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Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry
 
 

Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry, 2nd Edition

 
Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry, 2nd Edition,William Lennarz,M. Lane,ISBN9780123786302
 
 
 

Lennarz  &   Lane   

Academic Press

9780123786302

9780123786319

3232

The 4-volume Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry, 2nd edition, represents the current state of the field, defining and exploring contemporary biochemistry, with content experts carefully chosen by the Editorial Board to assure both breadth and depth in its coverage.

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Key Features

  • This 4-volume set, thoroughly up-to-date and comprehensive, expertly captures this fast-moving field
  • Curated by two esteemed editors-in-chief and an illustrious team of editors and contributors, representing the state of the field
  • Suggestions for further readings offer researchers and students avenues for deeper exploration; a wide-ranging glossary aids comprehension

Description

The 4-volume Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry, Second Edition, represents the current state of a dynamic and crucial field of study.  The Encyclopedia pulls together over 500 articles that help define and explore contemporary biochemistry, with content experts carefully chosen by the Editorial Board to assure both breadth and depth in its coverage.

Editors-In-Chief William J. Lennarz and M. Daniel Lane have crafted a work that proceeds from the acknowledgement that understanding every living process-from physiology, to immunology, and genetics-is impossible without a grasp on the basic chemistry that provides its underpinning.  Each article in the work provides an up-to-date snapshot of a given topic, written by experts, as well as suggestions for further readings for students and researcher wishing to go into greater depth. 

Available on-line via SciVerse ScienceDirect, the functionality of the Encyclopedia will provide easy linking to referenced articles, electronic searching, as well an online index and glossary to aid comprehension and searchability.

Readership

Upper level college students and professors in biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, molecular biology, neuroscience, pharmacology and oncology, as well as, researchers in academic, corporate and government laboratories. 

William Lennarz

WILLIAM J. LENNARZ received his B.S. in Chemistry from Pennsylvania State University and a Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry from the University of Illinois. Subsequently he carried out postdoctoral work at Harvard with Konrad Bloch on fatty acid biosynthesis. In 1962 he was appointed Assistant Professor at Johns Hopkins in the Department of Physiological Chemistry. After promotion to Associate Professor in 1967, and full Professor in 1971, he remained at Hopkins until 1983. At that time, he was appointed Robert A. Welch Professor and Chair of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Texas Cancer Center, M.D. Anderson Hospital. In 1989 he became a Leading Professor and Chair of the Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology at SUNY at Stony Brook. In 1990 he founded and became Director of the Institute for Cell and Developmental Biology at Stony Brook.

Dr. Lennarz has served on many national and international committees. He has served as President of the Biochemistry Chairman's Organization, President of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and President of the Society for Glycobiology. He was a member of the Executive Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology for almost a decade.

He has presented special lectures at the University of Notre Dame, the NIH, the University of West Virginia, Johns Hopkins University, Florida State University, the University of California at San Diego, the University of Arkansas, Indiana University and the Medical College of Virginia.

He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. The focus of his early work was on lipids and bacterial cell surfaces. More recent efforts have been in the structure, biosynthesis and function of cell surface glycoproteins. The biosynthesis studies initially were carried out in liver and oviduct, but these efforts now are focused in yeast. The functional studies have concentrated on the role of cell surface glycoproteins in fertilization and early development in the sea urchin and, more recently, the frog. He served as Distinguished Professor and Chair of his department. He now is Distinguished Professor Emeritus.

Affiliations and Expertise

State University of New York, Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Stony Brook, U.S.A.

M. Lane

M. Daniel Lane, Ph.D. is Distinguished Service Professor of Biological Chemistry at the Johns Hopkins Medical School. He received B.S. and M.S. degrees from Iowa State University, a Ph.D. degree from the University of Illinois and an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree, from Iowa State University. He did a Senior Postdoctoral Fellowship with Professor Feodor Lynen at the Max-Planck Institute Für Zellchemie in Munich. Following faculty positions at Virginia Tech and New York University School of Medicine, he joined (in 1970) the faculty at the Johns Hopkins Medical School where he served as DeLamar Professor and Director of the Department of Biological Chemistry from 1978 to 1997. He was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1987) and as a Fellow of the American Society of Nutritional Sciences (1996). He received the Mead Johnson Award from the American Society for Nutritional Sciences and the William C. Rose Award from the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and served as President of the American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. He served on numerous editorial boards including the Journal of Biological Chemistry and the Annual Reviews of Biochemistry. With William Lennarz he co-edited the first edition (2004) of the Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry. Currently he is Associate Editor for Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. His early work focused on enzymatic CO2 fixation reactions, notably the mechanisms by which the B-vitamin, biotin, functions in carboxylases. His research on acetyl-CoA carboxylase, key regulatory enzyme of fatty acid synthesis, led him to his present interests in the basic mechanisms of lipogenesis, adipogenesis and the hypothalamic control of energy balance.

