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Encyclopedia of Sleep
 
 

Encyclopedia of Sleep, 1st Edition

 
Encyclopedia of Sleep, 1st Edition,Clete Kushida,ISBN9780123786104
 
 
 

C Kushida   

Academic Press

9780123786104

9780123786111

2736

This 4-volume work--the largest reference work available on the subject--completely integrates basic and clinical aspects of sleep and sleep disorders

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Key Features

  • 2013 PROSE Award winner for Multivolume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers
  • Thoroughly interdisciplinary: looks at sleep throughout the life cycle, with exceptional coverage of basic sleep concepts, the physiology of sleep as well as sleep disorders of all descriptions
  • Excellent coverage of sleep and special populations, covering the lifespan, as well as gender and ethnic differences, among others
  • Chapters focusing on sleep disorders are grouped under the broad categories classified in the ICSD-2 for clear organization so that the reader can effectively access the steps involved in diagnosing and treating these disorders
  • Online version is linked both within the encyclopedia (to related content) and to external sources (such as primary journal content) so that users have easy access to more detailed information if needed

Description

In a world of 24-hour media saturation, sleep has become an increasingly fraught enterprise. The award-winning four-volume Encyclopedia of Sleep is the largest reference, either online or in print, on the subject of sleep. Written to be useful for the novice and the established researcher and clinician, Topic areas will include sleep across the life cycle and in other species, sleep and women, sleep and the elderly, pediatric sleep, sleep deprivation and loss, sleep mechanisms, sleep physiology and pathophysiology, sleep disorders, neurobiology, chronobiology, pharmacology, and impact of other disorders on sleep.

Recognizing the many fields that are connected to sleep science, the editorial team has been carefully chosen to do justice to this highly interdisciplinary field of study. The steady growth of researchers and clinicians in the sleep field attests to the continued interest in the scientific study of sleep and the management of patients with sleep disorders, and anyone involved in this exciting field should find this work to be an invaluable reference.

Readership

Basic and clinical science researchers who study sleep science as well as clinicians who are seeking evidence-based diagnostic tools and treatments for patients suffering from sleep disorders. Also useful for polysomnographic technologists and other allied health professionals, as well as medical specialists and primary care physicians

Clete Kushida

MD PhD

Clete A. Kushida, M.D., Ph.D. is a neurologist who is a professor in the department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Stanford University Medical Center, medical director of the Stanford Sleep Medicine Center, and director of the Stanford Center for Human Sleep Research. He is president of the World Sleep Federation, past president of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, and founding president of the California Sleep Society. He has conducted basic and clinical sleep research since 1977, has served as principal investigator for numerous federally and industry supported research studies, and has authored or edited over 150 publications, including six books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Principal Investigator, Stanford Sleep Medicine Center, Stanford University, USA

Encyclopedia of Sleep, 1st Edition

Editor-in-Chief

Editorial Board

Preface

Permission Acknowledgments

Basic Sleep Concepts, Science, Deprivation, and Mechanisms

Background

Perspectives

A History of the Scientific Study of Sleep

The First Hundred Years

A Gathering of Eagles

The Emergence of Sleep Research

The REM Period

Sleep Deprivation

Biological Rhythms and Sleep Research

Theories of Sleep

Sleep Disorders Research

See also

Further Reading

History of Sleep Medicine

Professional Organizations

Complications of OSA

Discipline Identity and Discipline Overlap

Minimal Penetration of the Mainstream Educational System

Final Thoughts

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Normal Human Sleep

Introduction

Adult Sleep Architecture

Sleep in Newborns and Infants

Changes in Sleep with Aging

Sleep Duration

Sleep Neurophysiology

Autonomic Nervous System

Model of Sleep Regulation

The Function of Sleep

Key Points

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Concepts of Fatigue, Sleepiness, and Alertness

Definitions of Sleepiness and Fatigue

Factors Underlying Fatigue, Sleepiness, and Alertness

Measurement

Countermeasures

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Classification of Sleep Disorders

Insomnia

Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

Hypersomnia Not Due to Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders, Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders, or Other Causes of Disturbed Nocturnal Sleep

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

Parasomnias

Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Isolated Symptoms, Apparently Normal Variants, and Unresolved Issues

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Ontogeny of Sleep

Humans Sleep Most When They Are Young

Infant Sleep and Wake Bouts Are Fragmented

Developmental Changes in Sleep Structure Build on a Basic Foundation

The Neural Control of Infant Sleep

Why Do Infants Sleep So Much?

Why Do Infants Twitch So Much During Sleep?

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Evolution of Sleep (Sleep Phylogeny)

Sleep in Mammals

Sleep in Birds

Sleep Amounts in Mammals and Birds

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation

Sleep-Like States in Other Organisms: Do All Animals Sleep Like Humans?

Is Sleep Vital for Memory Consolidation?

Why Do Animals Sleep?

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep in Amphibians and Reptiles

Definition

Characteristics

State-Dependent Brain Activity

REM Sleep

Sleep Mechanisms

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep Physiology in Reptiles and Amphibians

Reptiles

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep in Birds

Introduction

REM Sleep

Non-REM Sleep

Non-REM Sleep and Connectivity

The Slow Oscillation as a Shared Feature of Sleep in Mammals and Birds

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep in Aquatic Species

Hallmarks of the Studies of Sleep in Aquatic Mammals

Sleep in Cetaceans

Sleep in Eared Seals (Otariids)

Sleep in True Seals (Phocids)

Sleep in the Walrus (Odobenids)

Sleep in Other Aquatic and Semiaquatic Mammals

Glossary

Further Reading

Mammalian Sleep

Healthy Sleep

Basic Sleep Tips

Introduction

Quantity of Sleep Needed

Quality of Sleep Needed

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Creating an Optimal Sleep Environment

The Sleep Environment

Sleep Hygiene Versus an Optimal Sleep Environment

Components of the Sleep Environment

Assessing the Sleep Environment

Changing the Sleep Environment

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Optimal Sleep Habits in Infants and Children

Introduction

Models for Conceptualizing and Studying Optimal Sleep in Infants and Children

Developmental Changes in the Sleep of Infants and Children

‘Optimal Sleep for Whom?’ – Individual Differences, Culture, and the Family

‘Optimal Sleep for What?’ – Health and Developmental Outcomes

What Treatments Optimize Sleep in Children with Sleep Problems?

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Early Childhood Pediatric Sleep Concerns for Parents: Cosleeping

Introduction

Sleep in Early Development and the Concept of ‘Self-Soothing’

Cosleeping Definition and Epidemiology

Cosleeping Associations and Outcomes

Breastfeeding, SIDS, and Bed Sharing

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Optimal Sleep Habits in Adolescents

See also

Further Reading

Optimal Sleep Habits in Middle-Aged Adults

Introduction

Normal Aging and Sleep

Sleep Disorders During Middle Age

Medical and Psychiatric Disorders

Menopause

Lifestyle

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Optimal Sleep Habits in the Elderly

Introduction

Addressing Medical and Psychiatric Conditions That Disturb Sleep

Addressing Changes in the Biological Clock

Optimizing the Dose and Timing of Medications to Promote Healthy Sleep

Optimal Healthy Sleep Practices

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Healthy Aging and Sleep

The Problem

Short Sleep

The Circadian Clock

The Menopausal State

Cognition

Some Therapeutic Approaches

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sex Differences in Sleep

Introduction

Sleep Behavior and Sleep Architecture

Sex and Age Interactions

Subjective Versus Objective Sleep Assessments

Sleep Under Challenging Conditions

The Role of Sex Steroids

Sleep Disorders

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Nutrition and Sleep

Introduction

Nutrition Affects Sleep

Sleep Affects Nutrition

Other Disturbances of Sleep Related to Nutrition

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Exercise and Sleep

Exercise and Sleep Quality

Mechanisms by Which Exercise Could Improve Sleep Quality

Exercise and Sleep Disorders

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

When an Individual Should See a Physician About Sleep

Dreaming

History of the Study of Dreams

The Early History of Laboratory Investigation of Dreams

Hypothesis: Dreams are Related to REM Sleep Characteristics

Hypothesis: Dream Images are Internally Generated

Hypothesis: Dreams are Related to Each Other Within the Night

Hypothesis: Dreams Relate to the Presleep Waking State

Hypothesis: Dreams Effect Postsleep Psychological Functioning

Hypothesis: Dreams Differ in Psychiatric Patients

The Future of Dream Research

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

The Interpretation of Dreams

See also

Further Reading

The Psychology of Dreams

Introduction: What Is a Dream?

The Psychology of Dreaming and the Physiology of REM and NREM Sleep

What Do We Dream About?

The Psychological ‘Meaning’ of Dreams

The ‘Work’ of Dreams: Memory Processing in the Sleeping Brain

Concluding Remarks

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Dreams, Psychopathology, Psychotherapy

Introduction

Historical Perspective

Dream Content in Psychopathology and Psychotherapy

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Dreaming and Psychiatric Disorders

Introduction

Similarities Between Dreaming and Psychosis

Personality Traits Shown to Affect Dream Experiences

The Relationship of Dreaming and Psychiatric Disorders

Psychoactive Drugs Modulate Dream Experience

REM Rebound: Psychotropic Effects

RBD and Psychiatric Components

Nightmares and Nocturnal Panic Attacks

Parasomnias: Possible Overlap with Psychiatric Disorders

Summary: Role of Dreaming in Psychopathology

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Neurobiology of Dreaming

Sleep Deprivation/Fragmentation Paradigms

Acute Sleep Deprivation

Introduction

Acute Sleep Deprivation Paradigms

Behavioral Effects of Sleep Deprivation

Arousal Influences

Individual Differences

Measuring Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation

Physiological Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation

Clinical Changes Associated with Total Sleep Deprivation

Recovery Sleep

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Partial and Sleep-Stage-Selective Deprivation

Introduction

Partial Sleep Deprivation

Sleep-Stage-Selective Deprivation

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep Fragmentation

Introduction

Sleep Fragmentation as a Form of Sleep Deprivation

Different Types of Arousal

Neurophysiology of Sleep Fragmentation

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Nonrestorative Sleep

Extrinsic Factors Affecting Sleep Loss/Deprivation

Effects of Light and Temperature on Sleep in Adults and the Elderly

Introduction

Why Support the Aging Sleep–Wake Rhythm?

Would Support to Enhance the Sleep–Wake Rhythm Be Profitable?

How Can the Sleep–Wake Rhythm Be Supported?

