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Neurobiology of Attention
 
 

Neurobiology of Attention, 1st Edition

 
Neurobiology of Attention, 1st Edition,Laurent Itti,Geraint Rees,John Tsotsos,ISBN9780123757319
 
 
 

Itti   &   Rees   &   Tsotsos   

Academic Press

9780123757319

9780080454313

744

279 X 216

Definitive reference handbook on the topic of neurobiology of attention.

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Key Features

* Contains numerous quick-reference articles covering the breadth of investigation into the subject of attention
* Provides extensive introductory commentary to orient and guide the reader
* Includes the most recent research results in this field of study

Description

A key property of neural processing in higher mammals is the ability to focus resources by selectively directing attention to relevant perceptions, thoughts or actions. Research into attention has grown rapidly over the past two decades, as new techniques have become available to study higher brain function in humans, non-human primates, and other mammals. Neurobiology of Attention is the first encyclopedic volume to summarize the latest developments in attention research.

An authoritative collection of over 100 chapters organized into thematic sections provides both broad coverage and access to focused, up-to-date research findings. This book presents a state-of-the-art multidisciplinary perspective on psychological, physiological and computational approaches to understanding the neurobiology of attention. Ideal for students, as a reference handbook or for rapid browsing, the book has a wide appeal to anybody interested in attention research.

Readership

Students and researchers studying computational, perceptual, and cognitive neuroscience, as well as neuropsychologists.

Laurent Itti

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Southern California, Computer Science Department, Los Angeles, USA

Geraint Rees

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Cognitive Neurology, University College London, U.K.

John Tsotsos

Affiliations and Expertise

Director Center for Vision Research, York University, Toronto, Canada

Neurobiology of Attention, 1st Edition

Dedications

Contributors

Foreword: Neurobiology of Attention

Preface

A Brief and Selective History of Attention

A Tour of This Volume

I: FOUNDATIONS

Chapter 1: Computational Foundations for Attentive Processes

I. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

II. THE COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY OF VISION

III. COMPLEXITY CONSTRAINS THE ARCHITECTURE FOR VISUAL PROCESSING

IV. CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 2: Capacity Limits for Spatial Discrimination

I. INTRODUCTION

II. FEATURE SEGREGATION

III. FEATURE INTEGRATION

IV. FEATURE DETECTION

APPENDIX

Chapter 3: Directed Visual Attention and the Dynamic Control of Information Flow

I. INTRODUCTION

II. DYNAMIC ROUTING

III. DYNAMIC ROUTING CIRCUIT ARCHITECTURE

IV. AUTONOMOUS CONTROL

V. NEUROBIOLOGICAL SUBSTRATES AND MECHANISMS

VI. DISCUSSION

Chapter 4: Selective Attention as an Optimal Computational Strategy

I. THE ATTENTION-AWARENESS MODEL: AN INTRODUCTION

II. LEARNING MOTION WITH AN ARTICULATED ARM

III. ROLE OF THE ATTENTION-AWARENESS MODEL IN LEARNING

IV. CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 5: Surprise: A Shortcut for Attention?

I. INTRODUCTION

II. COMPUTATION OF SURPRISE

III. HABITUATION AND SURPRISE

IV. DISCUSSION: A SHORTCUT FOR ATTENTION

Chapter 6: A Heteromodal Large-Scale Network for Spatial Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. HEMISPATIAL NEGLECT

III. THE SPATIAL ATTENTION NETWORK

IV. BRAIN-BEHAVIOR CORRELATIONS

V. INTRANETWORK SPECIALIZATIONS

VI. HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY

VII. INTERNETWORK RELATIONSHIPS

VIII. CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 7: Parietal Mechanisms of Attentional Control: Locations, Features, and Objects

I. INTRODUCTION

II. CUING STUDIES OF ATTENTIONAL CONTROL

III. DYNAMIC ATTENTIONAL CONTROL SIGNALS

IV. CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 8: Visual Cortical Circuits and Spatial Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. SPATIAL ATTENTION: FACILITATION AND SELECTION