Affiliations and Expertise

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry, 2nd Edition

  • Editors-in-Chief
  • Editorial Board
  • Preface
  • Permission acknowledgments
  • Article Titles
    • A
      • 26S Proteasome: Structure and Function
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The 20S Proteasome
        • The 26S Proteasome
        • 26S Proteasome Regulation in the Cell
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • AAA-ATPases
        • Abstract
        • AAA Proteins
        • Structure and Mechanism of Action
        • Classification and Evolution: AAA and AAA+ (Super)Families
        • Cellular Functions of AAA Proteins
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • ABC Transporters
        • Abstract
        • Topology
        • Phylogeny
        • Function and Diseases
        • Structure and Biochemical Mechanism
        • Transport Mechanism
        • Substrate Specificity of the Multidrug Exporters and Reversal Agents
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Actin Assembly/Disassembly
        • Abstract
        • Actin Structure
        • Actin Isoforms and Model Systems
        • Actin Filaments
        • Actin Dynamics
        • Polymerization Conditions
        • Effects of Actin-Binding Proteins
        • Sequestering Proteins
        • Profilin
        • Capping Proteins
        • ADF/Cofilin
        • Cellular Aspects of Actin Assembly/Disassembly
        • Reagents Used in Actin Research
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Actin-Capping and -Severing Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Actin
        • Actin Dynamics at the Leading Edge
        • Pointed-End Binding and Branching
        • Evolutionary and Structural Relationships between Some Severing and Barbed-End-Capping Proteins
        • Proteins with ADF-H Domains
        • Other Severing, Severing-Enhancing, or Dynamizing Proteins
        • Capping Proteins
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Actin Organization
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Actin Organization for Protrusion
        • Actin Organization for Contraction
        • Actin Organization for Shape Determination
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Actin-Related Proteins
        • Abstract
        • The Actin Fold
        • Prokaryotic Arps
        • Eukaryotic Arps
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Adenylyl Cyclases
        • Abstract
        • The Hormone-Regulated Adenylyl Cyclase System
        • Discovery
        • Members of the Family
        • Regulation of Adenylyl Cyclase Activity by G Proteins and Calcium
        • Physiological Roles of Adenylyl Cyclases
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Adipocyte Fat Mobilization: The Regulatory Roles of Perilipin 1, Adipose Triglyceride Lipase, and Hormone-Sensitive Lipase
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Lipid Droplets
        • Intracellular LD-Binding Proteins of Animal Cells
        • Perilipin 1, the Major Adipocyte Perilipin
        • The Dual Nature for Plin1 Regulation of Lipolysis in Adipocytes
        • Dissecting the Adipocyte Lipolysis Model
        • The Current Adipose Lipolysis Model
        • The Function of Other Plins in the Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in Various Tissues and Organisms
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Adipogenesis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Origin of Adipocytes
        • The Adipocyte Development Program
        • Overview
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Adrenergic Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
        • Classification and Mechanism of Action of Adrenergic Receptors
        • Alpha-1 Adrenergic Receptors
        • Pharmacological and Molecular Characteristics of Alpha-1 Adrenergic Receptors
        • Alpha-2 Adrenergic Receptors
        • Pharmacological and Molecular Characteristics of Alpha-2 Adrenergic Receptors
        • Beta Adrenergic Receptors
        • Pharmacological and Molecular Characteristics of Beta Adrenergic Receptors
        • Regulation of Adrenergic Receptors
        • Adrenergic Receptor Signal Transduction Pathways
        • Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphisms
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Affinity Tags for Protein Purification
        • Abstract
        • Applications of Affinity Tags
        • Construction of a Fusion Protein
        • Overview of Fusion Protein Production and Immobilization
        • Features and Types of Affinity Tag Systems
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Algal Hydrogen Production
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Green Algal Pathways for H2 Production
        • Enzymes for Algal Photohydrogen Production
        • [FeFe]-Hydrogenases Are Sensitive to O2
        • [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Maturation
        • The Interaction of [FeFe]-Hydrogenases with Ferredoxin
        • H2 Production: Issues and Challenges
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Allosteric Regulation
        • Abstract
        • Allosterism and Cooperativity
        • Structures of Allosteric Proteins
        • Examples of Allosteric Proteins other than Hemoglobin
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Alternative Splicing
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Splicing of Pre-Messenger RNAs
        • Types of Alternative Splicing Patterns
        • Auxiliary Sequence Elements and Proteins That Control Splice Site Recognition
        • Mechanisms of Alternative Splicing Regulation
        • Additional Determinants That Contribute to Splicing Control
        • Alternative Splicing of the CD45 Gene
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Alternative Splicing: Regulation of Drosophila melanogaster Sex Determination
        • Abstract
        • The Sex Determination Hierarchy in Drosophila melanogaster
        • Alternative Splicing Regulation by Sxl
        • Alternative Splicing Regulation by Tra
        • Alternative Splicing and Sex Determination in Other Species
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Amine Oxidases
        • Abstract
        • Classification
        • Distribution, Reaction Mechanism, and Physiological Roles
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Amino Acid Metabolism
        • Abstract
        • Structure, Functions, and Classification of Amino Acids
        • General Reaction of AA Metabolism
        • Intestinal Absorption of AAs
        • Intestinal Metabolism
        • Cellular Transport of AAs
        • Liver Metabolism
        • Muscle Metabolism
        • Inter-Organ Exchanges
        • Final Products of AA Metabolism, Elimination of Surplus Nitrogen
        • Ureagenesis
        • Ammoniagenesis
        • Relationship between Ureagenesis and Ammoniagenesis: A Contribution to Acid–Base Homeostasis
        • Hormonal Control of Amino Acid Metabolism
        • Anabolic Hormones
        • Catabolic Hormones
        • Some Specificities of Amino Acid Metabolism along the Life Cycle
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Aminopeptidases
        • Abstract
        • General Description
        • N-Terminal Cotranslational Processing
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Amyloid
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History
        • Amyloid Diseases
        • Amyloid Proteins
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Anaplerosis
        • Abstract
        • Anaplerotic Pathways
        • Exit of Cycle Intermediates: Balancing Anaplerosis
        • Measuring Rates of Anaplerosis
        • Changes in Anaplerosis in Response to Environmental Stress: Workload, Nutritional Status, and Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Angiotensin Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Angiotensins (Ang) Structure and Formation
        • Angiotensin Receptor
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Anorexigenic and Orexigenic Gut Peptides
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anorexigenic Gut Hormones
        • Incretins
        • Pancreatic Peptides
        • Orexigenic Gut Hormone
        • Conclusion and Perspective
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Aquaporin Water Channels
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Discovery of Aquaporin-1
        • Structure of AQP1
        • Physiological Functions of AQP1
        • AQP2 – Vasopressin-Regulated Water Channel in Renal Collecting Ducts
        • Other Aquaporin Family Members
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Arachidonic Acid Regulated Calcium Channel
        • Abstract
        • Different Modes of Ca2+ Entry and the Discovery of the ARC Channels
        • Characteristics of ARC Channels
        • Reciprocal Regulation of ARC Channels and CRAC Channels
        • Molecular Nature (and Activation) of ARC Channels
        • ARC Channel Structure
        • What Do ARC Channels Do?
        • Conclusions and Implications
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Arf Family
        • Abstract
        • Molecular Characteristics of Arfs
        • ARF-Related Proteins
        • Arf Actions
        • Regulators of ARF Activity
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Aspartic Proteases
        • Abstract
        • The Spectrum of Aspartic Proteases in Biology
        • Structure
        • Flap Structure
        • Inhibitors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • ATP in Plant Mitochondria: Substrates, Inhibitors, and Uncouplers
        • Abstract
        • Mitochondrial ETC in Plants
        • Substrates for ATP Synthesis
        • Inhibitors of ATP Synthesis
        • Uncouplers of ATP Synthesis
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • ATP Synthesis: Mitochondrial Cyanide-Resistant Terminal Oxidases
        • Abstract
        • The Uniqueness of Plant Mitochondria
        • Cyanide-Resistant Respiration
        • AOX Structure
        • Biochemical Regulation of AOX Activity
        • Physiological Role(s) of AOX
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Autophagy in Fungi and Mammals
        • Abstract
        • Autophagy in Mammals
        • Autophagy in Fungi
        • Autophagy, from Yeast to Mammals
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • B
      • B12-Containing Enzymes
        • Abstract
        • The Cobalamin Cofactor
        • Reactions Catalyzed by Cobalamin-Dependent Enzymes
        • Cobalamin-Dependent Methionine Synthase
        • Methyl Transferases Involved in Methanogenesis and Acetogenesis
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • B-Cell Antigen Receptor
        • Abstract
        • Structure of the BCR
        • BCR Diversity
        • BCR Signaling
        • Antibody–Antigen Interactions
        • Early Signaling Events
        • Downstream Signaling Events
        • The BCR and the Immune Response
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Bcl2 Family: Cell Death Enhancers and Inhibitors
        • Abstract
        • Identification of Bcl2 as a Cell Death Inhibitor
        • Genetics of Cell Death in Caenorhabditis elegans
        • Three Classes of Bcl2 Family Proteins
        • Therapeutic Implications
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Bile Salts
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Biochemistry of Bile Salts
        • Hepatic Transport of Bile Salts
        • Bile Salts in Therapy
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Biochemistry: Niacin/NAD(P)
        • Abstract
        • Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide History and Structure
        • Salvage and De Novo Pathways
        • NAD+ and NADP+ in Redox Metabolism
        • NAD+ as a Prosthetic Group for Enzymes
        • Nonredox Roles
        • NAD+ Alterations in Aging
        • Human Health and Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Biochemistry of Development: Striated Muscle
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Development of Skeletal Muscle
        • Development of Cardiac Muscle
        • Regeneration, Repair, and Striated Muscle Stem Cells
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Biochemistry of Hematopoiesis
        • Abstract
        • Developmental Hematopoiesis
        • Hematopoietic Stem Cells
        • Erythropoiesis and Megakaryopoiesis
        • Lymphopoiesis
        • Monopoiesis and Granulopoiesis
        • Eosinophils, Basophils, and Mast Cells
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Biochemistry of Liver Regeneration
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Healthy Adult Liver Architecture
        • Liver Regeneration after PH
        • Liver Morphogenesis during Fetal Development
        • Reactivation of the Hh Pathway in Regenerating Livers after PH
        • Sustained Hh Pathway Activation during Repair of Chronic Liver Injury
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Biochemistry of Neurogenesis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Stages of Neurogenesis
        • Extrinsic Factors
        • Intrinsic Factors
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Biochemistry of Thiamine and Thiamine Phosphate Compounds
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Chemical Properties of Thiamine
        • Thiamine Biosynthesis and Riboswitches
        • Determination of Thiamine Derivatives and Their Distribution in Various Living Organisms
        • Thiamine Transport
        • Metabolism of Thiamine Phosphates
        • Cofactor Role of ThDP
        • Catalytic Mechanism Involving Thiamine Diphosphate
        • Non-Cofactor Roles of Thiamine Derivatives
        • Human Diseases Related to Thiamine Deficiency
        • Defects in Thiamine Transport and in ThDP-Dependent Enzymes
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Bioenergetics and the Mitochondrial Genome
        • Abstract
        • Mitochondrial Origin and Function
        • Mitochondrial Genetics and Epigenomics
        • Disease-Causing mtDNA Mutations
        • Disease Causing nDNA-Mitochondrial Gene Mutations
        • Diseases Caused by Defects in the Epigenome
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Bioenergetics: General Definition of Principles
        • Abstract
        • Thermodynamics
        • The Thermodynamics of Bioenergetic Interconversions
        • Mitochondrial Respiration Rate: The Proton Circuit
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Biotin
        • Abstract
        • Historical Perspective
        • Biotin
        • Biotin Enzymes
        • Biotin Domains
        • Biotin Domain Structure
        • Biotin Ligase
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Biotinylation of Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Analytical and Clinical Applications
        • Biosynthesis and Degradation of Natively Biotinylated Proteins
        • Medical Importance of Biotinylated Proteins
        • Chemical Synthesis of Biotinylated Proteins
        • Clinical Application of Biotinylated Antibodies
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Bmp Signaling and Vascular Disease
        • Abstract
        • Bmp Signaling
        • Bmp Signaling in Vascular Development and Disease
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Bradykinin Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • B1 Receptor
        • B1 Receptor Regulation
        • Regulation of B1 Receptor Induction
        • B1 Receptor Knockout Animals
        • B2 Receptors
        • B2 Receptor Regulation
        • B2 Signal Transduction
        • B2 Receptor Knockout Animals
        • Other Bradykinin Receptors
        • Bradykinin Receptor Antagonists in Clinical Medicine
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Futher Reading
      • Branched-Chain Amino Acids
        • Abstract
        • Degradative Pathways of BCAAs
        • Interorgan Relationships
        • Regulation of BCAA and BCKA Oxidation
        • Leucine as a Nutrition and Endocrine Signal
        • The Macromolecular Organization of the BCKDC
        • Dietary and Hormonal Regulation of the BCKDC
        • The Supermolecular BCAA Metabolon
        • Brain Neuropathology of BCKAs
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Brassinosteroids
        • Abstract
        • BR Structure and Natural Occurrence
        • BR Biosynthesis
        • BR Physiology
        • BR Signal Transduction
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • C
      • Cadherin-Mediated Cell–Cell Adhesion
        • Abstract
        • Cadherin Superfamily
        • Regulation of Cadherin Adhesion
        • Role of Cadherins in Development and Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cadherin Signaling
        • Abstract
        • The Cadherin Family
        • Functions of Cadherin Signaling
        • Mechanisms of Cadherin Signaling
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Adrenomedullin Receptors
        • Abstract
        • The Pharmacology of CGRP and Adrenomedullin
        • The Molecular Structure of CGRP and Adrenomedullin Receptors
        • The Distribution and Physiology of CGRP and Adrenomedullin Receptors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calcitonin Receptor
        • Abstract
        • Calcitonin Peptide Family
        • Receptors for the Calcitonin Peptide Family
        • CTR-Like Receptor
        • Receptor-Activity-Modifying Proteins
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calcium-Binding Proteins: Cytosolic (Annexins, Gelsolins, and C2-Domain Proteins)
        • Abstract
        • Annexins
        • Gelsolin
        • C2-Domain Proteins
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calcium, Biological Fitness of
        • Abstract
        • Calcium: The Element and Its Ion, Ca2+
        • The Aqueous Calcium Ion
        • Insoluble Salts
        • Soluble Complex Ions and Their Binding Strengths
        • Structures of Calcium Salts and Complexes
        • Rates of Exchange
        • Biological Salts and Ligand Complexes
        • Concentrations and Selectivity of Binding in Organisms
        • Overall Functional Fitness of Calcium Ions in Evolution
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calcium-Buffering Proteins: Calbindin
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Calbindin-D28K
        • Calbindin-D9k
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calcium-Buffering Proteins: ER Luminal Proteins
        • Abstract
        • The ER and Ca2+ Homeostasis
        • Ca2+ Buffering in the ER Lumen
        • Class I Ca2+-Binding Proteins in the ER Lumen
        • Class I/II Ca2+-Binding Protein in the ER Lumen
        • Class II Ca2+-Binding Proteins in the ER Lumen
        • The Functional Significance of Ca2+ Buffering in the ER
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II
        • Abstract
        • Neuronal CaMKII: Localization and Substrates
        • Activation, Autoregulation, and Structure of CaMKII
        • The Structure/Function of CaMKII Autophosphorylation
        • Autonomous Activity
        • CaM Trapping
        • Substrate Anchoring
        • Autophosphorylation at Thr305/Thr306
        • Autophosphorylation as an Index of Neuronal Activity
        • CaMKII in Heart
        • CaMKII in Long-Term Potentiation and Learning and Memory
        • The Tao of CaMKII
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
        • Abstract
        • Ca2+ Signaling
        • Narrow-Specificity Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
        • Phosphorylase Kinase
        • Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Kinase
        • Broad-Specificity Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calcium in the Regulation of Gene Expression
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Ca2+ Homeostasis
        • The Nuclear Calcium Signal
        • Nuclear Mediators of Calcium Signaling
        • Final Effectors of Nuclear Calcium
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calcium-Modulated Proteins (EF-Hand)
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Calcium Coordination
        • EF-Hand Containing Proteins
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Calcium Oscillations
        • Abstract
        • General Considerations
        • Mechanism of [Ca2+]c Oscillations
        • Role and Functional Significance of [Ca2+]c Oscillations
        • How Are [Ca2+]c Oscillations Decoded?
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR)
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Biochemical Features of the CaSR
        • The Importance of the CaSR in Calcium Homeostasis
        • Nonhomeostatic Functions of the CaSR
        • Pharmaceutical Aspects
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Calcium Signaling by Cyclic ADP-Ribose and NAADP
        • Abstract
        • Ca2+-Releasing Activity of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate
        • cADPr- and NAADP-dependent Ca2+ Stores
        • cADPr-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling in Cells
        • cADPr and NAADP at Fertilization
        • Ca2+ Response to cADPr and NAADP in Starfish Eggs
        • Identification of TPCs as NAADP Receptors
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calcium Signaling: Calmodulin-Dependent Phosphatase
        • Abstract
        • Subunit Structure and Isoforms
        • Structure
        • Enzymatic Properties
        • Regulation
        • Functions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calcium Signaling: NO Synthase
        • Abstract
        • NO Synthases
        • Calmodulin Interactions with Ca2+ and with NOS
        • Ca2+/CaM Regulation of NOS
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calcium Transport in Mitochondria
        • Abstract
        • The Origins and the Fundamental Principles
        • The Middle Ages
        • The Renaissance
        • One (or Many) Roles?
        • The Molecular Machinery
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Calpain
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • History and Nomenclature
        • Structure and Function of Conventional Calpains
        • Calpain Superfamily and Its Members
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Carbohydrate Chains: Enzymatic and Chemical Synthesis
        • Abstract
        • Difficulties in the Synthesis of Carbohydrate Chains
        • Enzymatic Synthesis of Oligosaccharides
        • Chemical Synthesis of Oligosaccharides
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Central Nervous System
        • Abstract
        • Glucose Transporters
        • Monocarboxylate Transporters
        • Cellular Metabolic Pathways
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Carbohydrate-Responsive Element Binding Protein
        • Abstract
        • Transcriptional Activation of the Liver Pyruvate Kinase and the Lipogenic Enzyme Genes
        • Discovery, Purification, and Identification of a New Transcription Factor that Binds to ChRE of the LPK Gene
        • Species and Tissue Distribution of ChREBP and a Human Disease Candidate
        • Structure and Function of ChREBP
        • Regulation of ChREBP Activity
        • Genetic Ablation Studies of ChREBP-Gene in Mice Reveal the Biological Role of ChREBP
        • ChREBP–/– Mice Crossed with Leptin-Deficient ob/ob Mice
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cardiac Excitation–Contraction Coupling
        • Abstract
        • Cardiac Excitation–Contraction Coupling: Interplay between Electrical Activity of the Cell, Cytosolic Ca, and the Myofilaments
        • Altered E–C Coupling in Failing Hearts
        • Increased Propensity for Arrhythmias in HF
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Carnitine and β-Oxidation
        • Abstract
        • Carnitine Biosynthesis and Homeostasis
        • Functions of Carnitine
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Caspases and Cell Death
        • Abstract
        • History and Classification
        • Structure and Active Site
        • Substrate Recognition
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Sequence of Action
        • Substrates during Apoptosis
        • Inhibitors
        • Caspase Knockouts
        • Pathological Implications
        • Therapeutic Outlook
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Catalysis by RNA, Structural Themes: Group I Introns
        • Abstract
        • The Self-Splicing Reaction
        • Secondary Structure
        • Tertiary Structure
        • Substrate Recognition
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cell Cycle: Control of Entry and Progression through S Phase
        • Abstract
        • Initiation and Elongation of DNA Replication Origins
        • Origins
        • Regulation of Origin Firing by Kinases
        • Coupling Replication to the Cell-Cycle Engine
        • Regulating Chromosome Structure during S Phase
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cell-Cycle Controls in G1 and G0
        • Abstract
        • G1 and G0 Phase of the Cell Cycle
        • Regulators of G0 Exit and G1–S Progression
        • Stem Cells and Cell Proliferation
        • Cell-Growth Regulation
        • Future Perspectives
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cell Cycle: DNA Damage Checkpoints
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • Cell-Cycle Checkpoints Activated by DNA Damage
        • DNA Damage Signal Transduction
        • DNA Damage-Induced Apoptosis and Senescence
        • Checkpoint Proteins and Human Diseases
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cell Cycle: Mitotic Checkpoint
        • Abstract
        • The Mitotic Checkpoint Monitors Kinetochores
        • Molecular Components of the Mitotic Checkpoint
        • Monitoring Microtubule Occupancy and Tension at Kinetochores
        • The Mitotic Checkpoint Monitors a Kinetochore Motor
        • Inhibition of Mitotic Exit by the Checkpoint
        • Sequestration Model
        • Direct Inhibitor Model
        • Dual Roles for Mitotic Checkpoint Proteins