The Effect of Light on the Sleep–Wake Rhythm of Elderly People

The Effect of Temperature on the Sleep–Wake Rhythm of Elderly People

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Effects of Pillows and Bed Surfaces on Sleep

The Mattress and Pillow

Common Sleep Surfaces

Mattress Research

Pillows

Pillow Research

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Sleep and Mental Performance: Effects of Time-Zone Transitions

Background

Rhythms of Sleep and Mental Performance

Changes to Sleep and Mental Performance After Time-Zone Transitions

Dealing with Jet Lag

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Shift Work

Sleepiness or Fatigue in Shift Workers

Performance and Accidents at Work

Special Cases

Shift-Work (Sleep) Disorder

Countermeasures

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Medications, Drugs of Abuse, and Alcohol

Intrinsic Factors Affecting Sleep Loss/Deprivation

Age and Individual Determinants of Cognitive Effects of Sleep Loss

Aging and Increased Resilience to Sleep Loss

Cognition-Based Explanations

Sleep/Wake Regulatory Explanations

Selection Bias

Trait Individual Differences

Searching for Predictors

Clinical Implications

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Homeostatic and Circadian Influences

Internal Mechanisms Regulate the Alternation of Wakefulness and Sleep

Theoretical Considerations on the Nature of Internal Mechanism: Clock and Homeostat

Investigating the Homeostat

Total Sleep Deprivation

Excess Sleep

Partial Sleep Deprivation

Selective Sleep Deprivation

Demonstrating the Combined Influence of Circadian Rhythmicity and Homeostat on Sleep Propensity

Separating the Circadian and Homeostatic Influence

The Paradoxical Circadian Sleep Propensity Rhythm

Functional Significance of the Circadian Sleep Propensity Rhythm

Circadian Influences on Sleep Structure

Circadian Influences on the EEG During Wakefulness and Performance

Influence of Sustained Wakefulness on the EEG During Wakefulness and Performance

Consequences of Disrupting the Balance Between Sleep Homeostasis and the Circadian Sleep Propensity Rhythm

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Attention and Memory Changes

Attention Changes

Memory Changes

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Electroencephalographic and Neurophysiological Changes

Definition

Some History

The Standard Sleep Scoring System

Neurophysiological Basis of Sleep Stages

The Rise of Computer-Aided Methods of EEG Analysis

Sleep Homeostasis and Sleep Regulation

Time Course and State Transitions

EEG Topography: Local Aspects of Sleep

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Metabolic and Endocrine Changes During Sleep

The Pineal Hormone, Melatonin

Key Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Thermoregulatory Changes

Introduction

Thermoregulation

Sleep Regulation

Thermoregulatory Effects of Sleep Deprivation in Rodents

Thermoregulatory Effects of Sleep Deprivation in Humans

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Biochemical Correlates of Prolonged Wakefulness

Glycogen

Lactate

Adenosine Triphosphate

Adenosine

Nitric Oxide

Conclusion

Glossary

Further Reading

Immunologic Changes

The Role of Sleep in Human Immune Function

Sleep and the Innate Immune System

The Effects of Immune System Stimulation on Sleep

The Role of Sleep in the Development of Immunological Memory

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Changes in Gene Expression

Introduction

Microarray Studies in Sleep

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Genetic Effects

Psychiatric Associations of Sleep Loss/Deprivation

Changes in Affect

Effects of REM and NREM Sleep on Emotional Memory and Affective Function

Effects of Sleep Loss on Affect

Circadian Factors

Psychophysiology

Development and Sex

Risk for Mood Disorder

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Antidepressant Effects of Sleep Manipulation

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Personality and Psychopathic Changes

Introduction

Sleep Loss and Cognition

The Two-Process Model

Sleep Loss and Brain Function

Mood

Trait Emotional Intelligence

Constructive Thinking Skills

Frustration Tolerance

Symptoms of Psychopathology in Healthy Persons

Paradoxical Improvement in Depressed Patients

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and Sleep

Sleep Loss in Disease States

Sleep Loss from Major Sleep Disorders

Prevalence of Sleepiness

Implications of Sleep Loss

Etiologies of Sleep Loss

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Sleep Loss Associated with Medical Conditions and Diseases

Special Populations Affected by Sleep Loss/Deprivation

Adolescence

Introduction

Changes in Sleep Duration

Changes in Sleep Intensity

Changes in the Homeostatic and Circadian Regulation of Sleep

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Pregnancy and Postpartum

Consequences of Sleep Loss

Sleep Loss: Impact on Self-reported Sleepiness, Effort, Performance, and Motivation

Introduction

Sleep Loss and Impact on Self-reported Sleepiness

Sleep Loss and Impact on Cognitive Performance

Sleep Loss and Behavioral Consequences

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Impact of Sleep Loss on Subjective and Objective Effort

Overview

Measurement of Subjective Effort

Measurement of Objective Effort

Subjective Effort

Timing of the Subjective Effort Measurement

Subjective Effort Metric

Objective Effort

Maintenance of Effort and Task Engagement during Sleep Deprivation

Biological Measures of Effort

Physiological Measures of Effort

Cortical Compensation

Individual Differences

Theoretical Models

Summary and Future Research

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Social and Economic Impact

Socioeconomic Group

Financial Strain

Marriage Status, Age, and Gender

Social Support

Caregiving

The Culture of Sleeping

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Occupational Impact

Physical Aspects

Psychosocial Factors

Stress as a Common Denominator

The Connection between Stress and Sleep in Cross-Sectional Studies

Prospective Studies

Rumination and Anticipation

Burnout and Sleep

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Military Operational Effectiveness

Introduction

Historical Perspectives

Current Perspectives

Total Sleep Deprivation

Chronic Sleep Restriction

Sleep and Responses to Combat Stress

Current Guidelines

Tools for Sustaining Performance

Monitoring Sleep

Predicting Cognitive Readiness

Pharmacological Countermeasures

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Athletic Performance; Effects of Sleep Loss

Observed Rhythms of Physical Performance

Biological Causes of Rhythmicity

Biological Causes of Physical Performance Rhythms

Effects of Sleep Loss Upon Athletic Performance

Advice

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Medical Resident/Physician Performance

Basic Overview of Sleep/Wake Regulation

Laboratory Demonstrated Effects of Acute and Chronic Partial Sleep Restriction

Laboratory Demonstrated Effects of Circadian Misalignment

Laboratory Demonstrated Effects of Sleep Inertia

Data on Sleep/Wake Disruption Specifically Pertaining to Physicians

Physician Trainee Work Schedule Countermeasures

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Driving Risks and Accidents

Factors Responsible for MVCs

Attitudes Toward Drowsy Driving

Sleep Disorders and MVCs

Detecting Driving Impairment

Managing Driving Risk

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Legal Implications of Sleep Loss

Short-Term Countermeasures for Sleep Loss Effects

Behavioral and Environmental Countermeasures of Sleep Loss

Introduction

Countermeasures to Prevent Sleep Loss

Countermeasures to Combat the Effects of Sleep Loss

Substances that Affect Fatigue or Sleepiness

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Naps

Critical Theoretical and Practical Issues

The Function of Sleep

There May Be Many Functions of Sleep Across the Animal Kingdom

Is Sleep for the Brain?

Is Sleep for Cerebral Energy Restoration?

Is Sleep for Synaptic Homeostasis?

Is Memory Consolidation a Function of Sleep?

The Processing of Memory Transcripts During Sleep

The Relationship Between NREM and REM Sleep

Cellular and Molecular Functions of Sleep

See also

Further Reading

Recovery from Sleep Loss

Sleep Loss

Recovery from Sleep Loss

Current Directions in Recovery Research

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Eliminating Cumulative Sleep Debt and Sleep Satiation

Cumulative Sleep Debt

Excess Wakefulness

Sleep Satiation

Eliminating Cumulative Sleep Debt

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Role of Pharmacological Interventions for Sleep Deprivation

Stimulants for Improving Cognitive Performance and Alertness

Comparison Among Stimulants and Executive Functioning

Sleep-Inducing Agents for Improving Sleep

Operational Use of Stimulants and Sleep-Inducing Agents

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Sleep Length: Findings and Recommendations for Future Research

Introduction

Epidemiology of Sleep Duration

Longitudinal Studies of Short and Long Sleepers

Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Future of Sleep Research

Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology of Sleep

Background

Overview of Physiological Processes During Sleep

Regulation of Body Temperature

Regulation of Circulation

Regulation of Respiration

Neural Networks of Sleep and Physiological Regulation

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chemical Neuroanatomy of Sleep–Wake Systems

Historical Perspective

Waking: Activating and Arousal Systems

Sleep: Deactivating and SWS Systems

Sleep: REM or PS Systems

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology of Sleep/Wake Regulations

Chronobiology of Sleep

Molecular and Genetic Bases for the Circadian System

External World and Entrainment of the Circadian Clock

Clock Genes – The Components of the Molecular Circadian Clock

Clock Disruption and Circadian Phenotypic Effects

Clock Genes and Sleep Homeostasis

Clock Genes and Human Sleep Disorders

Clock Signal Transduction Pathways and Sleep

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep Homeostasis

Introduction

Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep Homeostasis

REM Sleep Homeostasis

Waking EEG Markers of Sleep Homeostasis

Sleep Homeostasis in Special Populations

Future Directions

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Circadian Rhythms and Physiological Processes

Regulatory Concepts in Physiology

Physiological Rhythms Are Regulated by a Multioscillatory Timekeeping System

Circadian Regulation of Body Temperature

Circadian Control of Neuroendocrine Function

Consequences of Circadian Organization for Disease

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chronobiology of Sleep – Circadian Rhythms, Behavior, and Performance

Circadian Regulation of Sleep

Circadian Rhythms

Circadian Sleep Disorders

Melatonin and Core Body Temperature – Markers of Circadian Phase

Circadian Rhythms and Performance

Circadian Disorders and Mental Health

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

The Influence of Light, Exercise, and Behavior upon Circadian Rhythms

Introduction

Concept of Biological Clocks

Molecular Basis of Circadian Clocks

Master and Peripheral Clocks

Phase Shifts and Phase Response Curves

Light’s Path to the Mammalian Circadian Clock

Molecular Mechanisms of Light-Induced Phase Shifts

Other Timing Cues: Hints from Neuromorphology

Nonphotic Entrainment: Exercise

Feeding Behavior as a Zeitgeber

Outlook: Entrainment of and by the Clock

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Effects of Melatonin and Melatonin Agonists on Circadian Rhythms

Sleep and the Nervous System

Basic Sleep–Wake Mechanisms

Introduction: Sleep as an Active Process

Arousal Systems

Thalamic–Cortical Interactions and the Generation of the Sleep EEG

Mechanisms of Sleep Onset and Sleep Maintenance

Sleep-Generating Neurons in the Preoptic Hypothalamus

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

NREM Sleep: Anatomy and Physiology

Introduction

NREM Sleep: Anatomy

NREM Sleep Switching

NREM Sleep Regulation: Thermoregulatory Mechanism

NREM Sleep: Neurochemical/Homeostatic Regulation

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

REM Sleep Anatomy and Physiology

Transection Studies

Localized Lesion Studies

Stimulation Studies

Neuronal Activity, Transmitter Release

Control of Muscle Tone in Sleep

Narcolepsy and Hypocretin

The Functions of Sleep

See also

Further Reading

NREM–REM Sleep Regulation

Introduction: Two States of Sleep

Hypothalamic Control of Sleep and Arousal

Brainstem Control of REM Sleep

Generation of NREM–REM Cycles

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Electrophysiology of Sleep–Wake Systems