III. CONTRAST-DEPENDENT RESPONSE MODULATION IN VISUAL CORTEX

IV. A LINKING HYPOTHESIS: DIRECTING SPATIAL ATTENTION TO A STIMULUS INCREASES ITS EFFECTIVE CONTRAST

V. CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 9: Psychopharmacology of Human Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. THE NORADRENERGIC SYSTEM

III. THE CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM

IV. CONCLUSION

Chapter 10: Neuropharmacology of Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. SUSTAINED ATTENTION

III. SELECTIVE SPATIAL ATTENTION/ATTENTIONAL SHIFT

IV. NEUROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF ATTENTION

V. DISCUSSION

Chapter 11: Identifying the Neural Systems of Top-Down Attentional Control: A Meta-analytic Approach

I. INTRODUCTION

II. METHOD

III. RESULTS

IV. DISCUSSION

V. CONCLUDING REMARKS

Chapter 12: Attention Capture: The Interplay of Expectations, Attention, and Awareness

I. INTRODUCTION

II. IMPLICIT ATTENTION CAPTURE

III. EXPLICIT ATTENTION CAPTURE AND INATTENTIONAL BLINDNESS

IV. COMBINING IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT ATTENTION CAPTURE

Chapter 13: Change Blindness

I. INTRODUCTION

II. THE NATURE OF VISUAL ATTENTION

III. VISUAL ATTENTION AND SCENE PERCEPTION

IV. CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 14: Development of Covert Orienting in Young Infants

I. INFANTS CAN SHIFT ATTENTION COVERTLY TO PERIPHERAL STIMULI

II. INFANT COVERT ORIENTING OCCURS DURING CENTRAL STIMULUS ATTENTION

III. CORTICAL BASES OF SPATIAL ATTENTION DEVELOPMENT?

Chapter 15: Prior Entry

I. INTRODUCTION

II. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE TASK

III. EARLY PRIOR ENTRY RESEARCH

IV. SPATIAL CONFOUND IN MULTISENSORY PRIOR ENTRY RESEARCH

V. RESPONSE BIAS CONFOUND

VI. COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF PRIOR ENTRY

VII. CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 16: Inhibition of Return

I. MODEL TASK FOR EXPLORING IOR

II. BEHAVIORAL PROPERTIES OF IOR

III. IOR FUNCTIONS AS A FORAGING FACILITATOR

IV. NEURAL IMPLEMENTATION OF IOR

Chapter 17: Guidance of Visual Search by Preattentive Information

I. INTRODUCTION

II. LOOKING FOR PREATTENTIVE FEATURES

III. HOW GUIDANCE WORKS

IV. WHAT ARE THE PREATTENTIVE FEATURES?

Chapter 18: The Top in Top-Down Attention

I. DEFINITIONS OF TOP-DOWN EFFECTS

II. WHEN IS TOP-DOWN NOT TOP-DOWN?

III. DO WE HAVE TOP-DOWN CONTROL OF SELECTIVE ATTENTION?

IV. TOP-DOWN CONTROL AS THE MAINTENANCE OF TASK PRIORITIES

V. WHAT IS AT THE TOP OF TOP-DOWN CONTROL?

Chapter 19: Allocation of Attention in Three-Dimensional Space

I. THE PROBLEM OF ATTENTION IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE

II. RESEARCH DEMONSTRATING ATTENTION IN DEPTH

III. THE INTERACTION OF ATTENTION IN DEPTH AND OTHER PROCESSES

IV. UNRESOLVED ISSUES

Chapter 20: Covert Attention and Saccadic Eye Movements

I. INTRODUCTION

II. VISUAL INFORMATION EXTRACTION NORMALLY INVOLVES OVERT ATTENTION (EYE MOVEMENTS)

III. COVERT ATTENTION OPERATES IN CONJUNCTION WITH SACCADIC EYE MOVEMENTS

IV. SACCADIC TARGET SELECTION INVOLVES A SALIENCE MAP

V. PLANNING AHEAD IN THE SACCADIC SYSTEM

VI. WHEN MIGHT COVERT ATTENTION OPERATE WITHOUT THE EYES MOVING?