        • Wait Anaphase Output Regulated by Checkpoint Proteins
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cell Death by Apoptosis and Necrosis
        • Abstract
        • Ca2+ as a Signal for Cell Death
        • Executors of Ca2+ Death Signals
        • Ca2+, Excitotoxicity, and Death during Brain Ischemia
        • Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Other Ca2+-Dependent Forms of Cell Death in Brain Ischemia
        • Ca2+ Signals in Neurodegenerative Disorders
        • Ca2+ Signals as Subroutines of the Apoptotic Program
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cell–Matrix Interactions
        • Abstract
        • The Extracellular Matrix
        • Integrins
        • Activation and Signaling
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cell Migration
        • Abstract
        • The Cytoskeleton
        • The Actin Cytoskeleton
        • Phases of Movement
        • Protrusion
        • Adhesion
        • Adhesion Asymmetry and Polarization
        • Microtubules and Cell Guidance
        • Actin Filament Recyling: From Protrusion to Retraction
        • Migration In Vivo
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Cell Migration within Three-Dimensional Matrices
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Structure and Function of the ECM
        • Receptors for the ECM: Integrins
        • Signaling Molecules that Regulate Cell Adhesion and Migration
        • Cell Migration In Vivo Has Both Normal and Pathological Outcomes
        • The Role of Proteases in 3D Cell Migration and Invasion
        • Cell–Cell Adhesion
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Centromeres
        • Abstract
        • Organization of the Centromere Region
        • Specification of Centromere Identity and Function
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • c-fes Proto-Oncogene
        • Abstract
        • Structure and Regulation
        • F-BAR Region
        • SH2 Domain
        • Kinase Domain
        • Biological Functions
        • Downstream Signaling Pathways
        • Other Substrates
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Chaperonins
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Architecture of Group I and Group II Chaperonins
        • Bacterial GroEL – Structure and Mechanism
        • The Eukaryotic Chaperonin TRiC/CCT
        • Cellular Functions of Chaperonins
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence
        • Abstract
        • Fluorescence: The Underlying Property
        • Chemiluminescence: Fluorescence from a Chemical Reaction
        • Bioluminescence: Chemiluminescence from a Biological Source
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Chemiosmotic Theory
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Background
        • The Central Features of the Chemiosmotic Theory
        • Further Aspects
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Chemistry of Alzheimer Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Pathologic Changes
        • Beta Protein (Aβ)
        • Tau Proteins
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Chemokine Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Ligands
        • Structure and Cell Signaling
        • Desensitization
        • Internalization
        • Multiple Roles
        • Human Immunodeficiency Virus Entry
        • Angiogenesis
        • Tumor Growth and Metastasis
        • Central Nervous System
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Chemolithotrophy
        • Abstract
        • Universal Bioenergetic Reactions; Oxidation of the Growth-Supporting Substrate Drives Synthesis of ATP
        • The Variety of TEAs Used by Bacteria
        • Reductant for Biosynthesis
        • Categories of Growth of Bacteria and Archaea Based on the Nature of the Growth-Supporting Reductant
        • Chemolithotrophy
        • Examples of Half-Reactions of the Growth-Supporting Reductant in the Chemolithotrophic Bacteria
        • Mechanisms of Energy Transduction and ATP Synthesis Somewhat Specific to Chemolithotrophs
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Chemotactic Peptide/Complement Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Leukocytes and the Immune System
        • Receptors
        • Chemotactic Peptide Receptors
        • Complement Receptors
        • Ligands
        • Complement Receptors
        • Receptor Regulation
        • Drug Discovery and Receptor Technology
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Chlorophylls and Carotenoids
        • Abstract
        • Chlorophylls
        • Carotenoids
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Chloroplasts
        • Abstract
        • Chloroplast Origin
        • Chloroplast Organization
        • Envelope
        • Stroma
        • Thylakoid System
        • Chloroplast Biogenesis
        • Light and Chloroplast Differentiation
        • Etioplasts
        • Plastids
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Chloroplast Signaling and Redox Control
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Electron Flow Pathways in the Chloroplast
        • Redox State of Plastoquinone Pool and Chloroplast Signaling
        • Chloroplast Kinase Network
        • Ferredoxin/Thioredoxin and Chloroplast Signaling
        • Retrograde Signaling Pathways
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cholesterol Synthesis and Regulation
        • Abstract
        • Properties of Cholesterol
        • Functions of Cholesterol
        • Sources of Cellular Cholesterol
        • Effect of Mutations in the Cholesterol Synthetic Pathway
        • Inhibitors of Cholesterol Synthesis: Treatment for Hyperlipidemia and Osteoporosis
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Chromatin: Methyl-CpG-Binding Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression
        • Nucleosomes
        • Histone Code
        • Cytosine Methylation
        • Functions of Cytosine Methylation
        • Regulation of Gene Expression
        • X-Chromosome Inactivation
        • Genomic Imprinting
        • Cancer
        • Methyl-CpG-Binding Proteins
        • MeCP2
        • MBD1
        • MBD2 and MBD3
        • MBD4
        • MBD5 and MBD6
        • Cross-Talk between DNA Methylation and Chromatin Structure
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Chromatin: Nucleosome Positioning – the GAL Promoter
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • GAL1–10: Gene Expression and Chromatin Structural Features
        • The Role of Promoter Chromatin Structure in GAL1–10 Regulation
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Chromatin: Physical Organization
        • Abstract
        • Variables That May Influence Chromatin Physical Organization
        • Variants of Core Histones
        • Levels of Physical Organization
        • Global Primary Structures – the Nucleosome Repeat Length
        • Chromatin Organization In Vivo
        • Chromatin Dynamics
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Chromosome Organization and Structure, Overview
        • Abstract
        • The Structure of Chromatin
        • The Role of Spatial Organization of the Genome in the Nucleus
        • The Mitotic Chromosome
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Coenzyme A
        • Abstract
        • Background and Discovery
        • Enzymatic Functions of CoA and 4′-Phosphopantetheine
        • Enzymatic Synthesis of Acyl-S–CoA Derivatives from Free Carboxylic Acids and CoA–SH
        • Metabolic Roles/Functions
        • Fatty Acid Synthase
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Collagenases
        • Abstract
        • What Is a Collagenase?
        • Original Definition of Collagenases
        • Revised Definition of Collagenases
        • The Collagenases
        • Recent New Insights
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Collagens
        • Abstract
        • The Signature (Gly–XY–)n Sequence of Collagens
        • The Two Subtypes: The Fibrillar and Nonfibrillar Collagens
        • The Need to Control the Self-Assembly of (Gly–XY–)n Sequences
        • Why the Hydroxyproline?
        • Other Levels of Control
        • One Surprise: The Enzymes Involved in Collagen Synthesis Have Other Functions
        • Evolutionary Origins and Selective Pressures on (Gly–XY–)n Sequences
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Color Vision
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Photoreceptors
        • Cone Photopigments
        • Cone Opsin Genes
        • Linking Photopigments, Nerve Signals, and the Dimensionality of Color Vision
        • Evolution of Color Vision
        • Primate Color Vision
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Conservative Site-Specific Recombination
        • Abstract
        • Overview
        • The Biology of Conservative Site-Specific Recombination
        • Recombinases and Mechanisms
        • Tyrosine Recombinases
        • Serine Recombinases
        • Control of Recombination
        • Conclusions and Applications
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cyclic AMP Receptors of Dictyostelium
        • Abstract
        • Dictyostelium Development and Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Signaling
        • Identification and Properties of cAMP Receptors
        • Signaling Pathways
        • Desensitization Mechanisms
        • Gradient Sensing in Chemotaxis
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Distribution of cAMP and cGMP
        • Classification of PDEs
        • Class I PDEs
        • Domain Structure
        • Catalytic Domains
        • Metal Requirements
        • Features That Contribute to cN Specificity
        • Interaction with Inhibitors
        • Regulation of cGMP-Hydrolyzing PDEs
        • Characteristics of cGMP-Specific Class I PDEs
        • Characteristics of Class I Dual-Specificity PDEs
        • PDE11
        • Characteristics of Class II PDEs
        • Catalytic Activity
        • Regulation
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cyclic Nucleotide-Dependent Protein Kinases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cyclic Nucleotide-Dependent Protein Kinases as Intracellular Receptors for cAMP and cGMP
        • Overall Structures of Cyclic Nucleotide-Dependent Protein Kinases
        • cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase
        • cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase
        • Cyclic Nucleotide-Binding Specificity and Affinity
        • Substrate Specificities of PKA and PKG
        • Negative Feedback and Feed-Forward Control of Cyclic Nucleotide Pathways
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Molecular Diversity
        • Structure/Function Analyses
        • PDE Functions
        • Inherited Diseases Associated with PDEs
        • Family-Specific Inhibitors: Clinical Applications
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cyclic Nucleotide-Regulated Cation Channels
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Features of Cyclic Nucleotide-Regulated Cation Channels
        • CNG Channels
        • HCN Channels
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cysteine Proteases
        • Abstract
        • Phylogenetic Relationships
        • Mechanism
        • Control
        • Physiology
        • Pathology
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cytochrome bc1 Complex (Respiratory Chain Complex III)
        • Abstract
        • Function of the bc1 Complex
        • Structure, Composition, and Properties of the bc1 Complex
        • Mechanism of the Enzyme
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cytochrome c
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Attachment of the Heme Prosthetic Group to Cytochrome c Apoprotein
        • Amino Acid Sequence Studies
        • Evolutionary Aspects
        • Three-Dimensional Structure
        • Interactions of Cytochrome c in the Respiratory Chain
        • Cytochrome c and Apoptosis
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cytochrome Oxidases, Bacterial
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Process
        • Structures
        • Proton-Transfer Pathways
        • Oxygen Binding and Reduction
        • Proton Pumping
        • Some Experimental Techniques Used to Study Heme–Copper Oxidases
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cytochrome P-450
        • Abstract
        • Cytochrome P-450 – General Aspects
        • Structural Organization of Cytochrome P-450 Systems
        • Reaction Cycle
        • Regulation of Cytochrome P-450 Systems
        • Important Functions of Cytochrome P-450 Systems
        • Physiological Role of Cytochromes P450
        • Cytochromes P450 as Drug Targets
        • Cytochrome P-450 Diversity
        • Cytochromes P450 and Their Biotechnological Application
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cytokines
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Interleukins
        • Tumor Necrosis Factor Family
        • Chemokines
        • TGF-β Family
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cytokinesis
        • Abstract
        • Cytokinesis
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cytokinin
        • Abstract
        • Cytokinin Structures
        • Cytokinin Biosynthesis and Metabolism
        • Cytokinin Transport
        • Cytokinin Signaling
        • Cytokinin Functions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Cytoskeletal Motors: General Principles
        • Abstract
        • A Walking Model for Cytoskeletal Motors
        • Caveats of the Walking Model
        • Regulation of Stepping
        • Coordination and Gating
        • Mechanical Performance
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • D
      • Desmosomes and Hemidesmosomes
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • The Desmosome
        • The Hemidesmosome
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Detergent Properties
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Structure of Detergents
        • Detergent Properties
        • Micelle Structure
        • Detergents as Tools in Membrane Studies
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Diabetes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Etiology
        • Genetic Defects of β-Cell Function
        • Genetic Defects in Insulin Action
        • Complications
        • Diabetes Treatment Medications – Mechanisms of Action
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Diacylglycerol Kinases and Phosphatidic Acid Phosphatases
        • Abstract
        • The DAG Kinases
        • Regulation of DGK Activity
        • Activity of DGKs is Compartmentalized
        • Coupling of DGKs with Other Signaling Proteins
        • DGK Gene Deletion Studies in Mice
        • PA as a Signal
        • PA Conversion to DAG by PA Phosphatases
        • PA Phosphatase Enzymes
        • Physiologic Roles of PA Phosphatases
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Disulfide Bond Formation
        • Abstract
        • Chemistry of Disulfide Formation as a Posttranslational Modification
        • Oxidative Protein Folding
        • Catalysis of Disulfide Formation
        • Disulfide Formation in the Cell
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Base Excision Repair Pathways
        • Abstract
        • Introduction and Overview
        • Sources and Occurrence of Lesions Handled by BER
        • The-Core Enzymes of BER
        • Special Problems in BER: A Rationale for the LP Pathway
        • BER Pathways in Mitochondria
        • Other Functions of BER Proteins
        • BER Genes and Disease Risk
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Damage: Alkylation
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Types, Causes, and Deleterious Effects of DNA-Alkylation Damage
        • Repair of DNA-Alkylation Damage by Base Excision Repair
        • Repair of DNA-Alkylation Damage by Direct Damage Reversal Proteins
        • Other Responses against DNA-Alkylation Damage
        • Alkyltransferase-Like Proteins and Connection to Nucleotide Excision Repair
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Glycosylases: Mechanisms
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Types of DNA Glycosylases
        • Nucleotide Flipping: A Universal Trait
        • The Catalytic Mechanism of DNA Glycosylases
        • How Do DNA Glycosylases Attain Specificity?
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Helicases: Hexameric Enzyme Action
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hexameric Helicase Structure with ssNA
        • Loading of the Ring-Shaped Helicases on the NA
        • Mechanisms of NTPase-Powered Translocation of Ring Helicases
        • Translocation of dsDNA
        • Mechanisms of NA Strand Separation
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Ligases: Mechanism and Functions
        • Abstract
        • Reaction Mechanism
        • Organization and Structure of DNA Ligase Catalytic Domain
        • DNA Ligase Polypeptides Encoded by the LIG1, LIG3, and LIG4 Genes
        • Cellular Functions of Eukaryotic DNA Ligases
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Ligases: Structures
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Domain Architecture of DNA Ligases
        • Mechanisms of Ligase–AMP Formation
        • Mechanism of AMP–DNA Formation and DNA End Joining
        • DNA Ligase Protein Clamps
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • DNA Methyltransferases: Eubacterial GATC
        • Abstract
        • Properties of Dam Methyltransferase
        • Properties and Uses of dam Mutant Strains
        • Dam-Directed Mismatch Repair
        • Initiation of Chromosome Replication
        • Altered Gene Expression
        • Role of Dam Methylation in Bacterial Pathogenesis
        • Posttranscriptional Regulation by Dam Methylation
        • Role of Dam Methylation in Other Bacteria and Their Viruses
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • DNA Mismatch Repair and Homologous Recombination
        • Abstract
        • Generalized MRSs
        • MRS and Homologous Recombination
        • DNA Sequence Divergence, Mismatch Repair, Loss of Heterozygosity, and Cancer in Mammals
        • Evolutionary Role of the Control of Homologous Recombination by Mismatch Repair
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Mismatch Repair and the DNA Damage Response
        • Abstract
        • MMR Proteins and Their Role in Mismatch Correction
        • MMR Function Is Required for Drug Cytotoxicity
        • MMR Proteins Promote DNA Damage-Induced Cell-Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis
        • MMR Proteins Interact with Proteins Involved in DNA Damage Signaling
        • MMR-Mediated Apoptosis Eliminates Damaged Cells from Tumorigenesis
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Mismatch Repair in Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Escherichia coli Long-Patch Mismatch Repair Is Dependent on dam Methylation
        • Specificity of Mismatch Repair
        • Mechanism of E. coli Long-Patch Mismatch Repair
        • Mismatch Repair Deficiency and Drug Resistance
        • MutY Repair Pathway
        • Similarity and Interaction between MutS and MutY Repair Pathways
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Mismatch Repair in Disease and Aging
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Molecular Mechanisms of DNA Mismatch Repair
        • DNA Mismatch Repair and Cancer
        • Other Aspects of MMR in Disease and Aging
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • DNA Mismatch Repair in Mammals
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mismatch Search and Recognition
        • Downstream Steps in MMR
        • Strand Discrimination: The Holy Grail in the MMR Field
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Modification, Restriction Endonucleases: Type I Enzymes
        • Abstract
        • Biochemical Function
        • Genes and Protein Structure
        • The Restriction Reaction
        • Anti-Restriction
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Oxidation
        • Abstract
        • Oxidants and Antioxidants
        • DNA Damage
        • Biological Effects
        • Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Polymerase β, Eukaryotic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Biological Role
        • Pol β Domain Organization
        • Pol β–BER–Protein Interactions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Polymerase I, Bacterial
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Overview of Structure
        • Polymerase
        • 3′–5′ Exonuclease
        • 5′ Nuclease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Polymerase III, Bacterial
        • Abstract
        • Replicative Apparatus in Bacterial Cells
        • Subunits and Subassembly of Pol III Holoenzyme
        • Concurrent DNA Synthesis of Leading and Lagging Strands
        • Other Biological Functions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Polymerases: Kinetics and Mechanism
        • Abstract
        • Elementary Steps in Polymerization
        • Selectivity Contributions of Each Step
        • Measurement of the Kinetics of Incorporation
        • Structural Determinants of Fidelity
        • Chemistry of Catalysis
        • Selectivity of the Proofreading Exonuclease
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Polymerases: Reverse Transcriptase Integrase, and Retrovirus Replication
        • Abstract
        • Discovery of Reverse Transcriptase
        • Retrovirus Genome
        • Activities Associated with the Reverse Transcriptase
        • Biochemistry of Reverse Transcriptase
        • The Role of RT in Reverse Transcription
        • Ribonuclease H Activity of RT
        • Integration and Retroviral Replication
        • Role of Reverse Transcriptase in Modern Biology
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Replication: Eukaryotic Origins and the Origin Recognition Complex
        • Abstract
        • Structure and Diversity of Eukaryotic Origins
        • Specification and Selection of Eukaryotic Origins
        • Origin Recognition Complex as the Core of Replication Initiation Machinery
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Replication Fork, Bacterial
        • Abstract
        • Two Strands of the DNA Duplex Are Copied by Different Mechanisms
        • Proteins Required for DNA Replication
        • Synthesis at DNA Replication Forks
        • Coordination of Leading- and Lagging-Strand Synthesis
        • DNA Replication within the Cell
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Replication Fork, Eukaryotic
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Minichromosome Maintenance Complex
        • Replication Protein A
        • DNA Polymerase α/Primase Complex
        • Polymerase Accessory Proteins
        • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
        • Replication Factor C
        • Polymerase δ and Polymerase ε
        • Topoisomerases
        • Additional Proteins
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • DNA Replication: Initiation in Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • The E. coli Replication Origin, oriC
        • Replisome Assembly Is a Stepwise Process
        • Other Proteins Required for Initiation
        • Events after Initiation
        • Summary and Perspective
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Replication, Mitochondrial
        • Abstract
        • Mitochondrial Constituents and Their Functions
        • Replication of the Mitochondrial Genome
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Restriction and Modification: Type II Enzymes
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Classification
        • Discovery of New RM Systems
        • Organization of Genes
        • The Type II Restriction Endonucleases
        • Subsets of Type II Restriction Enzymes
        • The Type II Modification Methyltransferases
        • Restriction Enzymes in the Laboratory
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • DNA Restriction and Modification: Type III Enzymes
        • Abstract
        • Organization of Genes and Regulation of Restriction Activity
        • Cofactor Requirements
        • Domain Organization in Restriction Subunit
        • Domain Organization in Modification Subunit (DNA MTase)
        • Mechanism of Action
        • Phase Variation and Type III R–M Systems
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Secondary Structure
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • B-DNA
        • Z-DNA
        • Triplex DNA
        • Quadruplex DNA
        • Cruciforms and Slipped Structures
        • Pathology
        • Molecular Biology
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • DNA Sequence Recognition by Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • DNA Structure and Properties
        • Protein Structural Elements Used to Bind DNA
        • DNA-Binding Motifs
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • DNA Supercoiling
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Quantitative Relationship between Twist and Supercoil
        • Handedness and the Sign of Tw and Wr
        • Biological Effects of Supercoiling and Enzymes That Can Change DNA Supercoiling
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Topoisomerases: Type I
        • Abstract
        • Reactions Catalyzed by Type I DNA Topoisomerases
        • Classification, Nomenclature, and General Properties
        • Type IA DNA Topoisomerases
        • Type IB DNA Topoisomerases
        • Cellular Roles
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • DNA Topoisomerases: Type II
        • Abstract
        • DNA Topology
        • DNA Topoisomerases
        • Type II Topoisomerases
        • Prokaryotic Type IIA Topoisomerases
        • Eukaryotic Type IIA Topoisomerases
        • Archaeal Type IIB Topoisomerase
        • Type IIA Topoisomerases as Therapeutic Targets