Historical Perspective

Waking: Activating and Arousal Systems

Sleep: Deactivating and SWS Systems

Sleep: REM or PS Systems

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Neurochemistry of Sleep

Introduction

Waking Systems

Sleep Systems

Anterior Preoptic Hypothalamus

Posterior Hypothalamus

Brain Stem

Somnogens

Sleep and Waking Interactions

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Thermoregulation and Sleep

Introduction

Covariation of Sleep- and Thermophysiological-Variables under Baseline Conditions

Effects of Thermal Intervention on Sleep

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Peripheral Nervous System and Sleep

Sleep-State-Dependent Control of Motor Neurons and Somatic Sensory Neurons

Release of Peripheral Inhibition in the Generation of Sleep Related Penile Erection

Sleep-State-Dependent Changes to the Autonomic Nervous System

Autonomic Cardiovascular Changes During Sleep

Autonomic Respiratory Changes During Sleep

Motor and Autonomic Control of GI Enteric System During Sleep

Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Periodic Limb Movements, and REM Behavior Sleep Disorder as Consequences of Peripheral Neuropathy, Neuromuscular disorders, and Autonomic Dysfunctions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

The Modulation of Memory by Sleep

Sleep and the Respiratory System

The Upper Airway Anatomy

Introduction

Nose

Oral Cavity

Pharynx

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Respiratory Physiology

Neural Organization of the Respiratory System

The State-Dependent Chemical Brain

Central Control of Respiratory Network Activity

Lung Ventilation

Respiratory Chemoreflexes

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep and the Control of Breathing

Control of Breathing During Wakefulness

Normal Breathing During Sleep

Abnormal Breathing Patterns

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Physiology and Dynamics of the Pharyngeal Airway

Necessity for the Pharynx to Be Collapsible

Anatomy of the Pharynx

Neural Control of Pharyngeal Airway

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Effects of Altitude on Breathing During Sleep

Sleep and Other Systems

Sleep and the Cardiovascular System

Physiology of Sleep and the Cardiovascular System

Sleep Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep in Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular Function during Normal Sleep

Clinical Consequences of Changes in Autonomic Nervous System During Sleep

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Sleep and the Peripheral Vascular System

Cerebral Circulation

Cutaneous Circulation

Renal and Splanchnic Circulation

Skeletal Muscle Circulation

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep and the Immune System

Influence of Sleep on Immune System Parameters

Impact of Disrupting Normal Sleep Patterns on Immune System Parameters

Functional Consequences of Sleep-Related Alterations in Immune Function

Considerations/Confounding Factors/Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Endocrinology of Sleep

Introduction

Hypothalamo–Pituitary–Somatotrophic System

Hypothalamo–Pituitary–Adrenocortical System

Hypothalamo–Pituitary–Thyroid System

Insulin

Prolactin, Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide

Other Peptides

Interaction of Peptides

Melatonin

Neuroactive Steroids

Gonadal Hormones

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Gastrointestinal Physiology During Sleep

Pharmacology of Sleep

Basic Pharmacologic Mechanisms of Sleep

Brain Regions and Neurotransmitter Systems that Participate in the Regulation of Sleep and Wakefulness

Neurotransmitter Systems Involved in the Promotion of Wakefulness and Sleep

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Endogenous Sleep-Promoting Substances

Introduction

Sleep Regulatory Substances

What Is It About Wakefulness That Causes Increased Propensity for Sleep and Enhanced SRS Levels?

Brain Organization of Sleep

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Hypnotic Substances and Medications

Introduction

Prescribed Drugs

Other Drugs Used in Insomnia

See also

Further Reading

Pharmacotherapeutic Principles for Hypnotic Medications

Insomnia: Diagnostic Criteria

Pharmacological Treatment of Insomnia

Mechanism of Action of Hypnotic Drugs

Pharmacokinetics of Hypnotic Drugs in Healthy Adults and in Populations at Risk

The Effect of Hypnotic Drugs on Sleep Variables in Patients with Insomnia

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists and Sleep

Sleep Promotion via GABAergic Inhibition

GABAA Receptors and Sleep Promotion

Mechanism of Action of Benzodiazepines: A Servo Mechanism for Inhibition

Benzodiazepine-Sensitive GABAA Receptors and Their Multiplicity

EEG Fingerprints of Benzodiazepine Site Hypnotics

Pharmacokinetics

Tolerance, Dependence, Withdrawal

Benzodiazepine Site Hypnotic Drugs in Clinical Use

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Antidepressants and Sleep

Introduction

Antidepressants and Sleep

Tricyclic Antidepressants

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

Selective Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors

Serotonin-2 Receptor Antagonists/Reuptake Inhibitors

Atypical Antidepressants

Melatonin Agonists

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Wake-Promoting Substances

Amphetamine-Like Stimulants

Modafinil

Caffeine

Nicotine

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Wake-Promoting Medications

Introduction

Neurobiology of Wakefulness

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Medications that Disrupt Sleep

Assessment, Methodology, Training, and Policies of Sleep

Assessment

History and Physical Exam

The Structural Basis of History Taking

Outline of the Physical Exam

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Questionnaires and Rating Scales

Adult Questionnaires

Questionnaires Used in the Sleep Laboratory

Pediatric Sleep Questionnaires

Research Questionnaires

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Rating Scales to Assess Sleep Disorders

Why Are Rating Scales Used to Assess Sleep Disorders?

How to Choose a Rating Scale?

Evaluating Questionnaires: Validity, Reliability, and Sensitivity

Commonly Used Rating Scales to Assess Sleep Disorders

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chronobiological Assessment

Chronobiology and Circadian Rhythm

Biological Markers

Behavioral Tools

AASM Guidelines

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Psychologic and Psychiatric Assessment

Neuropsychological Approach

Insomnia

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Neurologic Assessment

Chief Complaint

History of Present Illness

The Physical Examination

Neurodiagnostic Testing

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Cardiac and Cardiovascular Assessment

Introduction

History and Physical Examination

Diagnostic Tests

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Respiratory Assessment

Breathing and Sleep

Respiratory Focused Medical History

Respiratory Symptoms

Nasal Symptoms

Upper-Airway Anatomy

Upper-Airway Examination

Examination of the Chest and Lungs

Additional Studies

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Gastrointestinal Assessment

Instrumentation and Methodology

Adult Polysomnography

Definition

History

Clinical Polysomnography: Overview

Clinical Polysomnography: Some Technical Details for Parameters for Sleep Staging

Electroencephalography

Electrooculography

Electromyography

Clinical Polysomnography: Some Technical Details for Sleep Physiology

Clinical Polysomnography: Special Attention to the Patient and Equipment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Pediatric Polysomnography

Definition of Polysomnography

General Methods of Recording in PSG

Sleep Variables Unique to Pediatrics

Pediatric Indications and Findings in PSG

Night-to-Night Polysomnographic Variability

The Pediatric PSG Report

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Portable Monitoring

Introduction

Classification of Portable Monitoring Devices

Technology

Indications and Methodology

Scoring and Interpretation

Literature Review

Validity and Reliability

Limitations of Methodology

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Electroencephalography

Physiological Basis of EEG

Technical Requirements

Types of Quantitative EEG Analysis

Sleep EEG across the Lifespan

EEG Research

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Monitoring and Staging Human Sleep

Background

EEG–EOG–EMG Electrode Placement and Application

Digital Recording Requirements

EEG Bandwidths, Waveforms, and Other Activity

Sleep Staging Rules and CNS Arousals

Summarizing Normal Sleep

Ambiguous Sleep Stages and Sleep Quality

Clinical Pearls

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Respiratory Monitoring During Sleep

Airflow Detection

Respiratory Effort

Other Physiologic Parameters

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Nocturnal Penile Tumescence

Definition of Nocturnal Penile Tumescence/Sleep-Related Erection

Neuroanatomy of Erections

Suprasegmental Control of Erections

Procedures

Sleep Disorders and ED

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Overview of Objective Tests to Assess Excessive Sleepiness

Introduction

Laboratory Base Objective Testing

Performance Testing

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Actigraphy

Introduction

What Is Actigraphy?

Validity and Reliability of Actigraphy

Limitations of Actigraphy

The Use of Actigraphy

Other Clinical Uses of Actigraphy

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Actigraphy in Children

Placement

Sleep Diaries

Recording Duration

Care and Return of Actigraph

Reimbursement

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)

Introduction

Historical Background

Performing the MSLT

MSLT Interpretation

Controversies

Technical Concerns

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Maintenance of Wakefulness Test

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Psychomotor Vigilance Performance

Vigilance

The Psychomotor Vigilance Task

Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Vigilance

Task Advantages

Neural Basis

Objective Versus Subjective Measurement of Sleepiness

Task Administration

Outcome Measures

‘Real-World’ Validity

Animal Model

Effects of Countermeasures

Individual Differences

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Neurocognitive Testing

Underlying Neurophysiology

Neurocognitive Approach

Executive Functioning

Considerations for Laboratory Testing

Task Complexity

Repeated Testing

Effects of Age

Examples of Neurocognitive Tasks

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Neuroimaging and Sleep

Training and Research

Sleep Technologist Requirements

Duties and Responsibilities

Glossary

Relevant Websites

Fellowship Training for Sleep Medicine

Introduction

Sleep Medicine Fellowship Training

Sleep Medicine Board Examination

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Board Certification for Sleep Clinicians

Introduction

American Board of Sleep Medicine (1978–2006)

American Board of Medical Specialties (2007–Present)

Certification of Added Qualification in Sleep Medicine by an American Osteopathic Association Member Board (2009–present)

American Board of Dental Sleep Medicine (2004–Present)

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Funding Sources for Sleep-Related Research Grants

Extramural Funding Opportunities

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Designing and Implementing Sleep-Related Clinical Trials

The Multifaceted Project Team

Study Design

Randomized Clinical Trial

Primary and Secondary Endpoints

Sample Size

Enrollment and Recruitment

Randomization

Single or Multiple Site Studies

Promotion and Monitoring Intervention Adherence

Clinical Data Management

Statistical Analysis

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Setting Up a Laboratory for Sleep-Related Animal Research

Introduction

Mouse Model of Sleep

Measuring Sleep in the Fly

Biochemistry/Molecular Biology

Uncommon Sense

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Planning Sleep-Related Animal and Translational Research

Introduction

Sleep Correlates in Animals

Genetics of Sleep, Insights from Animal Studies

Techniques to Study Sleep in Animals

Biosafety Guidelines, Veterinary Issues, and Ethical Considerations

Choosing an Animal Model

Animal Model for Sleep Disorders

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Succeeding in an Academic Sleep Environment

Policies and Procedures

Accreditation for Sleep Disorders Centers

Why Seek Accreditation?