Chapter 21: Prefrontal Selection and Control of Covert and Overt Orienting

I. INTRODUCTION

II. VISUAL SELECTION INVOLVING CONSPICUOUS STIMULI

III. VISUAL SELECTION BASED ON KNOWLEDGE

IV. CONTROL OF OVERT ORIENTING

V. DISCUSSION

Chapter 22: Dissociation of Selection from Saccade Programming

I. INTRODUCTION

II. THE FRONTAL EYE FIELD

III. TARGET SELECTION IN FEF

IV. DISSOCIATION OF TARGET SELECTION FROM SACCADE PRODUCTION

V. DISCUSSION

Chapter 23: Space- and Object-Based Attention

I. TWO MODES OF ATTENTIONAL SELECTION

II. CLARIFYING THE NOTION OF OBJECT-BASED ATTENTION

III. EVIDENCE POINTS TO ONE ACCOUNT OF OBJECT-BASED ATTENTIONAL SELECTION

IV. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPACE-BASED AND OBJECT-BASED ATTENTION

V. TOWARD A UNIFIED THEORY OF SPACE- AND OBJECT-BASED ATTENTION

Chapter 24: Attention and Binding

I. WHAT MUST BE BOUND?

II. IS THERE A BINDING PROBLEM?

III. ATTENTION AND BINDING

IV. IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT BINDING

V. SUMMARY

Chapter 25: Top-Down Facilitation of Visual Object Recognition

I. INTRODUCTION

II. ACTIVATING THE TOP FROM THE BOTTOM

III. THE CORTICAL ORIGIN OF TOP-DOWN FACILITATION

IV. OBJECT REPRESENTATIONS IN THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX?

V. PREDICTIONS AND OPEN QUESTIONS

Chapter 26: Spatial Processing of Environmental Representations

I. INTRODUCTION

II. THE HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF ENVIRONMENTAL REPRESENTATIONS

III. ACCESSING MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL REPRESENTATIONS

IV. SPATIAL UPDATING IN NESTED ENVIRONMENTS

V. NAVIGATION IN NESTED ENVIRONMENTS

VI. PROCESSING OF ENVIRONMENTAL REPRESENTATIONS

VII. CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 27: Decision and Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

III. PRECIS OF SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY

IV. CRITERION ATTRACTION AND ITS INTERPRETATION, THE UNIQUE INTERNAL REPRESENTATION

V. DECISION AND ATTENTION

VI. CONCLUSION

Chapter 28: Visual Attention and Emotional Perception

I. INTRODUCTION

II. ATTENTION IS NEEDED TO PROCESS VISUAL STIMULI

III. IS ATTENTION NECESSARY FOR THE PROCESSING OF EMOTION-LADEN FACES?

IV. A STRONG TEST OF AUTOMATIC AMYGDALA ACTIVATION

V. EMOTIONAL STIMULI CAN BIAS COMPETITION FOR PROCESSING RESOURCES

VI. WHAT IS THE SOURCE OF THE BIASING SIGNAL FOR EMOTIONAL STIMULI?

VII. ATTENTION AND AWARENESS

Acknowledgments

Chapter 29: The Difference between Visual Attention and Awareness: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

I. TWO FORMS OF SELECTION: IDENTICAL OR NOT?

II. STARTING POINTS: PROCESSING AND MEMORY

III. ATTENTION = PROCESSING × MEMORY

IV. VISUAL AWARENESS = RECURRENT PROCESSING

V. AWARENESS × ATTENTIONAL SELECTION: THREE STAGES OF PROCESSING

VI. A CASE FOR PHENOMENAL AWARENESS

VII. CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 30: Reaching Affects Saccade Trajectories

I. INTRODUCTION

II. SACCADE POPULATION CODE SELECTION

III. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN EYE & HAND

IV. CONCLUSIONS

Acknowledgment

Chapter 31: The Premotor Theory of Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. THE PREMOTOR THEORY OF ATTENTION