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Dopamine Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Dopamine Receptor Subtypes
        • Structural Characteristics of Dopamine Receptors
        • Dopamine Receptor Subtype-Selective Drugs
        • Dopamine Receptor Signaling
        • Distribution of Dopamine Receptors
        • Dopamine Receptor Variants
        • Therapeutic Uses for Dopamine Receptor Agonists and Antagonists
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Dynactin
        • Abstract
        • Overview of Dynactin Composition and Structure
        • Dynactin Functions
        • Structure and Function of Individual Dynactin Subunits
        • Binding to Other Cellular Components
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Dynamic Behavior of Photosystem II Light Harvesting
        • Abstract
        • Photosynthetic Light Harvesting
        • The Need for Control of the Light Reactions of Photosynthesis
        • State Transitions
        • Nonphotochemical Energy Dissipation
        • The Role of Thylakoid Suprastructure in LHCII Regulation
        • Biological Diversity of qE
        • Other Responses of LHCII to Excess Light
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Dynein
        • Abstract
        • Characteristics of Dynein Complexes
        • The Dynein Heavy Chain
        • Cytoplasmic Dyneins
        • Axonemal Dyneins
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • E
      • Eicosanoid Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Eicosanoid Biosynthesis Pathways
        • Eicosanoid Action
        • Receptors of Lipoxygenase Metabolites
        • Prostaglandin Receptors
        • PPARs
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Elastin
        • Abstract
        • Composition and Primary Sequence
        • Isolation of Elastin
        • The Elastin Gene
        • Elastin Gene Expression
        • Regulation of Elastin Gene Expression
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Endocannabinoids
        • Abstract
        • Synthesis
        • Physiological Regulation of Endocannabinoid Synthesis
        • Deactivation
        • Transport into Cells
        • Intracellular Hydrolysis
        • Cannabinoid Receptors
        • Functions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Endocytosis
        • Abstract
        • Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis
        • Adaptor Proteins
        • Dynamin
        • Clathrin-Independent Endocytosis
        • Caveolae
        • Noncoated Endocytosis and Macropinocytosis
        • Phagocytosis
        • Fate of Internalized Membrane and Content
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Protein Degradation
        • Abstract
        • Protein Synthesis and Folding in the ER
        • Diseases Related to Failure of Protein Folding and Quality Control in the ER
        • Degradation of Aberrant Proteins Expressed in the ER: The Mannose Timer
        • ER-Resident α1,2-Mannosidases
        • Distinct ER Chaperone Networks Are Involved in the ERAD Process
        • ERAD Receptors: The Mannose-Binding Lectins
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Energy Transduction in Anaerobic Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Adenosine Diphosphate Phosphorylation Driven by Chemical Coupling or by the Membrane Potential
        • Fermentation
        • Electron Transport Phosphorylation in Anaerobic Respiration
        • Decarboxylation of Dicarboxylic Acids
        • Generation of an H+ Potential by Transport of Charged Substrate and Product Molecules
        • Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Prokaryotes
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Enzyme Inhibitors
        • Abstract
        • Reversible Catalytic-Site Inhibitors
        • Noncatalytic Site Inhibitors
        • Mechanism-Based Inhibitors
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Enzyme Kinetics
        • Abstract
        • Unireactant Enzymes and the Michaelis–Menten Equation
        • Multireactant Enzymes
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Enzyme Reaction Mechanisms: Stereochemistry
        • Abstract
        • Explanation of Stereochemical Terms
        • Stereoselectivity, Stereospecificity, and Stereochemical Course of Enzymatic Reactions
        • Pioneering Study: Alcohol Dehydrogenase
        • Analysis of Steric Course to Probe an Enzymatic Reaction Pathway
        • Stereoselectivity Can Probe Metal–Nucleotide or Enzyme–Substrate Interactions at the Transition State
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • ER/SR Calcium Pump: Function
        • Abstract
        • ATP Use for Ca2+ Transport
        • The Coupling Mechanism
        • Physiological Implication and Inhibitory Drugs
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • ER/SR Calcium Pump: Structure
        • Abstract
        • Architecture of Ca2+-Adenosine Triphosphatase
        • Transmembrane Ca2+-Binding Sites
        • ATP-Binding Site
        • Synopsis of Ion Pumping
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Eukaryotic Chemotaxis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Gradient Sensing
        • Cytoskeletal Polarization
        • Mathematical Models
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Eukaryotic DNA Polymerase α
        • Abstract
        • Structure and Enzymatic Function
        • Regulation of Pol α Activity
        • Pol α and the Helicase
        • Coordinating DNA Replication with Checkpoint Response
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Eukaryotic DNA Polymerase δ
        • Abstract
        • Structure
        • PCNA as Processivity Factor
        • Functions of Pol δ
        • DNA Replication
        • DNA Recombination
        • DNA Repair
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Eukaryotic Protein Biosynthesis: The Elongation Cycle
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Traditional Eukaryotic Elongation Cycle: The A and P sites
        • Elongation Cycle Chemistry
        • Molecular Mimicry
        • Influence of Other Sites
        • The Other Elongation Factors, eEF3, eEFSec
        • Regulation of the Elongation Cycle
        • The Ribosome and the Nobel Prize
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Evolving Concepts of Leptin
        • Abstract
        • Historical Perspective of Leptin Discovery
        • The Obesity Syndrome Produced by Leptin Deficiency in ob/ob Mice
        • Central Mechanisms of Leptin Action
        • Adipose Tissue as a Target of the Sympathetic Nervous System
        • Regulation of Leptin Expression
        • Leptin Resistance and Obesity
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Exosomes and Microvesicles
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • EMV Structure
        • EMV Composition: Lipids, Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Nucleic Acids
        • EMV Biogenesis: A Prominent Role for the Plasma Membrane
        • EMV Biogenesis: trans-Acting Factors
        • Cellular Functions of EMV Biogenesis
        • EMV-Mediated Effects on Neighboring Cells
        • EMVs and Human Disease
        • Conclusion
        • Further Reading
    • F
      • FAK Family
        • Abstract
        • Focal Adhesion Kinase
        • Proline-Rich Tyrosine Kinase 2
        • Invertebrate Members of the FAK Family
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • F-ATPases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Structure of F-ATPases
        • How ATP Is Made in the F1 Domain
        • Bioenergetic Cost of Making an ATP Molecule
        • Regulatory Mechanisms
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Fatty Acid Metabolism and Cancer
        • Abstract
        • Overview of the Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Fatty Acid Oxidation
        • Abstract
        • Cellular Uptake and Activation of Fatty Acids
        • Fatty Acid Oxidation in Mitochondria
        • Mitochondrial Uptake of Fatty Acids
        • β-Oxidation in Mitochondria
        • β-Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids
        • Regulation of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation
        • Fatty Acid Oxidation in Peroxisomes
        • α-Oxidation and ω-Oxidation
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Fatty Acid Structure and Synthesis
        • Abstract
        • De Novo Fatty Acid Biosynthesis of Saturated Fatty Acids
        • Nutritional Regulation of Lipogenic Gene Expression
        • Unsaturated Fatty Acid Synthesis
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Fatty Acyl-CoA Synthetases
        • Abstract
        • ACS Families and Nomenclature
        • The Bubblegum or BG ACS Family
        • Other Human and Mouse ACSs
        • ACS Structure–Function Considerations
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Ferredoxin
        • Abstract
        • 2Fe Ferredoxins
        • Plant-Type 2Fe Fds
        • Molecular Structure
        • Physiological Function
        • Mitochondrial-Type 2Fe Fds
        • Thioredoxin-Type 2Fe Fds
        • Fds Containing 4Fe and 3Fe Iron–Sulfur Clusters
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Ferredoxin-NADP+ Reductase
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Photosynthetic FNR
        • Nonphotosynthetic Plant-Type FNRs
        • Heterotrophic GR-Type FNRs
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors and Cancer-Associated Perturbations
        • Abstract
        • Fibroblast Growth Factors
        • Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors
        • FGF Actions in Cancer
        • FGFR Actions in Cancer
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Flavins
        • Abstract
        • Chemistry
        • Redox Properties
        • Oxygen and Other Derivatives
        • Spectroscopic Properties
        • Types of Flavoproteins
        • Pyridine Nucleotide Oxidoreductases
        • Dehydrogenase/Electron Transferase
        • Electron-Transfer Proteins
        • Oxygenases
        • Oxidases
        • Photochemistry
        • Medical Significance
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Flippases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Expansion of the ER Bilayer during Membrane Biogenesis
        • Aminophospholipid Flippases (P4-Adenosine Triphosphatase Family)/Translocases, Floppases, Scramblases, and Phospholipid Asymmetry
        • Protein N-Glycosylation
        • Relationship of a Man-P-Dol Flippase to the Biosynthesis of Other Mannose-Containing Glycoconjugates
        • GPI Anchors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Focal Adhesions and Related Integrin Contacts
        • Abstract
        • Cell Adhesion
        • Focal Adhesions – A Structural Perspective
        • The Molecular Organization of Focal Adhesions
        • The Receptors and Their ECM Ligands
        • The Cytoskeletal Domain
        • The Submembrane Plaque
        • Diversity of Cell–Matrix Adhesion Sites
        • Signaling
        • Focal Adhesions and Mechanosensitivity
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Folate and Vitamin B12 Function
        • Abstract
        • Folate Structure and Chemistry
        • Absorption and Transport
        • Folate Biochemistry and Functions
        • Chemistry of Vitamin B12
        • Absorption and Transport of Vitamin B12
        • Vitamin B12 Biochemistry and Functions
        • Folate Deficiency
        • Neural Tube Defects
        • Vitamin B12 Deficiency
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Free Oligosaccharides: Formation and Degradation (Free Oligosaccharides Related to N-Linked Glycans)
        • Abstract
        • Free Oligosaccharides Formed in the Endoplasmic Reticulum
        • Free OS Transport System from the ER to the Cytosol
        • Free OSs Formed in the Cytosol: Its Connection with ER-Associated Degradation
        • Species Specificity of Formation/Degradation of fOSs
        • Formation of Complex-Type (Golgi-Type) Glycans
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Friedreich's Ataxia
        • Abstract
        • Historical Perspective
        • Clinical Features
        • Pathology
        • Genetics
        • Therapeutic Intervention
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • FX, FA, and FB Iron–Sulfur Clusters in Type I Photosynthetic Reaction Centers
        • Abstract
        • Photosynthesis and Types of Photosynthetic Reaction Centers
        • Iron–Sulfur Clusters in Biology
        • Type I Reaction Centers
        • The FX Cluster in Type I Reaction Centers
        • The FA and FB Clusters in Type I Reaction Centers
        • The FA- and FB-containing Proteins in Type I Reaction Centers
        • The Tight Binding of PsaC with the PsaA/PsaB Heterodimer in Photosystem I
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • G
      • G12/G13 Family
        • Abstract
        • General Properties and Modifications
        • Receptor-Mediated Activation of G12 and G13
        • Cellular Functions of G12/G13
        • Proteins Directly Interacting with Gα12/Gα13
        • In Vivo Functions of G12/G13
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • GABAA Receptor
        • Abstract
        • Molecular Structure
        • Functional Domains
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • GABAB Receptor
        • Abstract
        • GABAB-Receptor Structure and Function
        • GABAB-Receptor Agonists and Allosteric Modulators
        • GABAB-Receptor Antagonists
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Gastrointestinal Digestion and Absorption
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mechanical and Enzymatic Breakdown of Nutrients in the Oral Cavity
        • Esophageal Transport
        • Gastric Functions
        • Digestion and Absorption of Nutrients in the Small Intestine
        • Contribution of the Colon to Nutrient Absorption
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Gene Expression in Bacterial Systems: The trp Operon and Attenuation
        • Abstract
        • Attenuation
        • The E. coli trp Operon: Attenuation Based on Translation of a Leader Peptide
        • The B. subtilis trp Operon: Attenuation Mediated by an RNA-Binding Protein
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Gene Expression in Eukaryotes: RNA Polymerase II Structure
        • Abstract
        • Architecture
        • Structural Elements
        • Mechanism
        • Conservation
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Genome-Wide Analysis of Gene Expression
        • Abstract
        • Gene Expression Data for Discovery and Classification
        • Expressed Sequence Tag
        • Serial Analysis of Gene Expression
        • DNA Microarray
        • Microarray Analysis
        • Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies
        • Third-Generation Sequencing
        • Analytical Tools for NGS Expression Data
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Giant Mitochondria (Megamitochondria)
        • Abstract
        • Megamitochondrial Structure
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Gi Family of Heterotrimeric G Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Overview of the Gi Family
        • Signaling through Gβγ
        • Gi
        • Go
        • Gz
        • Gt (Transducin)
        • Gg (Gustducin)
        • Posttranslational Modifications
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Gluconeogenesis
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Overview of Gluconeogenesis
        • The Enzymes of Gluconeogenesis
        • Physiological Control of Gluconeogenesis
        • Regulation of Gluconeogenesis
        • Final Words
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Glucose/Sugar Transport in Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • The Phosphoenolpyruvate: Sugar Phosphotransferase System
        • Electrochemical Cation-Gradient-Driven Symporters
        • Binding Protein-Dependent ATP-Binding Cassette Transport System
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Glucose/Sugar Transport in Mammals
        • Abstract
        • Sodium-Dependent Glucose Transporters
        • Facilitative Glucose Transporters
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Glutamate Receptors, Metabotropic
        • Abstract
        • Fast Synaptic Transmission and Neuromodulation in the Central Nervous System
        • Fast Excitatory and Neuromodulatory Actions of Glutamate
        • Eight mGlu Receptor Subtypes
        • mGlu Receptors Play Diverse Roles in Regulating Neuronal Excitability and Synaptic Transmission
        • Therapeutic Potential of mGlu Receptor Ligands
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Glutathione Peroxidases
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Enzymology and Kinetics
        • Substrate Specificity
        • Structure
        • Biological Functions
        • Conclusions and Future Perspectives
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Glycation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Glycation of Proteins in Blood
        • Advanced Glycation and Glycoxidation Reactions
        • AGE Receptors, Inhibitors, and Breakers
        • The Maillard Reaction in Aging and Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Glycerolipid Structure, Function, and Synthesis in Eukaryotes
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Glycerolipid Structure
        • Glycerolipid Functions
        • Glycerolipid Synthesis
        • Phospholipid Remodeling
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Glycine Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Distribution of Glycine in the Brain
        • Physiological Role and Functional Properties of Glycine Neurotransmission
        • Structure and Diversity of GlyR Channels
        • Structural Features of the GlyR
        • Pharmacological Properties of the GlyR
        • Disorders of Glycinergic Neurotransmission
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Glycogen Metabolism
        • Abstract
        • Glycogen Structure
        • Glycogen Metabolism
        • Glycogen Function and Control
        • Glycogen and Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Glycogen Storage Diseases
        • Abstract
        • Glycogen Structure
        • Glycogen Function
        • Glycogen Metabolism
        • Defects in Glycogen Metabolism and Their Consequences
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3
        • Abstract
        • GSK-3 Genes and Proteins
        • Regulation of GSK-3
        • A Primer on GSK-3 Substrates
        • Physiological Functions of GSK-3
        • Neurological Diseases
        • Metabolism and Diabetes
        • Knockout Mouse Models
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Glycolipid-Dependent Adhesion Processes
        • Abstract
        • GSL Assembly in Membrane as GSL-Enriched Microdomain
        • Types of Cell Adhesion Mediated by GSL-to-GSL Interaction
        • Types of Cell Adhesion Mediated by Interaction of GSL with GSL-Binding Protein
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Glycolysis Overview
        • Abstract
        • Role of Glycolysis
        • Three Stages of the Glycolytic Pathway
        • Anaerobic Glycolysis Is a Type of Fermentation
        • Control of Glycolysis
        • Cancer
        • Lactic Acidosis
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Glycoprotein Folding and Processing Reactions
        • Abstract
        • Glycoprotein Folding, Processing Reactions, and Quality Control
        • Protein Folding in the ER
        • N-Glycan Processing Reactions in the ER
        • The UDP-Glc:Glycoprotein Glucosyltransferase
        • The Quality Control Mechanism of Glycoprotein Folding
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Glycoprotein-Mediated Cell Interactions, Nonmucin-Type O-Linked
        • Abstract
        • Classes of O-Glycans
        • O-Fucose on Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Repeats
        • O-Glucose on EGF Repeats
        • O-Fucose on TSRs
        • O-Mannose
        • Functions of O-Glycans
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Glycoproteins, N-Linked
        • Abstract
        • Biosynthesis and Structures of N-Linked Oligosaccharides
        • Methods for Analysis of N-Linked Glycoprotein Structure and Function
        • N-Linked Oligosaccharides as Experimental Aids
        • Functions of Selected N-Linked Glycans and Their Specific Cognate Lectins
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Glycoproteins, Plant
        • Abstract
        • Types of Glycosylation
        • Synthesis of O-Linked Glycans
        • Hyp-Rich Glycoproteins Belong to Multigene Families
        • Approaches for Determining the Function of Plant Glycoproteins
        • Future Studies
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Glycosylation, Congenital Disorders of
        • Abstract
        • Setting the Stage
        • Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation
        • Congenital Muscular Dystrophies
        • Defects in Proteoglycan Biosynthesis Cause Disease
        • Glycosylation Disorders: The Next Generation
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchors
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • GPI Structure
        • GPI Biosynthesis
        • GPI Anchoring in Mammals, Parasitic Protozoa, and Yeast
        • Functions of GPIs
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Golgi Complex
        • Abstract
        • Morphology of the Golgi Complex
        • Protein Processing in the Golgi Complex
        • Mechanisms of Protein Transport at the Golgi Complex
        • The Golgi Cisternae Serve as an Intracellular Calcium Store
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases and Arrestins
        • Abstract
        • The GRK Family
        • Role of GRKs in GPCR Regulation
        • GRKs Have Diverse Functional Roles
        • Regulation of GRK Function
        • Structural Basis of GRK Function
        • Role of GRKs in Disease
        • The Arrestin Family
        • Molecular and Structural Nature of Arrestin Interaction with GPCRs
        • Role of Arrestins in Receptor Trafficking
        • Role of Arrestins as Signaling Scaffolds
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • G Protein Signaling Regulators
        • Abstract
        • Discovery of Regulators of G Protein Signaling
        • Structure of RGS Proteins
        • Mechanisms of RGS Proteins
        • Selectivity of RGS Action
        • Significance of RGS Action
        • Regulation of RGS Proteins
        • RGS Proteins as Drug Targets
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Gq Family
        • Abstract
        • Gq Family of G Proteins
        • Gq Is Activated by Hormones, Neurotransmitters, and Drugs through Multiple GPCRs
        • PLCβ Activation and Calcium Mobilization Are Downstream Responses to Gq Activation
        • Gq Uses Multiple Downstream Effector Mechanisms
        • Gq in Cardiovascular Disease, Platelet Aggregation, and Cerebellum Development
        • Modulation of Gq Functions
        • Gq Family Members Have Both Unique and Functionally Complementary Roles
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Green Bacteria: Chlorophyll Biosynthesis, Light-Harvesting, Reaction Centers, and Electron Transport
        • Abstract
        • Green Bacteria: Introduction
        • Bacteriochlorophyll Biosynthesis in Green Bacteria
        • Assembly of BChls in Chlorosomes
        • The FMO BChl a-Binding Protein and B808-866
        • RCs in Green Bacteria
        • Electron Transport Chains in Green Bacteria
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Green Bacteria: Secondary Electron Donor (Cytochromes)
        • Abstract
        • Cytochromes in Green Bacteria
        • Types of c-Type Cytochromes in Green Sulfur Bacteria
        • Cytochromes in FAP Bacteria
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Green Bacteria: The Light-Harvesting Chlorosome
        • Abstract
        • Phylogeny
        • Structural Features
        • Proteins
        • Carotenoids
        • Spectral Properties
        • Models of Chlorophyll Organization
        • Energy Transfer
        • Evolutionary Considerations
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Gs Family of Heterotrimeric G Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Organization of the GNAS Gene
        • Gsα Isoforms Encoded by GNAS
        • Gsα Defects in Human Disease
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • H
      • Heat/Stress Responses
        • Abstract
        • The Stress of Unfolded Proteins
        • The Heat Shock Response
        • The Unfolded Protein Response
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Hematopoietin Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Classification
        • Single Subunit Hematopoietin Receptors
        • GM-CSF/IL-3/IL-5 Receptors
        • Receptors in the IL-6 SubFamily
        • Receptors in the IL-2 Subfamily
        • The Class II Hematopoietin Receptor Family
        • Human Diseases Associated with Defect in Hematopoietin Receptors or Their Signaling Pathways
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Heme Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Structural Properties of Heme Proteins
        • Heme Proteins That Serve as Oxygen Carriers
        • Heme Proteins That Serve as Enzymes
        • Heme Proteins That Serve as Electron Carriers
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Heme Synthesis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Heme Structure
        • The Heme Biosynthetic Pathway
        • Regulation of the Heme Biosynthetic Pathway/Heme Biosynthesis
        • Heme Function
        • Disorders of the Heme Biosynthetic Pathway
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Hexokinase/Glucokinase
        • Abstract
        • Role of Phosphorylation in Sugar Utilization
        • Reaction Catalyzed by Hexokinases
        • Diversity of Hexokinases and Glucokinases
        • Classification and Evolution of Hexokinases
        • Three-Dimensional Structure
        • Mammalian Low-Km Hexokinases