First Steps

Self-Assessment

Full Accreditation of Sleep Disorders Center

Provisional Accreditation of Sleep Disorders Center

Resources

Important Tips and Reminders

Glossary

Further Reading

Public Policy, Sleep Science, and Sleep Medicine

Introduction

Background: What Is Public Policy?

Sleep Science and Sleep Medicine Meets Public Policy: Problem Areas

Public Policy Meets Sleep Science and Sleep Medicine: Interventions

Advocating for Sleep-Related Health and Safety Issues

Putting it all Together: Influencing Emerging Sleep-Related Public Policy Issues

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Sleep-Related Resources for Patients and Physicians

Insomnia and Hypersomnias

Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Insomnia

Ontogeny of Insomnia

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Ontogeny

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Etiology and Pathogenesis of Insomnia

Introduction

Psychological and Behavioral Perspectives

Psychophysiological Perspectives on the Pathophysiology of Insomnia

Clinical Neuroscience Perspectives

Basic and Translational Neuroscience Perspectives

Integration

Persistent Methodologic Issues and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Risk Factors

Definition and Critical Review of Methodology Used to Study Risk Factors

Demographic Characteristics

Modifiable Risk Factors

Insomnia as a Risk Factor

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Familial and Genetic Factors

Descriptions of Insomnia

Description of Insomnia

Conceptual Model of Insomnia

Nocturnal Symptoms

Duration of Insomnia Symptoms

Daytime Impairment and Distress

Hyperarousal

Primary and Comorbid Insomnia

Risk Factors

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Types of Insomnia

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Psychophysiological Insomnia

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Etiology and Pathophysiology

Predisposing, Precipitating and Perpetuating Factors

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Paradoxical Insomnia

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

Complications and Consequences

Diagnosis

Treatment

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Idiopathic Insomnia

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Etiology and Pathophysiology

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Insomnia Due to Mental Illness

Introduction

Diagnostic Nomenclature

Assessment of IMD

How Does Insomnia Become a Comorbid Condition?

Presentation of Insomnia in DSM-IV Axis I Disorders

Treatment Options

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Inadequate Sleep Hygiene

Introduction

Diagnostic Criteria

Clinical Features and Guidelines for Treatment

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Behavioral Insomnia of Childhood

Diagnostic Criteria, Clinical Presentation, and Prevalence

Consequences

Typical Sleep in Young Children

Assessment

Treatment

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Insomnia Due to Drug or Substance Abuse and Dependence

Abbreviations

Substance Use Disorder – Definitions, Prevalence, and Mechanisms

Substances of Abuse and Their Physiological Effects on Sleep

Treatment Options

Summary and Concluding Remarks

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Insomnia Comorbid with Medical Conditions

Associations and Consequences of Insomnia

Endocrine Function and Glucose Metabolism

Insomnia and Hyperarousal

Insomnia and Increased Sympathetic Activity

Insomnia and Increased HPA Activity

Insomnia and Obesity

Insomnia, Glucose Metabolism, and Type 2 Diabetes

Insomnia and Lipid Metabolism

Insomnia and Protein Metabolism

Insomnia and Bone Metabolism

Areas of Uncertainty, Methodological Problems, and Future Research

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Mood and Behavior

The Two-Process Model of Sleep Regulation

Behavior, Sleep Homeostasis, and Circadian Dysregulation in Insomnia

Comorbidity of Insomnia and Depressive Disorders

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Fatigue and Sleepiness

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

Complications and Consequences

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Health-Related Quality of Life

Daytime Consequences of Insomnia

Measurement of HRQoL

HRQoL in Insomnia

Influence of Comorbid Disorders

Effect of Insomnia Treatment on HRQoL

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Individual and Societal Impact

Diagnosis of Insomnia

Insomnia: History and Physical Exam

Introduction

Diagnostic Assessment for Insomnia

Clinical Interview

Self-Report Questionnaires

Psychological Testing

Sleep Log

Polysomnography

Actigraphy

Physical Exam

Laboratory Assessment

Imaging Studies

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Diagnostic Tools for Insomnia

Introduction

Diagnostic Systems and Insomnia

Clinical Interview: The Essential Diagnostic Tool for Insomnia

Subjective Assessment Tools

Objective Measures: Alternative Tools for Insomnia

Putting the Tools Together

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Diagnostic Algorithm for Insomnia

Treatment of Insomnia

Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia

Why a Behavioral Approach for Treating Chronic Insomnia Should Be Considered?

Description of Behavioral Therapies for Chronic Insomnia

Research About Behavioral Therapies to Treat Insomnia

Comparisons of Behavioral Therapies and Hypnotic Medication to Treat Insomnia

Issues Surrounding the Implementation of Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia: Treatment Delivery Methods, Treatment Providers, and Patient Adherence

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Cognitive Therapy for Insomnia

The Cognitive Model and Cognitive Therapy for Insomnia

Case Conceptualization: Phase 1 (1–2 Sessions)

Reversing the Maintaining Processes: Phase 2 (4–6 Sessions)

Consolidation/Relapse Prevention: Phase 3 (1–2 Sessions)

State of the Evidence

Future Directions

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Pharmacologic Treatment of Insomnia

Introduction

Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists

Efficacy

Safety

Melatonin Receptor Agonist

Antidepressant Medications

Alternative Medications

Over-the-Counter Medications

Recently Approved Sleep Medication

Discussion

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Adjunctive and Alternative Treatment of Insomnia

Who Uses Adjunctive and Alternative Treatments for Insomnia and Why?

Natural Products

Mind–Body Interventions

Manipulative and Body-Based Therapies

Other Adjunctive Interventions

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Special Considerations for the Nonpharmacological Treatment of Insomnia

Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues for Insomnia

Gender Differences

Basic Biological Differences in Sleep Between the Sexes Across the Life Span

Influence of Gender Issues upon Sleep

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Insomnia in Children

Assessment

Insomnia in Infants, Toddlers, and Preschool Children

Insomnia in Middle Childhood

Adolescent Insomnia

Psychopharmacological Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Insomnia in Older Adults

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

Complications and Consequences

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Medication Effects

Cardiovascular Medication

Psychotherapeutic Medication

Sedative Hypnotics

The Atypical Antipsychotic Agents (e.g., Olanzapine, Quetiapine)

Antidepressants

Stimulants

Nicotine-Dependency Treatments

Gastrointestinal/Genitourinary Medication

Cholesterol Agents

Hormones

Analgesics

Anti-infective Agents

Medication to Treat Neurological Disorders

OTC Medication

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Impact of Neurological Disorders on Insomnia

Introduction

Headache and Insomnia

Stroke and Insomnia

Epilepsy and Insomnia

Insomnia in Neurodegenerative Conditions

Multiple Sclerosis and Insomnia

Insomnia in Neuromuscular Disorders

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Impact of Psychiatric Disorders

Mood Disorders and Insomnia

Anxiety Disorders and Insomnia

Substance Use and Insomnia

Pain Disorders and Insomnia

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Legal Implications of Insomnia

Introduction

Medical/Legal Aspects of Insomnia

Forensic Consultations for Insomnia Cases

Additional Principles of Risk Management

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Future Directions in Insomnia Diagnosis and Treatment

Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Hypersomnias

The History of Narcolepsy

Early Observations: 400 BC–AD 1877

Recognition of Cataplexy: 1877–1900

Scientific Progress: 1900–50

An Explosion of Knowledge: 1950–2011

Brief History of Treatment

Looking Forward

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Epidemiology of Hypersomnia

Introduction

Narcolepsy

Idiopathic Hypersomnia

Recurrent Hypersomnia

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Ontogeny of Hypersomnias

Introduction

Ontogeny of Sleep and Sleepiness

Pathological Hypersomnia

Ontogeny of Pathological Hypersomnia and Differential Diagnosis Considerations

Ontogeny of Specific Hypersomnia Conditions

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Hypersomnia: Etiologies

Introduction

Observational Studies/Case Series

EEG/Sleep Architecture Abnormalities

Neurotransmitters in Hypersomnia

Circadian Dysfunction

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Pathogenesis of Hypersomnia

Introduction

Neuroanatomy and Neurochemistry of Wakefulness and Sleep

Narcolepsy and Hypersomnia

Histamine and Hypersomnia

Idiopathic Hypersomnia

Recurrent Hypersomnia

Other Causes of Hypersomnia

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Risk Factors for Hypersomnias

Introduction

Narcolepsy With and Without Cataplexy

Narcolepsy-Like Symptoms Due to Other Neurological Conditions

Recurrent Hypersomnia

Idiopathic Hypersomnia

Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome

Hypersomnia Due to Medication

Hypersomnia Due to a Medical Condition

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Familial and Genetic Factors of Narcolepsy

Descriptions of Hypersomnias

Overview of Hypersomnias

Introduction

Narcolepsy

Idiopathic Hypersomnia

Recurrent Hypersomnias

Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome

Treatment

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Description of Hypersomnias

Overview

Mechanisms Underlying Sleepiness

Evaluating Sleepiness

Hypersomnia Classification Systems

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Associations and Consequences of Hypersomnias

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Types of Hypersomnia

Distinguishing Features

Unresolved Issues

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Narcolepsy with Cataplexy

Clinical Features

Associated Clinical Features

Epidemiology and Natural History

Clinical Neurophysiology

Pathophysiology and Neurochemistry

Etiology

Diagnosis

Differential Diagnosis

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Narcolepsy without Cataplexy

Introduction

Epidemiology

Orexin – Role in Wakefulness and Sleep

Clinical Manifestations

Differential Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Narcolepsy due to a Medical Condition

Epidemiology

Causes

Clinical Features

Diagnosis

Clinical Subtypes

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Further Reading

Recurrent Hypersomnia

History and Nomenclature

Key Symptoms and Signs

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

Complications and Consequences

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Idiopathic Hypersomnia with Long Sleep Time

Diagnostic Criteria

Nocturnal Sleep

Daytime Sleepiness

Multiple Sleep Latency Test

Associated Features

Differential Diagnosis

Pathophysiology

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Idiopathic Hypersomnia without Long Sleep Time

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

Complications and Consequences

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome

Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome: Defining Features

Differential Diagnosis

Consequences of Insufficient Sleep

Treatment of BIISS

Other Considerations

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Hypersomnia Due to Drug or Substance

Associations and Consequences of Hypersomnias

Morbidity and Mortality

Hypersomnia-Related Diagnoses

Morbidity

Mortality

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Effect on the Central Nervous System

History and Nomenclature

Epidemiology

Clinical Course and Modifying Factors

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Complications and Consequences

