Glomerular Arterioles

The “Hyperfiltration Hypothesis” and the Progressive Nature of Chronic Kidney Disease

The Importance of Glomerular Hypertrophy and the Concept of Mechanical Aggression

The Immense Pathogenic Importance of Angiotensin II in CKD

The Role of Other Vasoactive Compounds in Glomerular Mechanical Strain

Genetic and Environmental Factors Causing Glomerular Injury Through Mechanical Strain

Preventing the Progression of CKD by Treatment of the Glomerular Hemodynamic Derangement

Mechanical Stretch in the Pathogenesis of Immune-Mediated Glomerulonephritis

Glomerular Hemodynamics and the Clinical Translation of Experimental Data: A Word of Caution

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 87. Role of Proteinuria in the Progression of Renal Disease

Introduction

Summary

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 88. The Inflammatory Response to Ischemic Acute Renal Injury

Introduction

Leukocytes in Injured, Ischemic Tissues: Friend, and Foe.

The Proinflammatory Effects of Injury-Damps, Sterile Inflammation, and the “Danger/ Damage” Hypothesis

TLR4 and HMGB1

When Death is no Accident: Necrosis as a Programmed Event

After the Suicide, Disposal of the Corpse: Regulation of Inflammation by Macrophages after they Phagocytose Apoptotic Cells

Summary

References

Chapter 89. Catalytic (Labile) Iron in Kidney Disease

Introduction

Definition of Catalytic (Labile) Iron and Its Importance in Tissue Injury

Role of Catalytic Iron in Acute Kidney Injury

Catalytic Iron in Chronic Kidney Disease

Concluding Comments

References

Chapter 90. Chronic Kidney Disease: Pathophysiology and the Influence of Dietary Protein

Introduction

Measurement and Natural History of CKD

Serum Creatinine

Creatinine Clearance

Formulas for Estimatng GFR

Epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease

Pathophysiology of CKD

Influence of Dietary Therapy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Dietary Protein Restriction and Progression of Renal Insufficiency

Conclusions

References

Chapter 91. Management of Calcium and Bone Disease in Renal Patients

Introduction

References

Chapter 92. Hematopoiesis and the Kidney

Introduction

Erythropoiesis

Cellular Oxygen Sensing Regulating Erythropoietin Gene Transcription

Plasma Erythropoietin Concentration and Requirement for Erythropoiesis

Renal Anemia

Thrombocytopoiesis

Thrombopoietin

Future Aspects

References

Chapter 93. Individualizing the Dialysate to Address Electrolyte Disturbances in the Dialysis Patient

Introduction

Sodium

Potassium

Clinical Disorders of Potassium in the Dialysis Patient

Calcium

Magnesium

References

Chapter 94. Homeostasis of Solute and Water by the Transplanted Kidney

Introduction

Intrinsic Capacity of the Denervated Transplanted Isograft

Ischemia Attendant to Harvest, Preservation, and Engraftment

Allograft in the Azotemic Solute-Loaded Recipient

Solute Regulation During Rejection

Renal Tubular Acidosis Associated With Ischemia and Rejection

Syndromes of Potassium Handling

Mineral Metabolism States After Transplant

Handling of Urate After Transplant

Renal Transport and Immunosuppressive Drugs

References

Chapter 95. Renal Disposition of Drugs and Translation to Dosing Strategies

Introduction

Role of the Kidney in Drug Disposition

Influence of Drugs and Renal Disease on Drug Disposition and Response

Influence of Renal Disease on Drug Disposition and Response

Dosing Recommendations in Patients with Renal Insufficiency

References

Index

Quotes and reviews

"This is a useful resource for both clinical and research nephrologists…it…provides an interesting read if a thorough understanding of a physiological or pathophysiological process affecting the kidney is needed. I would definitely recommend this book to anyone in the nephrology community, whether clinical or research oriented." Rating: 3 Stars--Doody.com, April 18, 2014
"Ninety-five chapters are arranged across the two volumes under four broad themes: epithelial and nonepithelial transport and regulation; structural and functional organization of the kidney; fluid and electrolyte regulation and dysregulation; and pathophysiology of renal disease."--Reference and Research Book News, August 2013

Praise for the Previous Edition:
"This is an excellent in-depth compilation of all aspects of renal physiology in health and disease, presented in well-balanced in chapters with high-quality figures and ample references…This book clearly represents an excellent, useful, usable, and (in view of recent rapid scientific progress) needed update of the previous edition and will have a prominent place on my bookshelf as well as those of many others in the field." - 4 Stars!-- Jens W. Goebel, MD, University of Kentucky, for Doody’s Review

 
 
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