        • Hexokinase IV (Glucokinase)
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Structures
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Functional Implications of RT Structures
        • NRTI Resistance
        • NNRTI Resistance
        • RT Structures in Drug Design
        • Additional Drug Targets in RT
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • HIV Protease
        • Abstract
        • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
        • Proteins of HIV
        • Structure of HIV Protease
        • Gag/Pol Polyprotein and Viral Assembly
        • Structure of HIV Protease as an Isolated Entity
        • Inhibitor Binding
        • Mode of Inhibitor Binding
        • Development of Resistant HIV Protease Variants
        • The Spectrum of Drug-Resistant Variants
        • Structure of HIV PR Variants
        • HIV PR as a Model System for Analysis of Protein Structure/Function
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Homologous Recombination in Meiosis
        • Abstract
        • Meiosis
        • The Role of Recombination in Meiosis
        • A Molecular Model for Meiotic Recombination
        • Crossovers versus Non-Crossovers
        • Gene Conversion
        • The Meiotic Recombination Checkpoint
        • Genetic Interference
        • Two Pathways of Crossing Over
        • The Synaptonemal Complex
        • Mitotic versus Meiotic Recombination
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Hydrogenases, Structure and Function
        • Asbtract
        • Introduction
        • [NiFe] Hydrogenase
        • [FeFe] Hydrogenase
        • [Fe] Hydrogenase
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • I
      • Immunoglobulin (Fc) Receptors
        • Abstract
        • General Comments
        • Leukocyte FcRs
        • IgE FcRs
        • IgG Receptors
        • IgA and IgM FcRs of Leukocytes
        • Sites of Interaction with Ig Ligands
        • Receptor Binding Sites in Immunoglobulin
        • Signal Transduction Complexes
        • Other Leukocyte FcRs
        • Nonleukocyte Fc Receptors
        • Biological Role of Leukocyte FcRs
        • Key Events in the Analysis of FcR
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Indicators of Intracellular Calcium
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Chemical Indicators
        • Genetically Encoded Ca2+ Indicators
        • Bioluminescent Probes
        • GFP-Based Ca2+ Probes
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Inositol Phosphate Kinases and Phosphatases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Inositol Phosphate Nomenclature
        • Enzyme Nomenclature and Metabolic Interrelationships
        • Regulatory Input into the Inositol Phosphate Pathway
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Inositol Trisphosphate and Calcium Signaling
        • Abstract
        • InsP3 Formation
        • InsP3 Metabolism
        • InsP3 and Ca2+ signaling
        • Spatial and Temporal Aspects of InsP3/Ca2+ Signaling
        • The Role of the InsP3/Ca2+ Signaling Pathways in Cellular Control Mechanisms
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Insect Biochemistry/Hormones
        • Abstract
        • Overview of Insects
        • Insect Biochemistry
        • Insect Hormones
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Insulin- and Glucagon-Secreting Cells of the Pancreas
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Beta-Cell Glucokinase Glucose Sensor and the Threshold for GSIR
        • Model Experiments to Illustrate the Operation of the TPW and the APW
        • AAs and FAs as Glucose-Dependent Stimuli of Beta Cells
        • Neuroendocrine Modification of Fuel-Stimulated Insulin Release
        • A Brief Note on Alpha-Cell Function
        • Glucokinase Disease and GDH or K+ Channel-Linked Hypoglycemia
        • Beta-Cell Therapy in T2DM and Hyperinsulinemia
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Insulin Mechanisms/Metabolic Actions
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Insulin Signaling
        • Metabolic Effects of Insulin
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Integrin Signaling
        • Abstract
        • Integrin Overview
        • General Features of Integrin Signaling
        • Inside-Out Signaling
        • Outside-In Signaling
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Intercellular Ca2+ Waves: Mechanisms of Initiation and Propagation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Ca2+ Wave Initiation
        • Ca2+ Wave Propagation
        • Passive and Active Waves
        • Messenger Regeneration in Active Intercellular Ca2+ Waves
        • Phase Waves
        • Intercellular Ca2+ Waves in Isolated Tissues and In Vivo
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Interferon Receptors
        • Abstract
        • IFN-γ Receptors
        • The IFN-α/β Receptor
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Intermediate Filament Linker Proteins: Plectin and BPAG1
        • Abstract
        • Plectin
        • BPAG1
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Intermediate Filaments
        • Abstract
        • Features of IF Proteins
        • Assembly, Structure, and Regulation of IFs
        • Dissecting the IF Superfamily
        • Functions of IFs and Their Involvement in Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Intracellular Calcium Channels: NAADP+-Modulated
        • Abstract
        • Structure of NAADP
        • NAADP-Induced Ca2+-Release in Invertebrates and Plants
        • NAADP-Induced Ca2+-Release in Vertebrates
        • Metabolism of NAADP
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Intracellular Calcium Waves
        • Abstract
        • Phenomena
        • Mechanisms of the Ca2+ Waves
        • Physiological Significance of the Ca2+ Waves
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Ion Channel Protein Superfamily
        • Abstract
        • Voltage-Gated Sodium and Calcium Channels
        • Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels
        • Second-Messenger-Gated and Sensory Ion Channels
        • Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels and Their Relatives
        • Two-Pore-Motif Potassium Channels
        • Structure and Function
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • IP3 Receptors
        • Abstract
        • A Brief History
        • Structure of IP3 Receptors
        • Regulation of IP3 Receptors by IP3 and Ca2+
        • Physiological Roles of IP3 Receptors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Iron–Sulfur Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Iron–Sulfur Clusters
        • Iron–Sulfur Proteins
        • Functions
        • Biogenesis of Iron–Sulfur Proteins
        • Biogenesis of Fe–S Proteins in Eukaryotes
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • K
      • Keratins and the Skin
        • Abstract
        • Keratin Classification
        • Keratin Gene Clusters Reflect Tissue Expression: Implications for Keratin Evolution
        • Keratin Proteins Form the Intermediate Filament Network of Epithelial Cells
        • Keratin Gene Expression Mirrors Epithelial Differentiation: The Case of Skin
        • Functions of Keratin Filaments
        • Keratin Involvement in Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Kinesins as Microtubule Disassembly Enzymes
        • Abstract
        • Microtubule Dynamics Regulation in Cells – the Need for Depolymerases
        • Microtubule-Depolymerizing Kinesins: Key Discoveries
        • Biophysical Studies of Kip3 and Kinesin-13s
        • Physiological Roles of Microtubule-Depolymerizing Kinesins
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Kinesin Superfamily Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • N-Kinesin
        • M-Kinesins
        • C-Kinesins
        • Perspectives
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Kinetic Isotope Effects
        • Abstract
        • Physical Origin of KIEs
        • Chemical Bonds as Harmonic Oscillators
        • Wave/Particle Dualism
        • KIEs as Mechanistic Probes
        • Activation Energy and Transition State Theory
        • Isotope Effects from Zero-Point Energies
        • Deviations from Predicted Values
        • KIEs as Mechanistic Probes during Enzyme Catalysis
        • Experimental Considerations
        • An Example from Glucose Oxidase Catalysis
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • L
      • lac Operon
        • Abstract
        • Historical Perspective
        • lac Operon
        • Lactose Repressor Protein
        • Catabolite Repressor Protein
        • Three Common Errors in Understanding the lac Operon
        • Implications for Complex Organisms
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Lectins
        • Abstract
        • Carbohydrate Specificity
        • Molecular Properties
        • Functions
        • Applications
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • LexA Regulatory System
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The E. coli LexA Regulatory System
        • Defining the LexA Regulon
        • The LexA Regulatory System in the Repressed State
        • Triggers of the SOS Response
        • Sensing the Signal and Inducing LexA Inactivation
        • Insights into the Key Step in the SOS Response
        • DNA Damage Repair
        • Cell-Cycle Checkpoints
        • Turning Off the SOS Response
        • Members of the LexA Super-Family
        • Plasmid-Encoded Genes of the LexA Regulon
        • Bacterial LexA Regulon Diversity
        • The Virulent Side of the SOS Response
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Ligand-Operated Membrane Channels: Calcium (Glutamate)
        • Abstract
        • Calcium Signaling in Neurons
        • Glutamate Receptors in the Mammalian CNS: Structure and Function
        • Glutamate Receptors, Ca2+-Signaling, and Synaptic Plasticity
        • Glutamate Receptors, Ca2+, and Neurodegeneration
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Ligand-Operated Membrane Channels: GABA
        • Abstract
        • Handling of the Neurotransmitter GABA: Biosynthesis, Transport, and Degradation
        • Early GABAA Receptor Biochemistry
        • Molecular Biology of the GABAA Receptor
        • Physiological Function
        • Agonist- and Drug-Binding Sites
        • Subtly Altered Receptor Subunits Cause Diseases
        • Architecture
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Light-Harvesting Complex I and II: Pigments and Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Heterogeneity of Light-Harvesting Systems
        • The Higher Plant Light-Harvesting Antenna
        • Mechanisms of Photoprotection
        • Other Regulatory Roles
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Lipases
        • Abstract
        • Roles of Lipases
        • Hydrolysis Mechanism and Specificity
        • Lipolysis Regulation
        • Structural Adaptation of Lipases at Interfaces
        • Lipase Regulatory Domains
        • Lipase Cofactors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Lipid Bilayer Structure
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Structure of Bilayer-Forming Lipids
        • Organization of Lipids in Bilayers
        • Membrane Proteins and Bilayers
        • Bilayer Dimensions
        • Relationship between Bilayer Form and Bilayer Function
        • Physical State of Bilayer Lipids
        • The Effect of Lipid State upon Lateral Organization of Lipid Molecules
        • Influence of Physical State on Lipid Conformation and Lateral Diffusion
        • Transverse Lipid Movements
        • Effect of Lipid Bilayers on Local Aqueous Environment
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Lipid Modification of Proteins: Targeting to Membranes
        • Abstract
        • Lipid Modification of Proteins
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Lipid Rafts
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Physical Properties
        • Lipid-Phase Behavior
        • DRMs Are in the lo Phase
        • Proteins in DRMs
        • Functions of Rafts
        • Signaling in Hematopoietic Cells
        • Caveolae
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Lipid Signaling and Ion Channels
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Diversity and Localization of Phosphoinositides
        • Ion Channels and Transporters Modulated by Phosphoinositides
        • Features of Phosphoinositide Modulation of Ion Channels
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Live Cell Imaging of Nuclear Dynamics
        • Abstract
        • The Dynamically Organized Nucleus
        • 3D-FISH and Genome Wide Molecular Approaches: Insights into Nuclear Architecture
        • Insights into Chromosome Dynamics Using Live Cells: The LacO System
        • Forced Repositioning of Chromosomal Domains Using Molecular Tethers in Living Cells: Insights into Consequences of Repositioning
        • The Future: Induced Repositioning of Chromosomal Domains Using ‘Nuclear Zipcodes’ or Specific trans-Factors Identified by Genome-Wide/Molecular Analyses
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds
        • Abstract
        • The Nature of Hydrogen Bonds
        • Weak, Strong, and Very Strong Hydrogen Bonds
        • Physicochemical Properties
        • LBHBs in Enzymes
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Luft's Disease
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Considerations
        • Therapy
        • Muscle Biopsy
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Lysophospholipid Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Sphingolipid Receptors
        • Glycerolipid Receptors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • M
      • Major Sperm Protein and Sperm Locomotion
        • Abstract
        • Nematode Sperm Motility
        • MSP as a Signaling Molecule
        • Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of MSP
        • Structure of MSP
        • In Vitro Reconstitution of the MSP Motility Apparatus
        • MSP Accessory Proteins
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mammalian DNA Methyltransferase Structural Themes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Dnmt3 Family
        • Dnmt3L is a Regulatory Factor for De Novo DNA Methylation
        • Dimeric Dnmt3a Suggests De Novo DNA Methylation Depends on CpG Spacing
        • Dnmt3L Connects Unmethylated Histone H3 Lysine 4 to De Novo DNA Methylation
        • Structure of Dnmt1
        • The SRA Domain of UHRF1 Flips 5-Methylcytosine Out of the DNA Helix
        • DNA Demethylation via Hydroxylation?
        • DNA Demethylation via Glycosylation?
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mass Spectrometry of Native Complexes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Structural Biology Analysis of Protein Complexes
        • Native MS Methodology and Instrumentation
        • Protein Complex Composition
        • Dynamic Protein Complexes
        • Topology of Complexes and Assembly Pathways Determined by Dissociation
        • Maintaining Native Structure/Function in the Gas Phase
        • Pushing the Boundaries of Native MS
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Meiosis
        • Abstract
        • The Sexual Life Cycle
        • Mitotic and Meiotic Chromosome Cycles
        • Meiotic Prophase I
        • After Prophase I
        • Meiotic Chromosome Structure and the SC
        • Homologous Recombination during Meiosis
        • Recombination-Independent Mechanisms of Homolog Pairing and Segregation
        • Meiosis and Human Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Melanocortin System
        • Abstract
        • Melanocortin Ligands and Receptors
        • Pigmentation
        • Adrenocortical Steroidogenesis
        • Energy Homeostasis and Other Central Nervous System Actions
        • Exocrine Gland Function and Other Peripheral Actions
        • Synthetic Ligands and Drug Discovery Efforts
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Membrane-Associated Energy Transduction in Bacteria and Archaea
        • Abstract
        • Membranes
        • Energy-Transducing Functions
        • Oxygen Respiration
        • Phototrophic Bacteria
        • Special Mechanisms in Archaeal Energy Transduction
        • Secondary Energy Transducers
        • Evolutionary Links
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Membrane Fusion
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • General Principles of Membrane Fusion
        • Cellular Fusion Proteins
        • Viral Fusion Proteins
        • Class I Fusion Proteins
        • Class II Fusion Proteins
        • Class III Fusion Proteins
        • Methods to Study Membrane Fusion
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Membrane Transporters: Na+/Ca2+ Exchangers
        • Abstract
        • Cellular Ca2+ Homeostasis
        • Discovery of the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger
        • An Expanding Gene Family
        • Expression of NCX and NCKX in Mammals
        • Structural Properties
        • Functional Properties
        • Physiological Relevance
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Membrane Transport, General Concepts
        • Abstract
        • Simple Diffusion
        • Diffusion through Pores or Channels (Restricted Diffusion)
        • Carrier-Mediated Transport
        • Facilitated Diffusion
        • Active Transport
        • Primary Active Transport
        • Secondary Active Transport
        • Co-Transport (Symport)
        • Counter-Transport (Antiport)
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Messenger RNA Degradation in Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • General Aspects of Bacterial Messenger RNA Decay
        • Ribonucleases Activities
        • Comparison of Models for mRNA Decay
        • Regulation of RNase Expression and Activity
        • Small Regulatory RNAs
        • Translation and mRNA Decay
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Messenger RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
        • Abstract
        • Historical Overview
        • The Relationship between RNA Processing and Organismal Complexity
        • A Daunting Challenge: Finding Exonic Islands in a Sea of Intronic RNA
        • The Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in the Life Cycle of an mRNA
        • Mechanistic Coupling of Different Steps in Gene Expression
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Metabolic Control during Ischemia of the Heart
        • Abstract
        • Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Heart
        • Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Heart
        • Energy Metabolism in the Ischemic Heart
        • Ischemic-Induced Alterations in Metabolic Signaling
        • Energy Metabolism during Reperfusion of the Ischemic Heart
        • Intracellular Acidosis and Cardiac Efficiency during Ischemia/Reperfusion
        • Optimization of Energy Metabolism to Treat Ischemic Heart Disease
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Metabolic Roles of Adiponectin
        • Abstract
        • Characterization and Molecular Structure
        • Regulation of Adiponectin Levels
        • Adiponectin Receptors
        • Physiological Functions of Adiponectin
        • Adiponectin and Adiponectin Receptors as Therapeutic Targets?
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Metabolic Roles of the Orexigenic and Anorexigenic Neuropeptides
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Energy Homeostasis
        • Hypothalamic Neuronal Systems Controlling Energy Homeostasis
        • Integration of Adiposity and Satiety Signals
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Metabolite Channeling: Creatine Kinase Microcompartments
        • Abstract
        • Subcellular Microcompartments and Mechanisms of Metabolite Channeling
        • Advantages of Metabolite Channeling
        • Subcellular Targeting of Glycolytic Multienzyme Complexes
        • Compartmentation of CK Isoenzymes and Channeling of High-Energy Phosphates
        • Channeling with Cytosolic CK
        • Channeling in Energy-Transducing Mitochondrial Microcompartments
        • Mt CK, Intramitochondrial Inclusions, and Low-Cellular-Energy State
        • Mt CK and the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Metalloproteases
        • Abstract
        • Functional Classification
        • Structural Classification
        • Genetic Origin and Ligand Nature
        • Physiological Function
        • Metalloprotease Inhibition
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Metalloproteinases, Matrix
        • Abstract
        • MMP Family
        • Collagenases
        • Gelatinases
        • Stromelysins
        • Matrilysins
        • Membrane-Type MMPs (MT-MMPs)
        • Other MMPs
        • Structural Chemistry
        • Mechanism of Peptide Bond Hydrolysis
        • Activation of proMMPs
        • Activation by Proteinases
        • Activation by Chemical and Physical Means
        • Activity and Substrate Specificity
        • Endogenous Inhibitors of MMPs
        • Inhibition Mechanism
        • Biological Activities of MMPs
        • Human Genetic Disorders and DNA Polymorphisms
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • MicroRNAs in Eukaryotes
        • Abstract
        • MicroRNAs in Eukaryotes
        • Discovery of miRNAs
        • Biogenesis of miRNAs
        • Function of miRNAs
        • Biological Roles of miRNAs
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Classical Microtubule-Associated Proteins
        • MAP1A and MAP1B
        • MAP2A, MAP2B, and MAP2C
        • Tau
        • MAP4
        • Control of Microtubule Dynamics
        • Bundling of Microtubules: MAPs and Neurite Outgrowth
        • Analysis of Transgenic and Knockout Mice: Relation of MAPs to Neurodegenerative Diseases
        • New MAPs
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mitochondria in Myocardial Ischemia
        • Abstract
        • Ischemia and Energy Metabolism
        • Mitochondria in the Transition from Reversible to Irreversible Injury
        • The Mitochondrial PTP as a Target of Ischemic Injury and Pharmacological Interventions
        • Mitochondria and Endogenous Self-Defenses Triggered by Conditioning Stimuli
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mitochondrial Auto-Antibodies
        • Abstract
        • Detection of Mitochondrial Auto-Antibodies
        • The M-Classification of AMAs
        • Other AMAs
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mitochondrial Calcium Transport: Historical Aspects
        • Abstract
        • Discovery of the CA2+-Uptake Process
        • Early Findings on the Mechanism of the Uptake Process
        • The Release Leg of the Mitochondrial Ca2+-Transport Cycle
        • The Affinity of Mitochondria for Ca2+ Is Too Low for the Regulation of Cell Ca2+
        • New Findings Overcome the Problem of the Low Affinity of the Uptake System
        • The Molecular Nature of the Mitochondrial Ca2+ Transporters
        • Mitochondrial Ca2+ Transport and the Disease Process
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mitochondrial Channels
        • Abstract
        • Channels in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics
        • Functional and Molecular Aspects of Mitochondrial Channels
        • Involvement of Mitochondrial Channels in Cell Death Mechanisms
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mitochondrial DNA
        • Abstract
        • Discovery of Mitochondrial DNA
        • Properties of mtDNA
        • Sequence and Gene Content
        • Outlook
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mitochondrial Dynamics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mitochondrial Morphologies
        • Mitochondrial Fusion and Fission
        • Mitochondrial Tethering to the ER
        • The Role of Mitochondrial Shape in Cell Function
        • The Role of Mitochondrial Shape in Cell Death
        • Conclusions and Perspectives
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mitochondrial Genes and Their Expression: Yeast
        • Abstract
        • Yeast as a Model Organism for the Study of Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function
        • Expression of Mitochondrial Genes
        • General Features of Simple and Mosaic Genes
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mitochondrial Membranes, Structural Organization
        • Abstract
        • Mitochondrial Structure
        • Mitochondrial Inner Membrane Topology
        • Dynamics of the Mitochondrial Inner Membrane
        • Functional Changes in Inner Membrane Topology
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Mitochondrial Metabolite Carrier Protein Family
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Structure
        • Extension of the MCF
        • Evolution of MCs
        • Modes of Transport and Driving Forces
        • Mechanism of Transport
        • Structure–Function Relationships
        • Diseases
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mitochondrial Outer Membrane and the VDAC Channel
        • Abstract
        • Origin and Structure of the Outer Membrane
        • Functions of the Outer Membrane
        • Composition
        • VDAC Channels in the Outer Membrane
        • The Outer Membrane and Apoptosis
        • Emerging Importance of the Outer Membrane
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Chemiosmosis, Mitochondrial Channels, and the PT
        • Molecular Nature of the PTP
        • Regulation of the PTP
        • Consequences of PTP Opening
        • A Role for the PTP in Cellular Ca2+ Homeostasis?
        • Signaling to the PTP
        • The PTP in Disease
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Mitochondria: Source and Target of Free Radicals
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Mitochondrial Production of O2·− and H2O2
        • The Mitochondrial Production of ·NO