Evaluation of the Effects

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Mood and Behavior

Introduction

Psychiatric Disorders and Hypersomnia

Mood and Behavior in Central Hypersomnias

Hypersomnia Due to a Medical Condition and its Association with Mood and Behavior

Sleep Deprivation

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleepiness

Introduction

Sleepiness Classifications

Interindividual Differences in Susceptibility to EDS

Biological Underpinnings and Predisposing Factors

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Hypersomnia

Hypersomnia

Narcolepsy

Recurrent Hypersomnia

Idiopathic Hypersomnia

See also

Further Reading

Economic Impact of Sleep Deprivation

Economic Consequences of Sleep Loss and Sleep Disorders

Sleep Deprivation and Other Health Effects

See also

Further Reading

Individual and Societal Impact of Hypersomnias

Diagnosis of Hypersomnias

Diagnosis of Hypersomnia in Children: Screening and Case Finding

Onset, Ontogeny and Clinical Course

Predisposing and Precipitating Factors

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Diagnostic Tools for Hypersomnias

Introduction

Clinical History

Physical Examination

Diagnostic Testing

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Diagnostic Algorithm for Hypersomnias

Treatment of Hypersomnias

Treatment of Hypersomnia

Therapeutic Approach to the Hypersomnia Patient

Basic Principles of Pharmacologic Therapy for Hypersomnia

Clinical Pharmacology of Stimulant and Anticataplectic Therapies

Nonpharmacologic Therapies for Hypersomnia

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Special Considerations for Treatment of Hypersomnias

Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues for Hypersomnias

Hypersomnias in Children

Introduction

Hypersomnia due to Insufficient Sleep (Decreased Amount of Sleep)

Hypersomnia due to Fragmented Sleep (Decreased Quality of Sleep)

Hypersomnia due to Increased Need for Sleep

Assessment of Hypersomnia in Children

Management of Hypersomnia in Children

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Hypersomnias in the Elderly

Introduction

Sleep Architecture in the Elderly

Circadian Rhythm Changes in the Elderly

Differential Diagnoses for Daytime Hypersomnia in the Elderly

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Medications and Sleep

Sedative–Hypnotics

Medications Altering Sleep-Associated Diagnoses

Medications Affecting Dreaming

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Impact of Other Sleep Disorders

Introduction

Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Restless Legs Syndrome, Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

NREM Parasomnias

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Impact of Neurological Diseases

Introduction

Hypersomnias of Central Origin

Hypersomnia Due to Medical Condition

Narcolepsy Due to Medical Condition

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder Due to Medical Condition

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Impact of Medical Disorders

History

Sleep and the Clinical Course of Medical Conditions

Acute Medical Conditions

Chronic Medical Conditions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Impact of Psychiatric Disorders

Mood Disorders

Schizophrenia

Anxiety Disorders

Eating Disorders

Substance Use and Abuse

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Legal Implications of Hypersomnias

Drowsy Driving

Narcolepsy

Statutory and Case Law

Ethical and Legal Responsibilities for Reporting Sleepy Drivers

Flying

Sleepiness and the Workplace

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Future Directions in Hypersomnias: Diagnosis and Treatment

Sleep in Special Populations

Pediatric Sleep

Key Differences in Pediatric versus Adult Sleep

Introduction

Sleep Stages

Sleep Regulation: Circadian Rhythm and Homeostatic Sleep Regulation

Sleep Efficiency

Sleep Latency

Total Sleep Time

Sleep Consolidation

Neuroendocrine Activity During Sleep

Key Differences in Sleep Pathology with Age

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Electrophysiological Changes in Sleep During Childhood

Introduction

Premature Newborn

Term to 3 Months of Age

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Neonates and Infants

Day–Night Distribution and Consolidation of Sleep

Proximal and Distal Care of the Babies

Variability of Sleep Duration

Sleep Architecture in the First Year

The Development of Circadian Rhythms

Sleep Homeostasis During the First Year of Life

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Newborn and Infant Sleep

Sleep Architecture

Maturation of the Sleep Stages

Maturation of Sleep State Organization

Control of Breathing

Periodic Breathing

Apnea of Prematurity

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Children

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep in Infants and Children with Medical Disorders

Allergic Rhinitis, Asthma, and Atopic Dermatitis

Cancer

Congenital Heart Disease

Craniofacial Disorders

Cystic Fibrosis

Down Syndrome

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Sickle Cell Anemia

Renal Disease

Visual Impairment

See also

Further Reading

Sleep in Children with Genetic Disorders

Down Syndrome

Prader–Willi Syndrome

Joubert Syndrome

Rett Syndrome

Fragile X Syndrome

Craniofacial Syndromes

Mucopolysaccharidoses

Smith–Magenis Syndrome

Costello Syndrome

Niemann–Pick Type C

Sickle Cell Disease

Williams Syndrome

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep in Children with Neurological and Neuromuscular Disorders

Epilepsy

Chiari Malformations and Myelomeningocele

Traumatic Brain Injury

Cerebral Palsy

Poststroke

Blindness

Autistic Spectrum Disorder

Neuromuscular Diseases

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep Disturbance in Children with Intellectual and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

Overview of Sleep Disturbance in Children with Intellectual/Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

Contributors to Sleep Problems in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

Specific Sleep Disorders in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

Assessment of Sleep Disturbance in Children with Developmental Disabilities

Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Treatment of Sleep Disturbance in Children with Developmental Disabilities

Medically Based Treatment

Medication-Based Treatment

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny and Clinical Course

Etiology, Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis

Associative, Predisposing and Precipitating Factors

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep in Infants and Children with Chronic Respiratory Disorders

Asthma

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Cystic Fibrosis

Pulmonary Hypertension

Special Considerations for Performing and Interpreting PSG in Children with Chronic Respiratory Disorders

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep in Children with Cancer and Other Chronic Diseases

Relevance

Contributors to Sleep Disturbance

Common Sleep Complaints

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

Importance of Interventions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

Sleep in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Sleep in Children with Mood and Anxiety Disorders

Sleep in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: From Epidemiology to Pathophysiology

Definition

Pathologic Examinations

Incidence

Risk and Protective Factors

Model for SIDS

Mechanisms Implicated in SIDS Deaths

Physiopathology

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep in Chronic Pain and Other Pediatric Conditions

Sleep in Other Age Groups

Sleep in Middle Age

Sleep in the Middle Years of Life

Sleep Disorders in Middle Age

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep in Older Adults

Introduction

Circadian Rhythm Disturbances

Major Sleep Disorders

Consequences of Poor Sleep

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep Pathology in the Elderly

Introduction

Insomnia in the Elderly

Sleep-Disordered Breathing

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

Parasomnias

Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Hypersomnias

Environmental and Psychosocial Factors

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep Disturbances in Nursing Homes

Sleep in Women

Normal Sleep in Women

Introduction

Hormonal Transitions

Psychosocial Aspects of Sleep in Women

Mood Disorders

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep in Pregnancy and the Postpartum

Sleep During Pregnancy

Common Pregnancy-Related Sleep Disturbances

Sleep by Trimester

Frequent Pregnancy-Related Sleep Disorders

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep During Perimenopause

Sleep and Ethnicity

Ethnicity and Prevalence of Sleep Disorders

Introduction

‘Short’ Sleep and ‘Long’ Sleep

Insomnia

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Narcolepsy–Cataplexy

Restless Legs Syndrome

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep, Sleepiness, and Sleep Disorders: Principles for Examining Differences by Ethnicity

Sleep in Other Conditions

Sleep in Other Conditions: Sleep in the Caregiver

Introduction

Sleep in Caregivers for Persons with Dementia

Sleep Characteristics of Caregivers for Persons with Dementia

Factors Contributing to Poor Sleep in Caregivers for Persons with Dementia

Sleep in Caregivers for Cognitively Intact Persons

Caregivers of Adults

Caregivers of Children

Caregiver Sleep Disturbance as Chronic Insomnia

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep and Anesthesia

Sleep and Anesthesia: Distinct States with Shared Characteristics

Unconsciousness in Sleep and Anesthesia: A Common Narcotic Switch

Physiological Changes During Sleep and Anesthesia Affecting Respiration

Sites and Genesis of Upper Airway Obstruction During Anesthesia and Sleep

Clinical Interrelationships Between Sleep and Anesthesia

The Use of Anesthesia in the Investigation of Patients with Suspected or Known Sleep Disorders

Sleep in the Postoperative Period

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep and Athletes

Sleep

Circadian Rhythms

Jet Lag

Sleep Loss

Best Practices for Athletes

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep and Shift Work

Circadian Rhythms

Sleep

Shift Work Sleep Disorder

Shift Work and Health

Shift Work, Performance, and Safety

Best Practices for Shift Work

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep at High Altitudes

Introduction

Changes in Sleep at High Altitudes

Acute Mountain Sickness

Treatment of Sleep Disturbance at High Altitude

OSA at High Altitudes

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Chronic Mountain Sickness and Sleep

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

Complications and Consequences

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep in Aviation and Space

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders (CRSD)

Features, Factors, and Characteristics of CRSD

A Brief History of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

Introduction

Identification and Characterization

Classification

Treatment

Genetics

See also

Further Reading

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder: Genetic and Environmental Factors

Descriptions of CRSD

Overview and Description of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

Introduction

Delayed Sleep-Phase Disorder

Advanced Sleep-Phase Disorder

Irregular Sleep–Wake Disorder

Free-Running Disorder

Jet Lag Disorder

Shift Work Disorder

CRSD Due to Medical Condition

Other CRSD (Circadian Rhythm Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified)

Other CRSD Due to Drug or Substance

Summary and Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Pathophysiology, Associations, and Consequences of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder

Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder

Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder

Irregular Sleep–Wake Rhythm Disorder

Free-Running Disorder

Jet Lag Disorder

Shift Work Sleep Disorder

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Delayed Sleep-Phase Type

Description and Diagnostic Criteria

Treatment of DSPD

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Advanced Sleep Phase Type

Description and Diagnostic Criteria

Etiology/Pathophysiology

Sleep Disturbance in Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder

Treatment of Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Irregular Sleep–Wake Type

Introduction

Demographics and Prevalence

Pathophysiology

Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis

Assessment

Treatment Options

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Non-24-h Sleep–Wake Disorder (Free-running Type, Nonentrained Type, Hypernychthemeral Syndrome) in Sighted and Blind Patients

Non-24-h Sleep–Wake Disorder in Sighted Patients

N24HSWD in Totally Blind Patients

See also

Further Reading

Jet Lag Type

Travel Fatigue Versus Jet Lag

The Body Clock and Jet Lag

Measurement of Jet Lag

Factors Affecting Jet Lag

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Shift Work Type

Associations and Consequences of CRSD

Health Consequences of Circadian Disruption

Overview

Circadian Rhythms

Shift Work and Health

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Fatigue and Sleepiness in Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

Description

Sleepiness in CRSDs – Contributing Factors

Treatment of Sleepiness in CRSDs

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Individual and Societal Impact

Diagnosis of CRSD

History and Physical Examination

Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder

Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder

Free-Running Disorder

Irregular Sleep–Wake Rhythm Disorder

Jet Lag Disorder

Shift Work Disorder

Assessment of CRSDs

Assessment of Sleepiness

Assessment of Insomnia and Sleep

Assessment of Chronotype

Sleep Diaries

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Diagnostic Algorithm for Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

Treatment of CRSD

Light and Melatonin Treatment for Jet Lag Disorder

Circadian Timing System

Circadian Phase Shifting Responses to Bright Light

Circadian Phase Shifting Effects of Exogenous Melatonin

Treating Jet Lag with Bright Light and Melatonin

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Light and Melatonin Treatment for Shift Work

Shift Work: Description, Prevalence, and Safety Concerns

Adverse Effects of Shift Work

Light Treatment for Shift Workers

Melatonin Treatment for Shift Workers

Considerations and Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Adjunctive and Alternative Treatment of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues for CRSD

Circadian Rhythm Disorders: Does Sex Matter?