        • The Physiological Role of the Mitochondrial Production of O2·−, H2O2, and ·NO
        • Oxidative Stress and Dysfunctional Mitochondria: Mitochondria as Targets of Free Radicals
        • Mitochondrion-Dependent Apoptosis
        • The Mitochondrial Hypothesis of Aging – Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Family
        • Abstract
        • ERK Family
        • Specificity and Fidelity in Nuclear Signal Transmission by MAPK Signaling Pathways
        • Regulation of Gene Expression through MAPK Signaling Pathways
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mitosis
        • Abstract
        • Spindle Structure
        • Phases of Mitosis
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Monoamine Oxidase
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Reaction Catalyzed
        • Cellular Localization
        • Enzyme Substrates
        • Inhibition and Pharmacology
        • MAO and Behavior
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • mRNA Polyadenylation in Eukaryotes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • RNA Sequences That Direct Cleavage and Polyadenylation
        • Protein Complexes Involved in 3′ Processing
        • Regulation of mRNA 3′ End Formation
        • Coupling of 3′ End Processing with Other Steps of Gene Expression
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • mTOR and its Downstream Targets
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • mTOR and mTOR Complexes
        • Substrates for mTORCs
        • Regulation of mTOR Complexes
        • Processes that are Controlled by mTORCs
        • mTOR in Human Disease
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mucin Family of Glycoproteins
        • Abstract
        • Mucin Glycoproteins
        • Glycosylation
        • Mucin Protein Family Members
        • Major Domains in Membrane Mucins
        • Protein Domains in Secreted Mucins
        • Roles in Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Mucins in Embryo Implantation
        • Abstract
        • The Implantation Process
        • Mucins
        • Summary and Future Directions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Multidrug Resistance Membrane Proteins
        • Abstract
        • MDR1 and the Clinical MDR Phenotype
        • Structure and Function of MDR1
        • Other MDR Membrane Proteins
        • Physiological Functions of MDR Transporters
        • MDR as Part of a Broader Picture
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The mAChR Gene Family
        • Muscarinic Receptor-Mediated Signal Transduction
        • Structural Studies
        • Muscarinic Receptor Actions In Vivo
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Myosin Motors
        • Abstract
        • Overall Molecular Architecture
        • Evolutionary Diversity and Phylogenetic Classification
        • Mechano-Chemical Features
        • Regulation
        • A Multitude of Cellular Functions
        • Myosins in Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
    • N
      • Natriuretic Peptides, Their Receptors and Therapeutic Applications
        • Abstract
        • Natriuretic Peptides
        • Natriuretic Peptide Receptors
        • Natriuretic Peptide Therapies
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Neoglycoproteins
        • Abstract
        • Preparation
        • Applications
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Neuronal Intermediate Filaments
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Neurofilament Triplet Proteins
        • α-Internexin
        • Peripherin
        • Nestin
        • Neuronal Intermediate Filaments and Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Neurotransmitter Transporters
        • Abstract
        • Mechanisms of Transport
        • Structure and Function
        • Regulation
        • Relationships between Disease States and Neurotransmitter Transporters
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Neurotrophin Receptor Signaling
        • Abstract
        • Neurotrophin Signaling through Trk Receptors
        • Neurotrophin Signaling through p75 Neurotrophin Receptor
        • Cross-Talk between p75NTR and Trk Receptor Signaling
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Structure–Function of the Substrate-Binding Domains
        • Mechanism of Hydride Transfer
        • Membrane Topology and Helix Packing of the Membrane Domain
        • The Proton Channel
        • Coupling Mechanism
        • Physiological Role
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nitric Oxide Signaling
        • Abstract
        • Biological Processes Controlled by NO
        • NO Synthase
        • Chemistry of NO
        • Guanylate Cyclase
        • Non-cGMP NO-Signaling Pathways
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • N-Linked Glycan-Processing Glucosidases and Mannosidases
        • Abstract
        • α-Glucosidases
        • Endo α-Mannosidase
        • Processing α-Mannosidases
        • Recognition Molecules (Lectins) for Distinct Glycan Structures
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nonhexameric SF1 DNA Helicases/Translocases
        • Abstract
        • Functions
        • Structural Features of SF1 DNA Helicases
        • ssDNA Translocation by Monomers of SF1 Helicases
        • DNA Unwinding by SF1 Helicases
        • Active versus Passive Mechanisms of DNA Unwinding
        • Dimeric, Subunit Switching Models
        • Protein Displacement by SF1 Translocases
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nonhomologous End Joining in Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Double-Strand Break Repair
        • Different NHEJ Enzymes Are Required for Different Breaks
        • Cell-Cycle-Dependent DNA Break Repair
        • Bacterial NHEJ
        • Bacterial Ku
        • Bacterial DNA LigD
        • Mechanism of Prokaryotic NHEJ
        • NHEJ in Viral Infection
        • Roles for NHEJ in Bacteria
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nonhomologous End Joining in Eukaryotes
        • Abstract
        • Cellular Responses to the Onset of DNA Double-Strand Breakage
        • NHEJ: The Process and the Enzymes
        • Accessory Proteins to the NHEJ Process
        • Function of NHEJ in V(D)J Recombination and Telomere Maintenance
        • NHEJ Enzymes in Human Diseases
        • Inhibitors of the NHEJ Process and Radiation: Combination Therapies
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nonhomologous Recombination: Bacterial Transposons
        • Abstract
        • Structural Similarities and Diversity
        • Mechanism
        • Target Choice
        • Regulation
        • Eukaryotic Transposons
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Nonhomologous Recombination: Retrotransposons
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Retrotransposon Diversity
        • Extrachromosomally Primed Retrotransposons: Replication and Integration
        • TP Retrotransposons: Replication and Integration
        • Integration Site Preference
        • Regulation of Retrotransposons
        • Significance
        • Perspectives
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nuclear Calcium in Synapse-to-Nucleus Communication: Common Regulator of Persistent Adaptations in the Nervous System
        • Abstract
        • Calcium Ions, Key Regulators of Electrical Activity-Dependent Gene Expression
        • Spatial Calcium Signaling in Synapse-to-Nucleus Communication
        • Regulators of Calcium-Induced Gene Expression
        • Calcium Signals in Different Subcellular Compartments
        • CREB Shut-Off Pathway
        • Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptors Antagonize Nuclear Calcium Signaling and BDNF Gene Expression
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nuclear Compartmentalization
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Nuclear Periphery
        • Chromosome Territories and Transcription Factories
        • The Nucleolus
        • Splicing Factor Compartments, Speckles, or SC35 Domains
        • Paraspeckles
        • Promyelocytic Leukemia Nuclear Bodies, ND10
        • Cajal (Coiled) Bodies, Histone Locus Bodies, and Gems
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nuclear Factor Kappa B
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • NFκB Proteins and Protein Structure
        • Regulation of NFκB Activity
        • Genes and Biological Processes Regulated by NFκB
        • Pharmacological Regulation of NFκB Activity
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Nuclear Genes Involved in Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis
        • Abstract
        • Historical Background
        • Origin of Nuclear Gene Products with Functions in Mitochondria
        • Number of Mitochondrially Related Nuclear Genes
        • Yeast as a Model for Mitochondrial Studies
        • Gene Functions
        • Regulation
        • Human Disorders
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nuclear Lamina
        • Abstract
        • Structure of the Nuclear Envelope
        • Structure of the Nuclear Lamina
        • Composition of the Lamina
        • Lamins
        • Lamin Genes
        • Lamin-Associated Proteins
        • Functions of the Lamina
        • Nuclear Envelope Assembly after Mitosis
        • Nuclear Size
        • Nuclear Shape and Rigidity
        • Positioning of Nuclear Pore Complexes
        • Regulation of Gene Expression
        • Regulation of DNA Replication
        • Posttranslational Modification of the Lamina
        • Phosphorylation
        • Isoprenylation
        • Proteolysis
        • Lamins in Human Disease
        • Emery–Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy
        • Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nuclear Organization, Chromatin Structure, and Gene Silencing
        • Abstract
        • Nuclear Envelope
        • Chromatin Packaging
        • Nuclear Organization and Gene Expression
        • Nuclear Position and Disease
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nuclear Pores and Nuclear Import/Export
        • Abstract
        • Nuclear Pores
        • Transport Mechanisms: Protein Trafficking
        • Transport Mechanisms: RNA Trafficking
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nucleolus, Overview
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Structure
        • Functional Organization
        • Amplified Nucleoli and Missing Nucleoli
        • Clinical Connections
        • The Plurifunctional Nucleolus
        • Current Trends and Conclusion
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nucleotide Excision Repair, Bacterial: The UvrABCD System
        • Abstract
        • UvrABC Endonuclease
        • Genetics and Evolutionary Conservation of uvr Genes
        • Properties of UvrA, UvrB, and UvrC Proteins
        • Damage Recognition and Incision
        • Damage-Sensing Mechanism: Padlock Model of Damage Recognition by UvrB
        • Transcription-Coupled Repair
        • Conservation of NER from Bacteria to Humans
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nucleotide Excision Repair: Biology
        • Abstract
        • Modes of NER
        • The Biology of NER
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Nucleotide Excision Repair in Eukaryotes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Damage Recognition
        • Damage Verification and Formation of the Open Complex
        • Incision of the Open Complex
        • Transcription-Coupled Repair
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • O
      • Olfactory Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Olfactory Receptors Are G-Protein-Coupled Heptahelical Receptors
        • Olfactory Receptors Segregate in Several Highly Divergent Groups
        • Gene Structure and Genomic Arrangement of Olfactory Receptors
        • Monogenic and Monoallelic Expression of Olfactory Receptor Genes
        • Olfactory Receptor Gene Expression is Regulated by Proximal and Distal Control Regions
        • Ligand Spectra Have Been Established for a Handful of Olfactory Receptors
        • Combinatorial versus Monospecific Representation of Odorants
        • Signal Transduction of Olfactory Receptors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • O-Linked GlcNAc Biosynthesis and Function
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Biosynthesis of UDP-GlcNAc
        • O-GlcNAc Transferase
        • O-GlcNAcase
        • Function and Physiological Importance
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Opioid Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Historical Perspectives
        • Discovery of Multiple Opioid Receptors
        • Distribution and Pharmacology of Multiple Opioid Receptors
        • Opioid Ligands Selectivity for the Multiple Opioid Receptors
        • Molecular Mechanism of Multiple Opioid Receptor Function
        • Summary and Future Direction
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • ORAI Store-Operated Calcium Channel
        • Abstract
        • Brief History and ICRAC
        • Molecular Basis of SOCE: Roles of Stromal Interaction Molecules (STIM) and ORAI
        • STIM–ORAI Signaling
        • STIM–ORAI Signaling and Human Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Organization of the Bacterial Nucleoid
        • Abstract
        • Nucleoid-Associated Proteins
        • NAPs and Gene Expression
        • DNA Supercoiling
        • NAPs and Topoisomerases
        • The Domain Structure of the Nucleoid
        • Bacterial Physiology, DNA Supercoiling, and NAPs
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Oxygenases
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Nomenclature, Classification, and General Properties of Oxygenases
        • Chemistry of Oxygen Fixation Reactions
        • Biological Function of Oxygenases
        • Oxygenases in Evolution
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • P
      • P2Y Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Extracellular Nucleotides as Signaling Molecules
        • General Structure of the P2Y Receptors
        • Functional Classification of the P2Y Receptors
        • Pharmacological Classification of P2Y Receptors
        • Important Physiological or Pathological Functions of P2Y Receptor Subtypes
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • p53 Family
        • Abstract
        • Functional Domains of p53
        • p53-Mediated Signaling
        • p53 Regulation
        • p53 Family Members
        • Cancer Therapeutics Involving p53, p63, and p73
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Parathyroid Hormone/Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Receptor
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Background and Physiology
        • Structure–Activity Relationships in PTH and PTHrP
        • Structure–Activity Relationships in the PPR
        • The PPR in Human Disease
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Pentose Phosphate (Hexose Mono Phosphate) Pathway
        • Abstract
        • History
        • Reactions
        • Overall Balance and Carbon Fate
        • Mode of Operation
        • Quantitation
        • Clinical Importance
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Peptide Amidation
        • Abstract
        • Biochemistry and Enzymology of PAM
        • PAM Expression
        • PAM Molecular Genetics
        • Dysregulated Peptide Amidation
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Periplasmic Electron-Transport Systems in Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Respiratory Electron-Transport Systems
        • Bacterial Periplasmic Respiratory Electron-Transport Systems That Are Dependent on the Cytochrome bc1 Complex
        • Periplasmic Electron-Transport Systems That Do Not Depend on the Cytochrome bc1 Complex
        • Nonproton Motive Cytochrome bc1 Complex-Independent Periplasmic Electron Transfer
        • Multiheme c-Type Cytochromes and Periplasmic Electron Transfer
        • Synthesis of Periplasmic Electron-Transport Systems
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Peroxidase Biochemistry and Redox Signaling
        • Abstract
        • Cellular Respiration and Production of Reactive Oxygen Species
        • Classification, Distribution, Reaction Mechanism, and Physiological Role of Peroxidases
        • Hydrogen Peroxide as a Signaling Molecule and the Controlling Role of Peroxidases
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Peroxisomal Metabolism
        • Abstract
        • Peroxisome Biogenesis
        • Metabolic Functions of Peroxisomes
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
        • Abstract
        • PPARs: A Three-Pronged Attack
        • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha
        • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma
        • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta
        • Current and Potential Therapeutic Roles for PPAR Activators
        • Last Words
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Peroxisomes
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Peroxisome-Like Organelles
        • Peroxisome Origin and Distribution
        • Functions of Peroxisomes
        • Human Peroxisome-Related Disorders
        • Biogenesis of Peroxisomes
        • Peroxisomal Matrix Protein Import
        • Import of Peroxisomal Membrane Proteins
        • Regulation of Peroxisome Number, Volume, and Contents
        • Division and Proliferation of Peroxisomes
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Phage Display for Protein Binding
        • Abstract
        • Applications of Phage Display
        • Phage Display Vectors
        • Phage Libraries
        • Phage-Binding Selections
        • Phage-Binding Analysis
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Phagocytosis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Receptor Recognition of Particles for Engulfment in Mammalian Systems
        • Involvement of Actin, Actin-Binding, and Actin-Regulating Proteins in Phagocytosis
        • Regulation of Phagocytosis by Heterotrimeric and Small GTP-Binding Proteins
        • Regulation of Phagocytosis by Phosphoinositides and Phosphoinositide-Modifying Enzymes
        • Glossary
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Pheromone Receptors (Yeast)
        • Abstract
        • Pheromone Receptors Are Necessary for Conjugation
        • Pheromone Receptors Stimulate a Signal Transduction Pathway
        • Pheromone Receptors Sense Spatial Gradients
        • Pheromone Receptors Are Regulated at Several Levels
        • Pheromone Receptor Biogenesis
        • Pheromone Receptors Bind Ligand via Contacts with the Extracellular Ends of the Transmembrane Segments
        • Pheromone Receptor Activation May Involve Relief of Conformational Constraint
        • Pheromone Receptors Promote G-Protein Activation via the Third Intracellular Loop
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Phosphatidylinositol-3-Phosphate
        • Abstract
        • Synthesis and Turnover of PtdIns(3)P
        • Synthesis of PtdIns(3)P by PI 3-Kinases and Phosphoinositide Phosphatases
        • Dephosphorylation of PtdIns(3)P
        • Phosphorylation of PtdIns(3)P
        • Molecular Targets and Cellular Functions of PtdIns(3)P
        • Vps34 and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling and Control of Autophagy
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Phosphatidylinositol Bisphosphate and Trisphosphate
        • Abstract
        • Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-Bisphosphate
        • Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-Trisphosphate
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Phosphofructokinase-2/Fructose Bisphosphatase-2
        • Abstract
        • Discovery of PFK-2/FBPase-2
        • General Structure of PFK-2/FBPase-2
        • Enzymology of PFK-2
        • Enzymology of FBPase-2
        • Isoforms of PFK-2/FBPase-2
        • Regulation and Physiological Roles of Specific Isoforms in Specific Tissues
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Phosphoinositide 4- and 5-Kinases and Phosphatases
        • Abstract
        • Phosphoinositides
        • PI 4-Kinases
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases
        • Abstract
        • Phosphoinositide Signaling – An Overview
        • Protein Kinase B/Akt
        • PDK1 and the Regulation of the AGC Kinases
        • PDK2 – The Unidentified Hydrophobic Motif Kinase
        • Regulators of Cellular Growth – mTOR and S6K1
        • Tec Family Kinases
        • Perspectives
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Phospholipase C
        • Abstract
        • Physiological Roles of PLC
        • Biochemistry of PLC
        • PLC Isozymes and Their Regulation Mechanisms
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Phospholipase D
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • PLD Structure
        • Roles for PLDs in Cells and Organisms
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Phospholipid Synthesis in Yeast
        • Abstract
        • Phospholipid Composition
        • Phospholipid Synthesis
        • Synthesis of PA
        • CDP–DAG Pathway
        • CDP–Choline and CDP–Ethanolamine (Kennedy) Pathways
        • Other Pathways from CDP–DAG
        • Regulation of Phospholipid Synthesis
        • Genetic Regulation
        • Biochemical Regulation
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Photoinhibition and Photoprotection in Plants, Algae, and Cyanobacteria
        • Abstract
        • Light Energy Transduction
        • Oxygen, the By-Product of Photosynthesis, Can Be Harmful
        • Photoinhibitory Damage to PSII
        • The D1 Protein of the PSII Reaction Center is Selectively Degraded
        • The D1 Protein as a Sacrificial ‘Fuse’ System
        • Charge Recombination to Ground State as a Protecting Mechanism
        • The Mechanism of Photoinhibition of PSII is Still Controversial
        • Photosystem I Light Damage
        • Dissipation of Excess Singlet States: Nonphotochemical Quenching
        • Nonphotochemical Quenching in Algae
        • Nonphotochemical Quenching in Cyanobacteria
        • Xanthophyll Cycle
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Photoreceptors
        • Abstract
        • Retinal Photoreceptors
        • Rods
        • Outer Segment
        • Inner Segment
        • Cell Body
        • Synaptic Terminal
        • Cones
        • Phototransduction
        • Retinal Nonrod/Noncone Photoreceptors
        • Parietal-Eye Photoreceptor
        • Pineal Photoreceptors
        • Deep-Brain Photoreceptors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Photosynthesis
        • Abstract
        • Photosynthetic Structures
        • Harvesting Light
        • Electron Transport and ATP Synthesis
        • Carbon Fixation and Photorespiration
        • CO2-Concentrating Mechanisms
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Fixation
        • Abstract
        • Light Provides Energy (Adenosine Triphosphate) and Reducing Power (Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate) for CO2 Fixation
        • The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis
        • Carboxylation Phase
        • Supplementary Carboxylation Pathways – C4 and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
        • Reduction Phase
        • Regeneration Phase
        • Regulation of the Calvin Cycle
        • Are Some Calvin Cycle Enzymes More Important in Regulating Carbon Flux than Others?
        • Calvin Cycle Enzymes That Most Limit Flux
        • Genetic Modification of Photosynthesis to Improve Growth and Yield
        • Feedback Regulation of the Calvin Cycle
        • Photosynthetic CO2 Fixation of Whole Plants
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Photosystem I
        • Abstract
        • Definition
        • Introduction
        • Structure and Function of PSI: Overview
        • The Cofactors
        • The Proteins
        • The Electron Transfer Chain
        • The Antenna System
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • References
      • Photosystem II: Assembly and Turnover of the D1 Protein
        • Abstract
        • Biogenesis and Assembly of a New PSII Complex
        • Turnover of the D1 Protein of PSII
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Photosystem II: Redox and Protein Components
        • Abstract
        • Morphology
        • Redox Active Cofactors
        • Proteins
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Photosystem II: Water Oxidation, Overview
        • Abstract
        • Photosystem II and the Water-Splitting Enzyme
        • The Thermodynamic and Kinetic Features of the Water-Splitting Enzyme
        • The Structure of the Catalytic Center and the Redox Events during the Reaction Cycle
        • The Mechanism of Water Oxidation
        • Perspective
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Plasma-Membrane Calcium Pump: Structure and Function
        • Abstract
        • Structural and Regulatory Characteristics
        • Isoforms and Tissue Distribution
        • Role in Physiology and Pathology
        • Genetic Manipulations of PMCA and Sodium Calcium Exchanger (NCX)
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Plastocyanin
        • Abstract
        • Plastocyanin Structure
        • The Interaction of PC with Cyt f
        • The Interaction of PC with PSI
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor
        • Abstract
        • Platelet-Activating Factor
        • PAF Receptor Structure
        • PAF Receptor Regulation
        • PAF Receptor Signal Transduction
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Family
        • Abstract
        • PDGF Isoforms
        • PDGF Receptors
        • Proteins Associated with the PDGF Receptors and PDGF-Driven Signaling Pathways
        • Cellular Responses Mediated by the PDGF Receptors
        • Negative Regulation of the PDGFR Signaling
        • Developmental Role of the PDGF Receptors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Porphyrin Metabolism
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Biosynthesis of Porphyrins
        • Regulation
        • Deficiencies in Porphyrin Synthesis
        • Porphyrin Catabolism
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Potassium Channels in the Inner Membrane of Mitochondria in Various Organisms: From Unicellular Eukaryotes to Higher Plants and Mammals
        • Abstract
        • The Mitochondrial Potassium Cycle
        • The Mitochondrial ATP-Dependent Potassium Channel
        • Calcium-Dependent Potassium Channels
        • MitoKv1.3
        • Two-Pore Potassium Channel TASK-3
        • Open Questions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Pre-tRNA and Pre-rRNA Processing in Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Processing of Pre-tRNAs
        • Structure of Primary tRNA Transcripts
        • Processing at the 5′-End of Bacterial tRNA Precursors
        • Processing of tRNA 3′-End in E. coli
        • Maturation of tRNA 3′-End in Other Bacteria
        • Processing of Pre-rRNAs
        • Structure of Primary rRNA Transcripts
        • Primary Processing Reactions
        • Generation of Mature rRNAs in E. coli
        • Generation of Mature rRNAs in B. subtilis
        • Generation of Mature rRNAs in Other Bacteria
        • The Consequences of Defective Processing
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
        • Abstract
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Pathophysiology
        • Pathology
        • Clinical Findings
        • Laboratory Tests
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Prions of Yeast and Fungi: Proteins Acting as Genes
        • Abstract
        • Yeast and Fungal Prions: Genetic Criteria
        • Known Prions of Yeasts and Fungi
        • Prion Domains and Functional Domains
        • Yeast, Fungal Prions [PSI+], [URE3], [PIN+], and [Het-s] Are Self-Propagating Amyloidoses
        • [PSI] and [URE3] Are Diseases, but [HET-s] Carries Out a Normal Function
        • Prion Generation
        • Chaperones and Prion Propagation
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Prions Overview
        • Abstract
        • The Prion as an Unprecedented Agent
        • Properties of the Two Isoforms of PrP
        • The Prion Model
        • Conformational Transitions and Synthetic Prions
        • Prion Strains
        • Physiology and Pathophysiology of PrP and Prions
        • Scrapie Prions: The Transmissible Archetype of Protein Misfolding Diseases
        • Applied Aspects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • Processivity Clamps in DNA Replication
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Clamp and Clamp Loader Structures
        • Polymerase Switching on Clamps during Replication
        • Polymerase Exchange on Sliding Clamps during DNA Damage
        • Questions for Future Studies
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes
        • Abstract
        • Prostanoid Structures
        • Prostanoid Biosynthesis
        • PGHS Catalysis and Inhibition
        • PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 Gene Expression
        • PGH2 Metabolism
        • Prostanoid Catabolism
        • Prostanoid Actions
        • Leukotrienes and Lipoxygenase Products
        • 5-Lipoxygenase
        • 5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein
        • LTA4 Hydrolase and LTC4 Synthase
        • Leukotriene Metabolism
        • Leukotriene Biology and Leukotriene Receptors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Proteases in Blood Clotting
        • Abstract
        • The Coagulation Cascade
        • Structure and Function of the Blood-Clotting Proteases
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Proteasomes, Overview
        • Abstract
        • The 20S Proteasome
        • The 26S Proteasome
        • Proteasome Activators
        • Protein Inhibitors of the Proteasome
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Proteinase-Activated Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Structure
        • PAR Activating and Inactivating Proteinases
        • Agonist Peptides
        • Turning the Signal Off: Desensitization, Internalization, and Resensitization
        • Receptor Dimerization and Intermolecular Activation of PARs
        • Antagonists
        • Distribution
        • Detection Methods
        • Bioassays
        • Physiological Roles of PARs
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Protein Carboxyl Esterification
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Carboxyl Methylation in Bacterial Chemotaxis
        • Carboxyl Methylation of Eukaryotic Signal Transduction Proteins
        • Carboxyl Methylation of Ras-Related and Heterotrimeric G Proteins
        • Carboxyl Methylation of Phosphoprotein Phosphatase 2A
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Protein Data Resources
        • Abstract
        • Primary Sequence Data
        • Genomic Sequence and Context Resources
        • Three-Dimensional Protein Data Resources
        • Protein Function Resources
        • Availability and Maintenance of Resources
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Protein Degradation
        • Abstract
        • Endocytic–Lysosomal Pathway
        • Ubiquitin–Proteasome Pathway
        • ER-Associated Degradation
        • Proteolysis in Mitochondria
        • Proteolysis in Bacteria and Archaea
        • Targeting Proteolysis for Drug Development
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Protein Folding and Assembly
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Thermodynamics of Protein Folding
        • Folding Kinetics and Mechanisms
        • More Complex Folding Reactions
        • Assembly of Oligomeric Proteins
        • Protein Misfolding and Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Protein Import into Mitochondria
        • Abstract
        • Mitochondrial Targeting Signals
        • Transport to and across the Outer Membrane
        • Translocation into the IMS
        • Translocation into the Matrix
        • Protein Insertion into the Inner Membrane
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Protein Kinase C Family
        • Abstract
        • Historical Perspective
        • PKC Family Members
        • PKC Phosphorylation
        • PKC Translocation
        • PKC Scaffolds
        • PKC Downregulation
        • PKC Signaling
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Protein N-Myristoylation
        • Abstract
        • N-Myristoylproteins
        • N-Myristoyltransferase
        • Therapeutics
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Protein Palmitoylation
        • Abstract
        • Covalent Modification of Proteins with Palmitoyl Groups
        • Palmitoyltransferases
        • Palmitoylthioesterases
        • Palmitoylation and Protein Function
        • Palmitoylation Inhibitors
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Catalytic Mechanism of PTPs
        • Classification of PTPs
        • PTPs and Human Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Proteoglycans
        • Abstract
        • Proteoglycan Structure
        • PG Families
        • Processing
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Proton Pumping in the Respiratory Chain
        • Abstract
        • The Proton-Translocating Respiratory Chain, an Overall Perspective
        • Redox Loop versus Proton Pump
        • Complex I or NADH: Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase
        • Complex III or Ubiquinol:Ferricytochrome c Oxidoreductase
        • Complex IV or Cytochrome c Oxidase
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Pteridines
        • Abstract
        • Distribution of Pterins in Nature
        • Biosynthesis of Neopterin and Biopterin
        • Pterins in Metabolism
        • Tetrahydrobiopterin and Human Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • P-Type Pumps: Copper Pump
        • Abstract
        • Biological Roles of Cu Pumps
        • Molecular Architecture and Functions of Cu Pumps
        • Regulation of Mammalian Cu Pumps
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • P-Type Pumps: H+/K+ Pump
        • Abstract
        • Structure of the Gastric H+,K+-ATPase
        • The β-Subunit of Gastric H+,K+-ATPase
        • Regions of Association in the Oligomeric Structure
        • Kinetics and Conformational Changes of the Gastric H+,K+-ATPase
        • Functional Residues of the H+,K+-ATPase
        • Acid Secretion and the Gastric H+,K+-ATPase
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • P-Type Pumps: Na+,K+-ATPase
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Subunits and Isoforms
        • Reaction Mechanism
        • Structure of the Na+,K+-ATPase
        • Physiological Functions of Na+,K+-ATPase
        • Cardiac Glycosides
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • P-Type Pumps: Plasma-Membrane H+ Pumps
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Structure
        • Reaction Mechanism
        • Biogenesis
        • Regulation
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Purple Bacteria: Electron Acceptors and Donors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Electron Transport Chain
        • Electron Acceptors and Donors Common in Photosynthesis and Respiration
        • Electron Acceptors and Donors Specific of Photosynthesis
        • Electron Acceptors and Donors Specific of Respiration
        • Other Electron Acceptors and Donors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Purple Bacteria: Photosynthetic Reaction Centers
        • Abstract
        • Photosynthetic Reaction Centers
        • Subunit Composition and Molecular Characterization
        • X-Ray Crystal Structures of RCs from Purple Bacteria
        • Functional Aspects
        • Functional Derivatives
        • Inter- and Intramolecular Electron and Proton Transfer and Catalytic Mechanism
        • Relevance to PSII
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Pyridoxal Phosphate
        • Abstract
        • Transamination
        • The Variety of PLP-Dependent Reactions
        • Chemical Mechanisms
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Degradation (Catabolism)
        • Abstract
        • De Novo Synthesis
        • Interconversions in Pyrimidine Biosynthesis
        • Salvage
        • Catabolism of Pyrimidines
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Pyruvate Kinase
        • Abstract
        • PK Reaction
        • Structure
        • Regulation of Liver PK in vitro
        • Regulation of LPK Concentration by Gene Expression
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • Q
      • Quinones
        • Abstract
        • Chemistry of Quinones
        • Biological Benzoquinones: Coenzyme Q and Plastoquinone
        • Biological o-Benzoquinones Derived from Catecholamines
        • Biological Naphthoquinones: Menaquinone and Vitamin K
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
    • R
      • Rab Family
        • Abstract
        • Discovery
        • Primary Structure and Evolution
        • Posttranslational Modifications
        • Cellular Localization
        • Functional Cycle
        • Effectors
        • Rabs and Diseases
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Ran GTPase
        • Abstract
        • Small Guanosine Triphosphate-Binding Proteins as Molecular Switches
        • Nucleocytoplasmic Transport
        • The Ran GTPase
        • Cellular Functions of Ran
        • Regulation of Spindle and Nuclear Envelope Assembly at Mitosis
        • Other Roles of Ran
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Ras Family
        • Abstract
        • Physical Properties
        • The GDP/GTP Cycle and Ras Mutations
        • H-, K-, and N-Ras
        • Ral
        • R-Ras 1, 2, and 3
        • Rap1 and 2
        • Rheb
        • Other Ras Family Members
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species: Interactions with Mitochondria and Pathophysiology
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • What Are Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species?
        • Generation of ROS from Mitochondria
        • Other Sources of ROS Formation within the Mitochondrion
        • Can the Mitochondria Sense the Site of ROS Formation?
        • Can Mitochondrial ROS be Controlled?
        • Nitric Oxide and Mitochondria
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Recombination-Dependent DNA Replication
        • Abstract
        • Early Models of Homologous Recombination Invoke Recombination-Dependent DNA Replication
        • RDR Pathways in Bacteriophage
        • RDR in Escherichia coli and Other Bacteria
        • RDR in Eukaryotic Cells
        • RDR as a Backup Mechanism to Complete DNA Replication
        • Replication Fork Failure and Direct Restart Pathways
        • Disturbances in Fork Processing Lead to Genome Instability and Cancer Predisposition
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Recombination: DNA Helicases and Nucleases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Models of DNA Recombination
        • DNA Helicases
        • DNA Nucleases
        • DSB End Resection: Helicases and Nucleases Generate ssDNA Substrate for DNA Recombination
        • DNA Translocases in Strand Invasion, Branch Migration, and DNA Synthesis
        • Removal of Terminal Nonhomology by Yeast Rad1/(Rad10) Nuclease
        • Multiple DNA Helicases and Nucleases Involved in Resolution of Recombination Intermediates
        • DNA Helicases Inhibiting DNA Recombination
        • Nucleases in NHEJ
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Recombination: DNA-Strand Transferases
        • Abstract
        • Homology Search and DNA-Strand Invasion by DNA-Strand Transferases
        • Structure and Properties of DNA-Strand Transferase Filaments
        • Recombination Mediators and Other Factors
        • Anti-Recombinases Target the Rad51-ssDNA Filaments for Disassembly
        • In Vitro Assays for DNA-Strand Transferase Activity
        • DNA-Strand Transferases in Signaling and Translesion Synthesis
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • RecQ Helicase Systems
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • RecQ Helicases
        • RecQ Helicases and DNA Repair
        • Bloom's Syndrome
        • Werner's Syndrome
        • Rothmund Thomson Syndrome
        • Anti-Recombinogenic Actions of RecQ Helicases
        • Pro-Recombinogenic Roles of RecQ Helicases
        • RecQ Helicases in Meiosis
        • Roles of RecQ Helicases during Replication
        • RecQ Helicases in Mitotic Cell Division
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis
        • Abstract
        • RIP Mediated by S2P Family
        • RIP Mediated by γ-Secretase
        • RIP Mediated by SPP
        • RIP Mediated by Rhomboid
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Regulation of Body Weight by Malonyl-CoA in the CNS
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Regulation of Cellular Fatty Acid Metabolism
        • The Hypothalamus Is Important for the Control of Food Intake and Energy Homeostasis
        • The Role of Central FASN in Regulating Body Weight
        • Hypothalamic Malonyl-CoA
        • Regulation of Hypothalamic Malonyl-CoA
        • Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1c
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Regulation of Chromatin Dynamics
        • Abstract
        • Chromatin Basics
        • Covalent Modifications on Nucleosomes
        • Acetylation
        • Methylation
        • Phosphorylation
        • Ubiquitylation
        • Sumoylation
        • Citrullination
        • Proteolysis
        • Histone Variants
        • ATP-Dependent Nucleosome Remodeling
        • Mechanism of Remodeling
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Regulation of Gene Transcription by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Mediates Transcriptional Responses to Hypoxia in All Metazoan Species
        • HIF-1 Functions Principally as a DNA-Binding Protein That Activates Gene Transcription
        • HIF-1 Triggers a Transcriptional Cascade
        • HIF-1 Regulates Genes Encoding Histone Demethylases
        • HIF-1 Regulates the Transcription of Micro-RNAs
        • Transcriptional Regulation by HIF-1α Monomers
        • Regulation of HIF-1α Levels and Transcriptional Activity
        • Regulation of Energy Metabolism by HIF-1
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Renewable Hydrogen from Biomass
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Enzymes
        • Substrates
        • Organisms and Pathways
        • Processes, Challenges, and Approaches
        • Epilog
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Repair of G–T Mismatches by Escherichia coli Vsr and Eukaryotic DNA Glycosylases
        • Abstract
        • VSP Repair in E. coli
        • Methyl-CpG-Binding Domain 4 Protein in Eukaryotes
        • Thymine-DNA Glycosylase
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Respiration in Phototrophic Microorganisms
        • Abstract
        • Anoxygenic Phototrophs
        • Metabolic Aspects of Facultative Anoxygenic Bacteria
        • Electron Transport Chains
        • Interaction between the Diverse Electron Transport Chains
        • Genetic Regulation of Respiration and Photosynthesis in Facultative Phototrophs
        • Oxygenic Micrororganisms
        • Electron Transport Pathways in Cyanobacteria
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Respiratory Chain and ATP Synthase
        • Abstract
        • Components of the Respiratory Chain
        • Respiratory Chain Complexes
        • Organization of the Respiratory Chain
        • The ATP Synthase
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Respiratory Chain Complex I
        • Abstract
        • Introduction to Complex I
        • Complex I Structure
        • Complex I Evolution
        • Complex I Function
        • Complex I in Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Respiratory Chain Complex II and Succinate: Quinone Oxidoreductases
        • Abstract
        • SQOR Classification
        • SQOR Structure and Function
        • Electron and Proton Transfer
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Respiratory Chain Complex IV
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Prosthetic Groups
        • Protein Composition
        • X-Ray Crystal Structures of Cytochrome c Oxidases and Other Terminal Oxidases
        • The Catalytic Cycle and Proton Pumping
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Retinoblastoma Protein (pRB)
        • Abstract
        • The pRB Family of Proteins
        • The RB Tumor Suppressor
        • The Cellular Function of pRB
        • pRB and Cell-Cycle Regulation
        • The Rb Pathway
        • Molecular Functions of pRB
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Retinoic Acid Receptors
        • Abstract
        • RA and RA Signaling
        • RAR Structure and Function
        • RA Response Elements
        • RA Transcriptional Activation
        • RAR Function
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Rho GTPases and Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics
        • Abstract
        • Rho GTPase Family: Overview and Regulation
        • Guanine-Nucleotide-Exchange Factors
        • GTPase-Activating Proteins
        • Guanine-Nucleotide-Dissociation Inhibitors
        • Rho GTPase Family Activity: Downstream Targets
        • Rho GTPase Family: Functions in Cell Biology
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Ribosome Assembly
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Model Systems
        • Assembly Principles Learned from In Vitro Studies
        • Eukaryotic Ribosome Biogenesis In Vivo
        • Ribosome Biogenesis and Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Ribosome Regulation by EF-G and EF-Tu
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • EF-Tu and Initial Selection
        • EF-Tu and GTP Hydrolysis
        • Substrate Proofreading
        • EF-G and Translocation
        • EF-G–Ribosome Interactions
        • EF-G and Ribosome Recycling
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Ribosome Structure
        • Abstract
        • Ribosome Function
        • Ribosome Structure
        • Perspective
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Riboswitches
        • Abstract
        • Discovery
        • Riboswitch Structures and Classes
        • Riboswitch Function
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Ribozymes and Evolution
        • Abstract
        • Ribonucleic Acid
        • Catalytic RNA
        • Phylogenetic Distribution of Ribozymes
        • RNA and the Origins of Life
        • In Vitro Evolution of RNA
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Ribozyme Structural Elements: Group II Introns and the Spliceosome
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • The Structural Organization of Group II Introns
        • Three-Dimensional Architecture and Structural Features of Group II Introns
        • Group II Intron Folding and the Role of a Protein Cofactor
        • Are Group II Introns and the Spliceosome Related?
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • RNA Editing
        • Abstract
        • Discovery of RNA Editing
        • Adenosine-to-Inosine Substitution RNA Editing
        • Adenosine Deaminases That Act on RNA
        • Cytidine-to-Uridine Substitution RNA Editing
        • Editosome Complex
        • Substitution Editing of Viral RNAs
        • Editing by Nucleotide Insertion/Deletion
        • Roles of RNA Editing
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • RNA Polymerase I and RNA Polymerase III in Eukaryotes
        • Abstract
        • Genes Transcribed by RNA Polymerases I and III
        • Nucleoli
        • The RNA Polymerase Molecules
        • The RNA Polymerase I and III Transcription Apparatus
        • Alu Genes and Retrotransposition
        • RNA Polymerases I and III and Tumor Suppression
        • Links between Human Disease and RNA Polymerases I and III
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • RNA Polymerase II and Its General Transcription Factors
        • Abstract
        • RNA Pol II Structure and Function
        • Pol II GTFs
        • Mechanism of Pol II Initiation
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • RNA Polymerase II Elongation Control in Eukaryotes
        • Abstract
        • Historical Perspective
        • Positive and Negative Elongation Factors
        • N-TEFs and Termination Factors
        • P-TEFb
        • Integration of Elongation Control and Gene Expression
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • RNA Polymerase Reaction in Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Transcription: Basic Mechanism
        • Transcription Cycle: Initiation
        • Transcription Cycle: Elongation
        • Transcription Cycle: Termination
        • Nucleotide Additional Cycle and Proofreading
        • Transcription Inhibitions by Antibiotics
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • RNA Polymerase Structure, Bacterial
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Structure of RNAP Core Enzyme
        • Structure of RNAP Holoenzyme
        • Structure of Holoenzyme–Promoter DNA Complexes
        • Structure of EC
        • Future Prospects
        • See also
        • Further Reading
      • RNA Splicing
        • Abstract
        • Observation of Split Genes Lead to the Discovery of Splicing
        • The Chemistry of Pre-mRNA Splicing
        • Splicing Consensus Sequences Designate Introns
        • Exon–Intron Architecture of Eukaryotic Genes
        • The Spliceosome Is the Machinery Responsible for Pre-mRNA Splicing
        • Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing
        • Self-Splicing Introns and the Discovery of Ribozymes
        • Trans-Splicing
        • Evolutionary Implications of Splicing
        • Splicing and Human Disease
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Roles of Micro-RNAs in Metabolism
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • miRNA Biogenesis
        • miRNA in Pancreatic β-Cell Biology
        • miRNA in Lipid Metabolism
        • miRNA in Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Signaling
        • miRNA in the Treatment of Metabolic Diseases
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Ion Channels
        • Abstract
        • Distribution, Isolation, and Structure of RyRs
        • RyR1 Pore Structure
        • Regulation by Ca2+ and Endogenous Effectors
        • RyRs and Calmodulin
        • RyRs and Protein Kinases
        • RyRs and Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species
        • Pharmacology of RyRs
        • RyR-Associated Proteins
        • RyRs and Muscle Disorders
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • S
      • Secretases
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • α-Secretase
        • β-Secretase
        • γ-Secretase
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Secretory Pathway
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Targeting of New Proteins to the Secretory Pathway
        • Protein Folding and Modification in the ER
        • Protein Transport Through and Localization in the Secretory Pathway
        • Protein Exit from the Golgi and Targeting to Post-Golgi Locations
        • Microtubule and Motor Proteins in the Secretory Pathway
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Selenoprotein Synthesis
        • Abstract
        • Bacterial Selenoprotein Synthesis
        • Archaeal and Eukaryal Selenoprotein Synthesis
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Septins and Cytokinesis
        • Abstract
        • Cytokinesis
        • Biochemical and Structural Properties of the Septins
        • Septin Behavior and Function in Cytokinesis
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Serine/Threonine Phosphatases
        • Abstract
        • Protein Ser/Thr Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit Families