Introduction

Methodology

Sex Differences in Sleep–Wake Timing

Sex Differences in Circadian Phase

Sex Differences in Circadian Amplitude

Sex Differences in Circadian Period

Sex Differences in Light Sensitivity and Phase Angle of Entrainment

Significance of Sex Differences in the Circadian Timing System

Mechanisms Behind a Sex Difference in Circadian Regulation

Impact of the Menstrual Cycle on Circadian Rhythms

Sex Differences in Circadian Rhythm Disorders

Impact of Shiftwork on Women’s Health

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders in Adolescents

Sleep Regulation

Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Age-Related Changes in Circadian Rhythms During Adulthood

Introduction

Age-Related Changes in Sleep Timing and Sleep Maintenance

Age-Related Changes in Circadian Regulation of the Sleep–Wake Cycle

Age-Related Changes in Circadian Entrainment

Molecular Mechanisms of Age-Related Changes in Circadian Rhythms

Concluding Remarks

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Medication Effects

Hypnotics

Stimulants

Melatonin Agonists

Lithium

Nonclinical Compounds

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Impact of Neurological and Medical Disorders

Neurological Disorders

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Endogenous and Exogenous Melatonin, the Sleep–Wake Cycle, and the Circadian Component of Affective Disorders

Introduction: The Phase Advance Hypothesis and the Phase Shift Hypothesis

Phase-Typing Using the Dim Light Melatonin Onset

Phase-Typing Seasonal and Nonseasonal Depression

Successful Melatonin Treatment of Summer SAD: A Case Report

The Hawaiian Earring Model

Treatment of Circadian Rhythm Disorders Using Bright Light and Low-Dose Melatonin

Determination of Tau in Humans

Concluding Remarks

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Special Considerations and Future Directions in Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders Diagnosis

The Circadian System

Light and Circadian Rhythms

Regulation of Sleep–Wake Cycles

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

Measurement of Circadian Rhythms in the Diagnosis of CRSD

See also

Further Reading

Disruption of Circadian Rhythms and Sleep: Role in Carcinogenesis

Introduction

Circadian Disruption and Cancer Risk

Circadian Disruption in Cancer Patients: Therapeutic Implications

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Legal Implications of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

Sleep Related Breathing Disorders (SRBD)

Features, Factors, and Characteristics of SRBD

The History of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) from the Beginning of Mankind to the Nineteenth Century

SDB in the Twentieth Century

The Therapeutic Revolution for SDB

From the EEG 8 Channel Paper Graph to Miniature Polysomnographs – Developments in Diagnostic Options

Gaining Ground in the Public Interest: Epidemiologic Research in SDB

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Epidemiology

Introduction

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome

Snoring

Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes

Special Populations

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Ontogeny of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Airway Anatomy in Infants and Children

Consequences of Pediatric OSA

Diagnostic and Treatment Paradigm

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Phylogeny and Animal Models

Introduction

Phylogeny Involved in Animal Research

Animal Models of SDB

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Upper Airway Pathology

Introduction

Tissue Changes Potentially Influencing Upper Airway Mechanics

Tissue Changes Potentially Affecting Upper Airway Neuromechanical Function

See also

Further Reading

Arousals

Arousal Phenomenon

Definitions of Arousal

Arousal Scoring Rules

Reliability of Scoring ASDA (AASM) Arousals and Night-to-Night Variability

Arousal Index

Significance of Arousals

Arousal and Daytime Sleepiness in OSA

Respiratory Arousal and Event Termination

Mechanisms of Respiratory Arousal

PLMS and Arousal

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Pathophysiology/Pathogenesis of OSA

Introduction

Airway Anatomy

Pharyngeal Muscle Function

Respiratory Control Stability

Arousal from Sleep

Lung Volume

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Risk Factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Introduction

Prevalence of OSA

Risk Factors for OSA

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Familial and Genetic Factors – Sleep Apnea

Familial Aggregation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Linkage Analysis

Intermediate Phenotypes

Candidate Gene Studies of OSA

Genome-Wide Association Studies

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Associations and Consequences of OSA

Descriptions of SRBD

Overview, Description, and Types of Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

Introduction

Terminology, Definitions, and Classification

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndromes

CSA Syndromes

Primary CSA (Idiopathic CSA)

Central Sleep Apnea Due to Cheyne–Stokes Respiration (CSA–CSR)

CSA Due to High Altitude Periodic Breathing

CSA Due to Drug or Substance

Primary Sleep Apnea of Infancy

Sleep-Related Hypoventilation Syndromes

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Primary Central Sleep Apnea

Introduction

Definition

Epidemiology

Pathophysiology

Risk Factors

Diagnosis

Treatment

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Central Sleep Apnea Due to Cheyne–Stokes Breathing Pattern

Introduction

Pathogenesis of CSR

Adverse Consequences of CSR

Treatment

See also

Further Reading

Central Sleep Apnea due to a Medical Condition Not Cheyne–Stokes

Introduction

Anatomy and Physiology of the Control of Breathing

Medical Conditions that May Contribute to Central Sleep Apnea

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Central Sleep Apnea Due to Drug or Substance

Introduction

Scoring and Classification of Breathing Disturbances Associated with Chronic Opioids

Opioids and Control of Respiration (Basic Neurophysiology)

Effects of Opioids on Breathing (Clinical Studies)

Review of Clinical Data Concerning Opioids and SDB

Assessing Individual Risk and Indications for Polysomnography in Patients Receiving Chronic Opioids

Therapy of SDB Associated with Opioids

Summary Comments

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Snoring

Epidemiology

Risk Factors

Consequences

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome

Introduction

Pathophysiology

Clinical Features

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Primary Sleep Apnea in Infants

Incidence

Pathophysiology

Risk Factors

Clinical Symptoms

Diagnosis

Treatment

Complications

Special Considerations

Congenital Central Alveolar Hypoventilation Syndrome or Ondine’s Curse

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Pathogenesis/Pathophysiology

Epidemiology

Clinical Features

Assessment

Associations and Consequences of OSA

Treatment

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

History and Definition of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Pathophysiology

Clinical Features of OSA

Physical Features Related to OSA

Risk Factors and Associated Conditions

Diagnosis of OSA in Children

Treatment of OSA in Children

Long-Term Clinical Consequences of OSA

Burden of Disease/Health Care Utilization

Knowledge Gaps and Future Directions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Complex Sleep Apnea

Introduction

Definitions

The Clinical Impact of Complex Apnea

Pathophysiology of Complex Sleep Apnea

The Problem of Identifying Complex Sleep Apnea

Is Complex Apnea a Trait or a State?

Occurrence and Persistence of Complex/Chemoreflex-Modulated Sleep Apnea

The Concept of a Dynamic Spectrum of Chemoreflex Influences on Sleep Respiration

An Important Destabilizing Role for Arousals

Treatment of Complex/Chemoreflex-Modulated Sleep Apnea

Integrating Management Options

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep-Related Idiopathic Nonobstructive Alveolar Hypoventilation

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

Complications and Consequences

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Congenital Central Alveolar Hypoventilation Syndrome

Introduction

Genetics

Late-Onset Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep and Obstructive Lung Disease

Introduction

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Asthma

Cystic Fibrosis

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Sleep-Related Hypoventilation and Hypoxemia Due to Neuromuscular and Chest Wall Disorders

Introduction

Pathophysiology

Prevalence

Specific Neuromuscular and Chest Wall Disorders

Diagnostic Evaluation

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Rapid-Onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation, and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD)

Associations and Consequences of SRBD

Morbidity and Mortality of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Cardiovascular Morbidity in OSA

OSA Progression to Heart Failure

Increased Prevalence of OSA in Stroke

COPD and OSA: the Overlap Syndrome

The Behavioral Morbidity of OSA

Type 2 Diabetes and End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Associations with OSA

Increased Risk of Motor Vehicle Accidents

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder (SRBD) – Attention and Vigilance

Introduction

Etiology and Mechanism

Clinical Findings

Sleep–Wake Physiology

EEG Effects

Neuroimaging Findings

Event-Related Potential Findings

Effects of Treatment

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Executive and Frontal Lobe Function

Executive Function Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Mechanisms of the Neurocognitive Dysfunction in OSA

Neuroimaging Findings Associated with Executive Deficits in OSA

Reversibility of Executive Deficits after Treatment

Concluding Remarks

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease

Physiology

Hypertension

Coronary Artery Disease

Heart Failure

Arrhythmia

Stroke

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Cardiac Arrhythmias and Sleep

Sleep and Cardiac Electrophysiology

Arrhythmia: Epidemiology and Public Health Impact

OSA: Pathophysiologic Consequences Potentially Leading to Arrhythmogenesis

OSA and Cardiac Arrhythmias: Epidemiologic and Clinical Perspectives

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Heart Failure

Introduction

Prevalence of SA in Consecutive Patients of HF, the Recent Studies

In Patients with HF, SA Is Occult, But Certain Risk Factors Help in Identifying Patients at High Risk of OSA and CSA

Mechanisms of SA in HF

Pathological Consequences of SA in HF

The Mechanisms and Consequences of Increased Sympathetic Activity in HF: The Role of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

OSA and CSA Are Independently Associated with Excess Mortality in Patients with HF

Treatment of SA in HF

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Cardiovascular Effects

Introduction

OSA and Prevalent Coronary Heart Disease

OSA and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

Mechanisms of the Cardiovascular Effects of OSA

Effect of CPAP Treatment on Cardiovascular Risk

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Hypertension

Arterial Hypertension

Sleep-Related CV Control

Sleep Disruption as a Cause of HTN

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Evidence Linking OSA to HTN

CV Complications of OSA

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep Apnea and Stroke

Introduction

Pathophysiology of Sleep Apnea

OSA and Cerebrovascular Disease Association

Pathophysiology of Sleep Apnea and Cerebrovascular Disease

Short Sleep Duration and Metabolic Dysregulation

Snoring and Carotid Plaques

Sleep Apnea Treatment and Cerebrovascular Disease

Secondary Prophylaxis: Sleep Apnea Treatment

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Background

Definitions

OSA and Impaired Glucose Metabolism

Mechanisms of Altered Glucose Metabolism in OSA

Summary and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Sleep and Obesity

Obesity – Definitions and the Scope of the Problem

Obesity and OSA

Sleep Debt/Deprivation, Interactions with OSA and Metabolic Dysregulation

Cardiovascular Consequences of Obesity

The Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

Weight Loss as a Treatment for OSA

See also

Further Reading

Mood and Behavior

Daytime Consequences of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Mood Problems in OSA

Behavioral Problems in Children with OSA

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleepiness

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Health-Related Quality of Life in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Introduction

HRQoL Measures in OSAS

HRQoL in Untreated OSAS

Predictors of HRQoL in OSAS

OSAS Therapy and HRQoL

Final Thoughts

See also

Further Reading

Individual and Socioeconomic Impact of Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

Introduction

Individual Consequences

Societal Consequences

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Commercial Transportation

Diagnosis of SRBD

History and Physical Examination – Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

History

Physical Examination – SRBDs

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Screening and Case Finding for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

What Is Screening and How Is It Different from Case Finding?