        • Biochemical Characterization of Signature Protein Ser/Thr Phosphatases
        • Three-Dimensional Structures and Catalytic Mechanism
        • Subunit Structure of PPP Family Members
        • Examples of Functions and Regulation of Protein Ser/Thr Phosphatases
        • DARPP-32
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Serotonin Receptor Signaling
        • Abstract
        • Serotonin Synthesis and Metabolism
        • Serotonin Receptor Structure and Function
        • Serotonin Receptors That Inhibit Adenylyl Cyclase
        • Serotonin Receptors Linked to Activation of Adenylate Cyclase
        • Serotonin Receptors Coupled to the Activation of PLC
        • The Serotonin 3 Receptor Is a Ligand-Gated Ion Channel
        • Alternative Splice Variants of Serotonin Receptors
        • RNA Editing Produces Multiple Functional 5-HT2C Receptor Isoforms
        • Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Occur in the Serotonin Receptor Family
        • Functional Selectivity and Cross-Talk between 5-HT Receptor Signal Transduction Pathways
        • Summary: Potential Role of Receptor Diversity
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Siglecs
        • Abstract
        • Historical Background and Definition
        • Two Broad Subgroups of Siglecs
        • Common Structural Features
        • Cell-Type Specific Expression
        • Genomic Organization and Phylogeny
        • Siglec Recognition of Sialic Acids and Their Linkages
        • Potential Effects of Neu5Gc Loss on Human Siglec Biology
        • Masking and Unmasking of Siglec-Binding Sites on Cell Surfaces
        • Signaling Motifs in Cytosolic Tails
        • Known and Putative Functions of the Siglecs
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Sigma Factors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Gene Regulation in Bacteria
        • Bacterial RNA Polymerase and the Transcription Cycle
        • Biochemical Properties
        • Roles of σ in Gene Regulation
        • Phylogenetic Distribution
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Sliding Clamps in DNA Replication: Escherichia coli β-Clamp and PCNA Structure
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clamp Configuration and Function
        • Clamp/Clamp-Loader Interactions
        • Clamp/Polymerase Interactions
        • Clamp/DNA Interactions
        • Processivity Factors in Other Species
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Small GTPases
        • Abstract
        • Identification and Classification of Small Guanosine Triphosphatases
        • Guanosine Diphosphate/GTP Structure and Regulation
        • Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
        • Different GEFs Are Activated by Different Signaling Cascades
        • GTPase-Activating Proteins
        • Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors
        • Genetic Deregulation of Small GTPases
        • Diverse Biology and Function of Small GTPases
        • Ras Proteins as Signaling Nodes and Regulators of Cell Proliferation
        • Rho Family Proteins and Actin Cytoskeletal Organization, Cell Morphology, and Cell Movement
        • Small GTPases and Membrane Trafficking
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Small RNAs in Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • cis-Acting sRNAs – Riboswitches
        • cis-Encoded sRNAs – Antisense
        • trans-Encoded sRNAs
        • sRNAs That Bind Protein to Modulate Their Activity
        • CRISPR-Based Defense against Infection
        • Prokaryotic Argonaute
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Sodium–Calcium Exchanger: Structural Aspects
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The NCX1 Membrane Topology
        • NCX1 Helix Packing
        • NCX1 Dimerization
        • Structure–Function of NCX Cytoplasmic Domains
        • Structure–Function of NCX Extracellular Domains
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Somatostatin Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Physiological Sst Receptor Ligands
        • Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Sst Receptors
        • Pharmacology of Sst Receptor Subtypes
        • Sst Receptor Signaling
        • Sst Receptor Regulation
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Spastic Paraplegia
        • Abstract
        • Neuropathology
        • Genetics
        • Pathogenesis
        • Other HSP Genes with Potential Endosomal Localization
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Spectrophotometric Assays
        • Abstract
        • Manual Spectrometers
        • Dual-Wavelength Technology
        • Photochemical Action Spectra
        • Tissue Spectroscopy
        • The Scattered Light Problem
        • Control of Respiration
        • Low-Temperature Technology
        • Lubbers' Rapid Scan
        • Photoactivation Studies
        • The Ruby Laser and Electron Tunneling
        • Fluorochromes of Tissues
        • Hemoglobin and Cytochrome
        • NADH as an Oximeter
        • NIR Spectroscopy
        • NIR Spectroscopy of Brain and the BOLD Effect Measured by MRI
        • NIR Imaging
        • Photon Migration in Tissues
        • Tissue Optical Properties
        • Cancer Detection
        • Muscle Studies
        • Brain Functional Activation
        • Brain Studies: The Neuronal Signal
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Sphingolipid Biosynthesis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Structures and Nomenclature
        • Sphingoid Bases
        • Ceramides
        • More Complex Phospho- and Glyco-Sphingolipids
        • Protein Adducts
        • De novo Biosynthesis of Sphingolipids
        • Biosynthesis of the Lipid Backbone
        • Headgroup Addition for Formation of More Complex Sphingolipids
        • Other Metabolic Processes
        • Sphingolipidomics
        • Perspectives
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Sphingolipid Catabolism
        • Abstract
        • Sphingomyelin Catabolism
        • Ceramide Catabolism
        • Sphingoid Base Catabolism
        • Glycosphingolipid Catabolism
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Src Family of Protein Tyrosine Kinases
        • Abstract
        • History of Src
        • Functions of Src in Development
        • Other Vertebrate Src Family Kinases: Redundant and Specific Functions
        • Cellular Functions of Src Family Kinases: Signaling Adhesion and Immune Responses
        • Regulation of Src Kinase Activity
        • Nonvertebrate Src Kinases and Their Functions
        • Summary: Integration of Many Inputs and Regulation of Many Outputs
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Starvation
        • Abstract
        • Background
        • Obesity and Starvation, and Clinical Features of Starvation
        • Metabolic Alteration Related to Starvation: Fed to Fasted to Fed
        • Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Energy Requirements
        • The Nature and Quantity of Fuels Oxidized during Starvation
        • Changes in the Concentration of Substrates and Hormones in the Blood
        • Hormonal Changes
        • Appetite Regulation
        • Biochemical Changes during Starvation
        • Urinary Nitrogen Excretion
        • Fuel Consumption during Starvation
        • Concluding Statement
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Steroid/Thyroid Hormone Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Overview of Nuclear Receptor Ligands and Mechanism of Action
        • The Steroid/Thyroid Hormone Receptor Superfamily
        • Steroid Receptor Coregulators
        • Steroid Receptor Agonists and Antagonists
        • Cross-Talk between Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling Pathways
        • Functional Interactions between Nuclear Receptors and Signal-Regulated Transcription Factors
        • Nuclear Receptor Stimulation of Cell-Signaling Pathways
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Store-Operated Calcium Channels
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Identification of STIM and Orai Proteins
        • STIM Localization and Structural Domains
        • STIM Proteins as ER Calcium Sensors
        • STIM Oligomerization: Signal Initiated
        • STIM Translocation to the PM: Signal Transmitted
        • STIM Signal Turned On or Off by Posttranslational Modification
        • STIM-Mediated Channel Clustering and Subunit Organization: Signal Received
        • Opening ORAI: Signal Delivered
        • Inactivation and Store Refilling: Signal Dampened and Terminated
        • STIM1 and TRPc Channels
        • STIM in Health and Disease
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Structure and Regulation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenases
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Components of Pyruvate Dehydrognases
        • Reaction Mechanism of PDH
        • Lipoyl Domain in Substrate Channeling and Active Site Coupling
        • Regulation of the PDH
        • Architecture of PDHs by Cryo-Electron Microscopy
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Structure–Function of the Cytochrome b6f Complex of Oxygenic Photosynthesis
        • Abstract
        • Function
        • Crystal Structures
        • Function
        • Evolution
        • Acknowledgments
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Structure of P-Type Adenosine Triphosphatases
        • Abstract
        • P-Type Adenosine Triphosphatase Family
        • Structural Studies of P-Type ATPases
        • Sarcoplasmic Reticulm Calcium Pump – A Model Member of the P-Type ATPase Family
        • Structural Changes during the Calcium Pump Reaction Cycle
        • The Sodium–Potassium Pump
        • The Gastric Proton–Potassium Pump
        • The Plasma Membrane Proton Pump
        • Heavy Metal P-Type ATPases
        • Flippases
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Structure of Respiratory Complex I
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Overall Organization
        • Hydrophilic Domain and Redox Centers
        • Frataxin-Like Subunit in Complex I
        • NADH Binding
        • Mutations in Complex I Subunits
        • Supernumerary Subunits in Eukaryotic Complex I
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Substrate Binding, Catalysis, and Product Release
        • Abstract
        • The Haldane Relationship
        • Catalysis
        • Free-Energy Profiles
        • Rate-Limiting Step for V/K
        • Rate-Limiting Steps for V
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Sugar Nucleotide Transporters
        • Abstract
        • A Requirement for Sugar Nucleotide Transport into the Golgi Apparatus Lumen
        • Mutants in Nucleotide Sugar Transport – Biochemical and Developmental Phenotypes Including Diseases
        • Structure of Golgi Nucleotide Sugar Transporters
        • Topography of Nucleotide Sugar Transporters in the Golgi Membrane
        • Regulation of Macromolecular Glycosylation by Nucleotide Sugar Transporters
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Superoxide Dismutase
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The SOD Family of Enzymes
        • The Cu, Zn SODs
        • The Mn SODs
        • The Fe SODs
        • Deletions and Consequences
        • SOD and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
        • Mimics
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • T
      • T7 RNA Polymerase
        • Abstract
        • DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases
        • T7 RNA Polymerase
        • T7 RNA Polymerase: Transcription Reaction and Conformational Change
        • T7 RNA Polymerase: Applications
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Tachykinin/Substance P/Neurokinin-1 Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Tachykinins
        • Mammalian Tachykinin Function
        • Role of the Carboxyl Tail in NK1R Function
        • The Role of NK1R in Human Disease
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Taste Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Taste Receptor Cells
        • G-Protein-Coupled Taste Receptors
        • Ion Channels as Taste Receptors
        • Transduction Cascades
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • T-Cell Antigen Receptor
        • Abstract
        • TCR:CD3 Complex: Genes, Proteins, and the Receptor Complex
        • Role of the TCR in T Cell Biology and Signaling
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • T-Cell Receptor Signaling to NF-κB
        • Abstract
        • The Antigen Receptor and the Immunological Synapse
        • Receptor-Proximal Signaling
        • Second Messengers
        • Downstream Activators
        • IKK Complex Activation
        • NF-κB Activation
        • Pathway Dysregulation: Cancer and Autoimmunity/Inflammation
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Telomeres: Maintenance and Replication
        • Abstract
        • The Telomeric Complex: A Specialized Nucleoprotein Structure at Chromosome Ends
        • Telomere Replication
        • Telomere Capping
        • Telomerase Repression in Somatic Cells
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone/Luteinizing Hormone/Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Expression and Physiological Roles of the Glycoprotein Hormone Receptors
        • Structural Organization of the Glycoprotein Hormone Receptors
        • Genomic Organization of the Glycoprotein Hormone Receptors
        • Activation of the Glycoprotein Hormone Receptors
        • Human Diseases Associated with the Glycoprotein Hormone Receptors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Tight Junctions
        • Abstract
        • Structure
        • Functions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Toll-Like Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • TLR PAMPs
        • Structure of TLRs
        • TLR Signaling Pathway
        • TLRs and Infectious Diseases
        • TLR Agonist/Antagonist Used as Vaccine Adjuvant or Drug
        • Future Perspective
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Transcription-Coupled DNA Repair Overview
        • Abstract
        • Nucleotide Excision Repair and Its Subpathways
        • Transcription-Coupled DNA Repair
        • RNA Polymerase Arrest and Initiation of TCR
        • Transcription Arrest at DNA Lesions
        • Perspective
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Transcription Termination
        • Abstract
        • Introduction and Background
        • Bacterial Transcription Termination
        • Site-Specific Antitermination: Attenuators and Riboswitches
        • Termination and Antitermination Factors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Transient Receptor Potential Channels
        • Abstract
        • Introduction to Transient Receptor Potential Channels
        • Major Features of TRP Channel Structure
        • Activation of TRP Channels
        • TRP Channel Function
        • TRP Channels and Human Diseases
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Translation Elongation in Bacteria
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Bacterial Ribosome Assembly
        • Bacterial Ribosome Composition
        • Bacterial Ribosome Architecture
        • The Mechanism of Bacterial Protein Synthesis
        • Fidelity and Regulation of Translation during Elongation Reactions
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Translation Initiation in Bacteria: Factors and Mechanisms
        • Abstract
        • Properties, Aminoacylation, and Formylation of the Initiator Transfer RNA
        • The Translation Initiation Region of Prokaryotic Messenger RNAs
        • Initiation Complex Formation
        • Structure and Function of the Initiation Factors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Translation Initiation in Eukaryotes: Factors and Mechanisms
        • Abstract
        • The Structure of Eukaryotic mRNAs
        • The Mechanism of Translation Initiation
        • Dissociation of Ribosomes into Free 40S and 60S Subunits
        • Recruitment of Initiator tRNA to the 40S Ribosomal Subunit
        • Attachment of 43S Preinitiation Complexes to mRNA
        • Ribosomal Scanning on the 5′-Leader
        • Selection of the Initiation Codon
        • Displacement of eIF2 from the 48S Complex
        • 60S Subunit Joining to Form an 80S Ribosome
        • Regulation of Translation Initiation
        • Initiation of Translation by Internal Ribosomal Entry
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
        • Abstract
        • The Discoverer of the Cycle
        • History of the Discovery of the TCA Cycle
        • Into the Wilderness and Back Again
        • The TCA Cycle Today
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • tRNA Synthetases
        • Abstract
        • tRNA Synthetases
        • Enzymatic Reaction
        • Accuracy
        • Two Classes of Enzymes
        • Alternative Pathways and Enzymes
        • Novel Functions
        • Synthetases in Disease and Medicine
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Troponin
        • Abstract
        • Early Studies
        • Troponin Subunits
        • Troponin T
        • Regulatory Function of Troponin
        • Troponin and Genetic Disorders
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Tubulin and Its Isoforms
        • Abstract
        • αβ-Tubulin
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Features of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors
        • TNFR Signaling
        • Effector Functions of the TNFR Family
        • Viral Targeting of TNFR
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Two-Hybrid Protein–Protein Interactions
        • Abstract
        • The Yeast Two-Hybrid System
        • Role in Proteomics
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Tyrosine Sulfation
        • Abstract
        • Tyrosine-Sulfated Proteins
        • Structural Determinants of Tyrosine Sulfation
        • Tyrosylprotein Sulfotransferase (EC 2.8.2.20)
        • Properties of TPST
        • Molecular Cloning and Membrane Topology of TPST
        • TPST-1 versus TPST-2
        • TPST-1- and TPST-2-Deficient Mice
        • Physiological Function and Medical Relevance
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • U
      • Ubiquitin-Like Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Activation, Conjugation, Ligation, and Deconjugation
        • Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier
        • Neural Precursor Cell Expressed, Developmentally Downregulated 8
        • Interferon-Induced 15-kDa Protein
        • Atg8 and Atg12
        • Fat10
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Ubiquitin System
        • Abstract
        • Mechanisms of Ubiquitination and Degradation
        • Degradation
        • Substrate Recognition
        • Functions and Substrates of the Ubiquitin System
        • Regulation of the Ubiquitin System
        • Ubiquitin-Like Proteins
        • Ubiquitination and Pathogenesis of Human Diseases
        • Drug Development
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • UmuC D Lesion Bypass DNA Polymerase V
        • Abstract
        • The SOS Response: Transcriptional Regulation of Pol V
        • Regulation of UmuC Function by Cleavage of UmuD
        • umuDC Role in Mutagenesis
        • The Discovery of Pol V
        • Mechanism of Translesion Synthesis by Pol V
        • Specificity, Fidelity, and Processivity of Pol V
        • Characteristics of Y Family Polymerases
        • Regulation
        • Bacterial Homologs
        • Eukaryotic Homologs
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • Uncoupling Proteins
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Mitochondria and the Coupling of Respiration to ADP Phosphorylation
        • Brown Adipose Tissue and UCP1: History of a True Respiration Uncoupling
        • The Novel UCPs
        • UCP1, UCP2, and UCP3, Conclusions and Perspectives
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Unfolded Protein Responses
        • Abstract
        • ER Function and ER Stress
        • The Yeast UPR
        • Diversification in the Metazoan UPR
        • Translational Control in the UPR
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Urea Cycle: Disease Aspects
        • Abstract
        • Inborn Errors of Metabolism Causing Hyperammonemia
        • Clinical Manifestations of Hyperammonemia
        • Diagnosis
        • Management of Acute Hyperammonemia
        • CPS and NAG Synthetase Deficiencies
        • OTC Deficiency
        • Citrullinemia
        • AL Deficiency (Argininosuccinic Aciduria)
        • Arginase Deficiency (Hyperargininemia)
        • Hyperammonemia–Hyperornithinemia–Homocitrullinemia Syndrome
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
    • V
      • Vacuoles
        • Abstract
        • Identification/Discovery of Vacuoles and Vacuolar Constituents
        • Vacuole Biogenesis and Transport Pathways to the Vacuole in Yeast
        • Vacuole/Lysosome Functions in Higher Eukaryotes
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors
        • Abstract
        • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Genes
        • Gene Expression
        • Protein Structure
        • Ligand Binding
        • Signal Transduction
        • Biologic Activities
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Vasopressin/Oxytocin Receptor Family
        • Abstract
        • The Structures of Pressins and Tocins
        • Peptide Biosynthesis
        • The Functions of VP and OT
        • VP and OT Receptors
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • V-ATPases
        • Abstract
        • Vacuolar (H+)-Adenosine Triphosphatase Function
        • V-ATPase Structure
        • Mechanism of ATP-Driven Proton Transport by the V-ATPases
        • Regulation of V-ATPase Activity In Vivo
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Vitamin A (Retinoids)
        • Abstract
        • Retinoids and Their Functions
        • The Chemistry of atROH Generation, Storage, and Metabolic Activation
        • Retinoid-Binding Proteins and Retinoid Homeostasis
        • Metabolism of Pharmacological Retinoid Concentrations
        • Other Naturally Occurring Retinoids
        • Control of Vitamin A Homeostasis
        • Clinical Uses of Retinoids
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Vitamin C
        • Abstract
        • Chemistry
        • Nutritional and Biochemical Importance
        • Cellular Regulation of Ascorbic Acid
        • Digestion, Absorption, and Nutritional Requirements
        • Sources and Detection
        • Defining Ascorbic Acid Status
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Vitamin D
        • Abstract
        • Chemical Identity, Natural Occurrence, and Production
        • Conversion of Vitamin D to Its Hormonal Form
        • The Role of 1,25-(OH)2D3 in Calcium, Phosphorus, and Bone Metabolism
        • The Vitamin D Endocrine System
        • The Vitamin D Receptor
        • Molecular Mechanism
        • Metabolism and Degradation
        • New and Nonclassical Roles of the Vitamin D Hormone
        • Therapeutic Uses of 1α,25-(OH)2D3 and Its Analogs
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Vitamin D Receptor
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Functional Domains of the VDR
        • Molecular Mechanism of Transcriptional Control by VDR
        • Summary
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Vitamin E
        • Abstract
        • Vitamin E: Definition and Structures
        • Biological Activity
        • Vitamin E in Health and Disease
        • Dietary Sources and Recommended Intake of Vitamin E
        • Transport of Vitamin E (DM)
        • Metabolism of Vitamin E
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Vitamin K: Biochemistry, Metabolism, and Nutritional Aspects
        • Abstract
        • Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins
        • Biochemical Role of Vitamin K
        • Metabolic Interconversion of Vitamin K
        • Nutritional Aspects of Vitamin K
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Voltage-Dependent K+ Channels
        • Abstract
        • Structure and Diversity
        • Physiological Function
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels
        • Abstract
        • Molecular Properties
        • Ca2+-Currents
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
      • Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: Structure, Function, and Pathophysiology
        • Abstract
        • Sodium Channel Subunit Structure
        • Sodium Channel Genes
        • Expression and Localization of Sodium Channel Subtypes
        • Molecular Basis of Sodium Channel Function
        • Three-Dimensional Structure of Sodium Channels
        • Sodium Channel Pharmacology
        • Sodium Channelopathies
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
      • von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) Protein
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Consequences of VHL Mutations
        • Function of the VHL Protein
        • Structure of the VHL Ubiquitin Ligase
        • Regulation of HIF Ubiquitylation by the VHL Ubiquitin Ligase
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • X
      • XPV Polymerase and the Bypass of Ultraviolet DNA Damage
        • Abstract
        • Xeroderma Pigmentosum Variants
        • Polη and the Y-Family of DNA Polymerases
        • Interaction with Ubiquitinated PCNA and the Polymerase Switch
        • Mutations in XPV Patients
        • Replication Past Other Types of UV Damage
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
    • Z
      • Zinc Fingers
        • Abstract
        • Zinc Finger Structures and Families
        • Zinc Finger Functions
        • See also
        • Glossary
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Website
  • Index
  • Author Index
 
 
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