Current Tools for Screening and Case Finding for OSA

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Diagnostic Tools for Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders (SRBD)

Diagnostic Tools for OSAHS

Portable Monitoring

Daytime (Nonsleep) Measurement Tools for Diagnosis of OSAHS

Diagnosis of SDB in Children

CSA Syndrome/Cheyne–Stokes Respiration

Nocturnal Hypoventilation

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Future Directions for Diagnosis Based on Physiological Phenotype

Limitations

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Diagnostic Algorithm for Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

History and Physical Examination

Subjective Assessment Tools

Objective Testing

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Polysomnography

Techniques

Scoring Polysomnography

Portable Polysomnogram

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Home Sleep Apnea Testing

Introduction

Terminology

History of Home Diagnosis of OSA

Classification of Technology

Recent Trends in Home Sleep Apnea Testing

Evidence for HSAT

Current Guidelines

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Upper Airway Imaging and Endoscopy

Treatment of SRBD

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

Introduction

History

Indications for CPAP

Benefits of CPAP Therapy

Side Effects of CPAP Therapy

Contraindications to CPAP Therapy

CPAP Adherence

Future Directions and Challenges

See also

Further Reading

Bilevel Pressure

Introduction and Rationale

Bilevel Pressure

SRBD with Hypercapnia

Reimbursement Issues

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Autotitrating Positive Airway Pressure

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Adaptive Servoventilation in Treatment of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

Background

VPAP-AdaptSV

BIPAP autoSV

BIPAP autoSV Advanced

SOMNOvent CR

Clinical Applications of ASV

Conclusions and Future Directions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Upper Airway Surgery in the Adult

Should Surgery Be Considered?

Physical Examination

Overview of Surgical Procedures

Perioperative Management

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Oral Appliances

Introduction

Types of Oral Devices and Design Issues

Mechanisms of Action

Titration Protocols

Efficacy and Effectiveness

Prediction of Treatment Outcome

Side Effects, Adherence, and Contraindications

Clinical Practice Guidelines

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Adjunctive and Alternative Therapies for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues of SRBD

Gender-Specific Differences in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea–Hypopnea Syndrome

Introduction

Epidemiology

Pathophysiology

Symptom Presentation

Impact of OSA

Polysomnogram Features

Treatment of OSA

Pregnancy

Gender and Other Sleep Disordered Breathing Syndromes

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Pediatric Obstructive Sleep-Disordered Breathing

Prevalence of Pediatric SDB

Definition of Pediatric SDB

Symptoms of Childhood SDB

Children at Risk for SDB

Consequences of Untreated SDB

Diagnosis of Childhood SDB

Treatment of Pediatric SDB

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in the Elderly

Introduction

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Etiology and Pathophysiology

Complications and Consequences

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Medication Effects on Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

Introduction

Hypnotics

Sodium Oxybate

Opioid Medications

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Impact of Other Respiratory Conditions and Disorders During Sleep

Introduction

Effects of Sleep on Respiration

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Nocturnal Asthma

Interstitial Lung Disease

See also

Further Reading

Impact of Medical and Other Sleep Disorders

Disorders Affecting Treatment Compliance

Other Medical Disorders and Treatment

Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders and Treatment

Sleep Disorders and Treatment

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Impact of Psychiatric Disorders

A Bidirectional Relationship

Treatment Effects

Potential Mechanisms

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Legal Aspects of Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

Sleep Related Movement Disorders (SRMD) and Parasomnias

Features, Factors, and Characteristics of SRMD

The Evolution of Diagnostic Rules and Standards for Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Restless Legs Syndrome

Rhythmic Movement Disorder

Sleep Bruxism

Hypnic Jerks (Sleep Starts)

Benign Sleep Myoclonus of Infancy

Propriospinal Myoclonus at Sleep Onset

Excessive Fragmentary Myoclonus

Nocturnal Leg Cramps

Hypnagogic Foot Tremor and Alternating Leg Muscle Activation

Drug-Related Movement Disorder During Sleep

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Epidemiology of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Epidemiology of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Restless Legs Syndrome

Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

Sleep-Related Bruxism

Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder

Hypnagogic Foot Tremor

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Etiologies of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders (SRMD)

Restless Legs Syndrome

Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

Sleep-Related Bruxism

Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder

Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Familial and Genetic Factors of Restless Legs Syndrome

Descriptions of SRMD

Description of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Introduction

Physiological and Benign Sleep-Related Motor Manifestations

Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Isolated Motor Symptoms, Apparently Normal Variants, and Unresolved Issues

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Introduction

Restless Legs Syndrome

Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

Sleep-Related Bruxism

Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder

Onset, Clinical Course, and Ontogeny

Other SRMDs

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

Definition and Diagnostic Criteria

Prevalence and Comorbidity

Prevalence of PLMS in Other Sleep Disorders

Pathophysiology

Genetics

Polysomnographic and Other Objective Findings

PLMD in Children and Adolescents

Management of PLMD

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

Nocturnal Leg Cramps

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep Bruxism

Classification and Epidemiology of Sleep Bruxism

Etiology and Pathophysiology of Sleep Bruxism

Consequences of Sleep Bruxism

Assessment of Sleep Bruxism

Management of Sleep Bruxism

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Pathology and Pathophysiology

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

Complications and Consequences

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Hypnagogic Foot Tremor (HFT)

Associations and Consequences of SRMD

Morbidity in the Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

RLS and Cardiovascular Disease

Obesity and RLS

RLS and Neurological Diseases

RLS and Erectile Dysfunction

RLS and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

RLS and Mood/Anxiety Disorders

RLS and Other Morbidities

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Mood, Behavior, and Sleepiness of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Introduction

Effects of RLS on Wellbeing

Effects of RLS on Patients’ Mental Health

Cognitive Effects of RLS

Treatment of RLS and Impact on Mood and Behavior

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep-Related Movement Disorders: Health-Related Quality of Life

Introduction

Restless Legs Syndrome

RLS and Sleep Quality

Impact of Treatment on QoL

Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

Bruxism

See also

Further Reading

Economic Impact, Associations, and Consequences of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Diagnosis of SRMD

Sleep-Related Movement Disorder: History and Physical Examination

Sleep History

Physical Examination

See also

Further Reading

Diagnostic Algorithm for Sleep-Related Movement Disorders (SRMDs)

Treatment of SRMD

Treatment of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Introduction

RLS and PLMD

Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

Sleep-Related Bruxism

Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Special Considerations for Treatment of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues of SRMD

Gender Differences in Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Restless Legs Syndrome

Periodic Limb Movements

Bruxism

Other Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Sleep-Related Movement Disorders in Children

Approach to Sleep-Related Movement Disorder in Children

Restless Legs Syndrome

Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

Pathophysiology and Pathology of RLS and PLMS

Risk Factors for RLS

Differential Diagnosis

Evaluation of RLS and PLMS

Management of RLS and PLMS

Consequences of RLS and PLMS

Prognosis

Sleep Bruxism

Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movements: Head Banging, Head Rolling, and Body Banging

Benign Sleep Myoclonus

Sleep Starts (Hypnic Jerks, Hypnagogic Jerks)

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Age-Related Changes in PLMS Characteristics of RLS Patients

RLS in the Elderly

Periodic Limb Movements Disorder in the Elderly

Sleep-Related Leg Cramps

Sleep-Related Bruxism in the Elderly

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Medication Effects and Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movement in Sleep

Bruxism

REM Sleep Without Atonia

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Restless Legs Syndrome in Internal Medicine

Introduction

Hematological Disorders

RLS and Chronic Kidney Disease

RLS and Diabetes

RLS and Periodic Limb Movement in Rheumatic Diseases

RLS and PLM in Cardiovascular Disease

Gastrointestinal Disturbances

Pneumological Disturbances

Neoplastic Diseases

Thyroid Disorders

Pathophysiological Considerations and Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Impact of Psychiatric Disorders on Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Parasomnias

History – Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Parasomnias

Parasomnias in Ancient Times

Early Neuropsychiatric and Organic Theories Regarding Parasomnias

The Identification of Parasomnias during the Nineteenth Century

Alternative Approaches during the Romantic Period: Nocturnal Enuresis and Somnambulism

The Birth of Sleep Medicine and the Definitive Acknowledgement of Parasomnias

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Parasomnias

Parasomnias Are Most Common in Children

Risk Factors for NREM Arousal Parasomnias in Children

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Parasomnias in Young Adults

Parasomnias Which Most Often Occur in Wake–Sleep Transitions

Parasomnias During REM Sleep

Tidbits

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Ontogeny of Parasomnias

Ontogeny of Sleep-Related Motor Behaviors in Fetus and Premature Infants

Ontogeny of Motor Movements During Sleep Across the Lifespan

Ontogeny of Parasomnias Across Childhood

What Provokes Parasomnias in Children?

Parasomnias Common in Adults

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Pathogenesis and Etiologies

Disorders of Arousal (from NREM Sleep)

REM Parasomnias

Miscellaneous Parasomnias

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Familial and Genetic Factors

Descriptions of Parasomnias

Parasomnias in Children

Introduction

NREM Parasomnias

REM Sleep Parasomnias

Transitional Sleep Disorders

See also

Further Reading

Pathophysiology, Associations, and Consequences of Parasomnias

Introduction

Pathophysiology, Associations, and Consequences

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Classification of Parasomnias and Diagnostic Criteria

Classification Based on Sleep Stage

Disorders of Arousal (NREM)

Sleep Studies in Disorders of Arousal

REM-Related Parasomnias

Differential Diagnosis: Disorders of Arousal Versus REM-Related Parasomnias

Differential Diagnosis: Other Medical/Psychiatric Disorders

Common Diagnostic Classification Problems

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Confusional Arousals

History and Definition

Demographics and Prevalence

Clinical Features and Course

Triggering Factors

Comorbid Diseases

Differential Diagnosis

Pathophysiology

Evaluation

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleepwalking

Description

Risk Factors

Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis

Management

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep Terrors

Description

Risk Factors

Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis

Management

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

Complications and Consequences

Diagnosis

Clinical Management and Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Recurrent Isolated Sleep Paralysis

Demographics and Prevalence

Severity: Episodic Frequency and Intensity

Onset and Ontogeny

Neurophysiology

Subjective Associated Factors (Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations)

History and Nomenclature

Cross-Cultural Issues

Predisposing and Precipitating Factors

Complications and Consequences

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Nightmare Disorder

Introduction

Definition

Differentiating Nightmares from other Sleep-Related Anxiety Phenomena

Nightmare Disorder

Prevalence

Nightmares and Sleep Quality

Nightmare Frequency versus Nightmare Distress

Nightmares and Sleep Physiology

Etiology

Therapeutic Principles

Case Report: Adult

Case Report: Child

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep-Related Dissociative Disorders

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

Complications and Consequences

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep Enuresis

Introduction

Etiology and Pathogenesis

Treatment: Theoretical Considerations

Comorbidity and Consequences

Practical Guidelines

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Catathrenia: Sleep-Related Groaning

History and Nomenclature

Demography and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Diagnosis

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

Complications and Consequences

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Exploding Head Syndrome

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

Complications and Consequences

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Further Reading

Sleep-Related Eating Disorder

Normal Metabolic Physiology During Sleep

Definition of Sleep-Related Eating Disorder

Historical Background

Epidemiology

Clinical Characteristics

SRED and BRAs

SRED and Amnesia

The Relationship Between SRED and RLS

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sexsomnia

Associations and Consequences of Parasomnias

Mood and Behavior

Introduction

Mood and Behavioral Changes as Part of the Clinical Manifestations of Parasomnias

Reactions of Patients Themselves to Their Parasomnia Experiences, and the Reactions (Including Misinterpretations) of Those Witnessing the Episodes

Effects of Sleep Disruption Caused by Parasomnias

Medication Effects

Consequences of Misdiagnosis and Mismanagement

Comorbidity with Other Sleep Disorders, Medical Conditions, or Psychiatric Illness of Which the Parasomnias are Symptomatic

See also

Further Reading

Health-Related Quality of Life

Diagnosis of Parasomnias

History and Physical Examination, Screening and Case Finding

History and Description

Physical Examination

Screening and Case Finding

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Value of Polysomnography and Other Diagnostic Tools to Diagnose and Treat Parasomnias

Indications for Video-PSG in Parasomnias

Technical Considerations When Evaluating Parasomnias Using Video-PSG

Diagnosing a Parasomnia with Video-PSG

Video-PSG is Required to Confirm RBD

Other Diagnostic Tests Used When Diagnosing Sleep Disorders in Patients with Parasomnias

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Diagnostic Algorithms for Parasomnias

Treatment of Parasomnias

Treatment of Parasomnias

Generalized Treatment Modalities Common to Parasomnias

Specific Treatment Modalities for Selected Parasomnias

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Special Consideration for the Treatment of Parasomnia

Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues of Parasomnias

Parasomnias of Childhood

Introduction

Epidemiology

Classification

Parasomnias of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep

Miscellaneous Parasomnias

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Effect of Medications and Substances on Parasomnias

Background

Sleepwalking and the Treatment of Psychiatric Patients

Lithium Carbonate and Sleepwalking

Benzodiazepines and Sleepwalking

Nonbenzodiazepines and Sleepwalking, Sleep Eating, and Sleepsex

Other Substances

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Impact of Medical and Neurological Disorders on Parasomnias

NREM Arousal Disorders More Common in Certain Medical or Neurological Disorders

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Often Heralds a Neurodegenerative Disease

Parasomnia Overlap Disorder

Sleep Bruxism

Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Parasomnia: Impact of Psychiatric Disorders

Introduction

Sleepwalking and Psychiatric Disorders

Sleep-Related Eating Disorder and Psychiatric Disorders

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Psychiatric Disorders

Nightmares and Psychiatric Disorders

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Legal Implications of Parasomnias

Sleep and Other Conditions or Disorders

Neurologic Disorders

Neurological Conditions and Sleep

Introduction

Parkinson’s Disease

Neuromuscular Disease

Stroke

Epilepsy

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Headache and Sleep

History and Nomenclature

Demographics and Prevalence

Onset, Ontogeny, and Clinical Course

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Associative, Predisposing, and Precipitating Factors

Complications and Consequences

Diagnosis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Epilepsy and Sleep

Introduction and Definitions

Seizure Occurrence in Relation to the Sleep–Wake Cycle

Effect of Sleep on Interictal Epileptic Discharges

Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Seizures and the EEG

Effects of AEDs on Sleep

Effects of Vagus Nerve Stimulation on Sleep and Wakefulness

Sleep Organization in Epilepsy

Sleep Complaints and Sleep Disorders in Epilepsy

Differentiating Nocturnal Seizures, Parasomnias, and other Nonepileptic Events

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Cerebrovascular Disorders and Sleep

Evidence that SDB is a Risk Factor for Stroke

Prevalence of Type of SDB Poststroke

Which Patients with Stroke are More Likely to Have Obstructive Apnea?

What Apnea Subtype Occurs Poststroke?

The Effect of SDB on Poststroke Functional Recovery and Prognosis

Mortality Poststroke is Related to Presence of SDB

How are Patients Able to Tolerate CPAP After Stroke?

Mechanisms Linking SDB and Stroke

Practical Tips

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Parkinson’s Disease and Sleep

History and Nomenclature

Diagnosis of PD

Basic Epidemiology and Clinical Course

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Insomnia and Insomnia Secondary to Motor Dysfunction in PD

Periodic Leg Movements of Sleep and Restless Legs Syndrome

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

Sleep-Disordered Breathing

Excessive Daytime Somnolence

Approach to Sleep Disorders in PD

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

CNS Disease from Toxins, Alcohol, and Cannabis: Effects on Sleep

Introduction

Environmental Toxins and Sleep

Effect of Alcohol on Respiration During Sleep

Cannabis and Sleep

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Demyelinating Diseases and Sleep

Multiple Sclerosis

Insomnia

Restless Legs Syndrome

Periodic Limb Movement of Sleep

REM Behavior Disorder

Sleep-Disordered Breathing

Narcolepsy in MS

Circadian Rhythm Abnormalities

Effect of MS Medications on Sleep

Sleep and Fatigue

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

See also

Further Reading

Neurodegenerative Diseases and Sleep

Introduction

Sleep Disorders Preceding the Classic Symptoms of the Neurodegenerative Disorders

Sleep in Neurodegenerative Disorders

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Dementia and Sleep

Psychiatric Disorders

Overview of the Impact of Psychiatric Disorders on Sleep

Introduction

Psychiatric Disorders and Potential Sleep Effects

Mood Disorders

Anxiety Disorders

Schizophrenia

Substance Abuse Disorders

Psychotropic Medications and Sleep

Sleep Disturbance and Psychiatric Illness: Treatment Implications

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Mood Disorders and Sleep

Insomnia and Hypersomnia

Sleep Continuity Disturbances

Sleep Architecture Abnormalities

Sleep Microarchitecture

Overall Relationship Between Sleep and Depression

Clinical Correlates of Disturbed Sleep in Depression

Clinical Relevance of Sleep Architecture Findings

Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Anxiety Disorders and Sleep

Demographics

Diagnosis

Pathophysiology

Common Comorbidities

Complications and Consequences

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Trauma Exposure and Sleep

PTSD and Sleep

Clinical Relevance of Sleep in PTSD and Other Trauma-Related Disorders

The Role of Sleep in PTSD Using Animal and Human Models

Treatments of Sleep Disturbances in PTSD

Psychological Treatments

Pharmacological Treatments

Future Directions: Translational Studies of Sleep in PTSD

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Schizophrenia, Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders, and Sleep

Emotional Memory, Mood Disorders, and Sleep

Sleep and PTSD

Sleep and ADHD

Sleep and ASD

Bidirectional Relations Between Sleep and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Sleep and Schizophrenia

General Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Eating Disorders and Sleep

Introduction

Peptides Linking Food Consumption and Sleep

Primary Eating Disorders and Sleep

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Substance and Alcohol-Related Disorders and Sleep

Other Medical Conditions or Disorders

Morbidity and Mortality Associated with Sleep Length

Introduction

Sleep and Diabetes

Sleep and Obesity

Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease

Sleep and Depression

Sleep and Mortality

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Pain and Sleep

Introduction

Association of Pain and Disturbed Sleep

Sleep Deprivation, Specific Sleep Stage Deprivation, and Pain Sensitivity

Sleep Deprivation and Sleepiness

Sleep Loss, Cytokines, and Pain

Pharmacological and Behavioral Treatments of Sleep in Chronic Pain

Clinical Significance

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Fibromyalgia/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Sleep

Introduction

Fibromyalgia and Sleep

Poor Sleep May Lead to Pain

Pain May Lead to Poor Sleep

Improving Sleep May Improve Analgesia in FM

Potential Pathophysiology of FM and Sleep

Pharmacologic Treatment Approaches to FM and Poor Sleep

CFS and Sleep

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Visual Impairment and Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

The Role of Light in Circadian Entrainment

The Effect of Visual Impairment on Circadian Entrainment

The Effect of Light in the Blind

The Effect of Nonphotic Time Cues in the Blind

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Cancer and Sleep: Cancer is a Circadian Rhythm Disorder

Basic Science – Circadian Rhythm and Oncogenesis

Clinical Science – Sleep Dysfunction and Cancer

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Systemic and Pulmonary Hypertension and Sleep

Introduction

Systemic Influences of Sleep

Differences between Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation

SHTN and Sleep

PHTN and Sleep

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Alterations in Gastrointestinal Functioning During Sleep: Clinical Applications

Introduction

Upper GI Functioning

Clinical Aspects of Sleep-Related GER

Sleep and Functional Bowel Disorders

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Infectious Diseases and Sleep

Introduction

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Epstein–Barr Virus

Chronic Viral Hepatitis

Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Renal Disorders and Sleep

Impact of Kidney Failure on Sleep

Impact of Sleep on the Kidney

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Nocturia

Prevalence

Etiology

Complications

Diagnosis

Treatments

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Index

Author Index

 
 
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