III. EVIDENCE IN FAVOR OF THE PREMOTOR THEORY OF ATTENTION

IV. ACTIVATION OF OCULOMOTOR AREAS DURING ORIENTING OF SPATIAL ATTENTION: BRAIN IMAGING STUDIES

V. NON-OCULOMOTOR ATTENTION

Acknowledgments

Chapter 32: Cross-Modal Consequences of Human Spatial Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. BEHAVIORAL EVIDENCE FOR CROSS-MODAL EFFECTS OF SPATIAL ATTENTION

III. ERP EVIDENCE FOR SENSORY EFFECTS OF CROSS-MODAL SPATIAL ATTENTION

IV. NEUROIMAGING EVIDENCE FOR MODULATION OF SENSORY CORTEX BY CROSS-MODAL SPATIAL ATTENTION

Acknowledgments

Chapter 33: Attention and Scene Understanding

I. INTRODUCTION

II. BASIC COMPONENTS OF SCENE UNDERSTANDING

III. DISCUSSION: SUMMARY OF A PUTATIVE FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE

IV. CONCLUSION

II: FUNCTIONS

Chapter 34: Visual Search and Popout in Infancy

I. INTRODUCTION

II. SEARCH, SEGREGATION, POPOUT, AND SELECTION MECHANISMS IN ADULTS

III. FEATURE SEARCH, SEGREGATION, AND POPOUT IN INFANCY

IV. PARALLEL SEARCH IN INFANTS

V. CONJUNCTION SEARCH IN INFANTS

VI. DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF PREATTENTIVE AND ATTENTIVE MECHANISMS

VII. CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 35: Attention in Conditioning

I. INTRODUCTION

II. ATTENTION IN LEARNING

III. ATTENTION IN PREDICTION

IV. DISCUSSION

Acknowledgments

Chapter 36: Electrophysiology of Reflexive Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. SHORT ISI EFFECTS

III. LONG ISI EFFECTS

IV. THE EFFECTS OF CROSS-MODAL ATTENTIONAL CAPTURE ON CORTICAL VISUAL PROCESSING

V. CONCLUSION

Acknowledgments

Chapter 37: Natural Scene Statistics and Salient Visual Features

I. INTRODUCTION

II. STATISTICS OF FIXATED REGIONS

III. SALIENCY DETECTORS

IV. DISCUSSION

Chapter 38: Salience of Feature Contrast

I. MEASURES OF SALIENCE

II. PHENOMENOLOGY OF SALIENCE

III. POPOUT FROM FEATURE CONTRAST

IV. NEUROBIOLOGY OF SALIENCE

V. CONTEXTUAL MODULATION IN AREA V1

VI. STUDYING PROPERTIES OF CONTEXTUAL MODULATION IN SALIENCE PERCEPTION

VII. THE ROLE OF SALIENCE AND FEATURE CONTRAST IN VISION

Chapter 39: Stimulus-Driven Guidance of Visual Attention in Natural Scenes

I. INTRODUCTION

II. EYE MOVEMENTS IN NATURAL SCENES

III. STIMULUS SALIENCE IN NATURAL SCENES

IV. CONCLUSION

Acknowledgments

Chapter 40: Contextual Guidance of Visual Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. THE CONTEXTUAL CUEING TASK

III. STATISTICAL LEARNING

IV. CLOSING COMMENTS

Chapter 41: Gist of the Scene

I. WHAT IS THE “GIST OF A SCENE”?

II. THE NATURE OF THE GIST

III. A HOLISTIC REPRESENTATION OF GIST

IV. CONCLUSION

Chapter 42: Temporal Orienting of Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. USING TEMPORAL INFORMATION TO ORIENT ATTENTION

III. COMPARISON OF TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ORIENTING

IV. IMPLICATIONS OF TEMPORAL EXPECTANCIES FOR COGNITIVE RESEARCH

V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 43: Visual Search: The Role of Memory for Rejected Distractors

I. SAMPLING IN VISUAL SEARCH

II. EMPIRICAL TESTS OF THE STANDARD MODEL

III. MEMORY IN THE OCULOMOTOR DOMAIN

IV. THE COST OF SYSTEMATIC SEARCH?

V. LIMITED-CAPACITY MEMORY?

VI. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 44: The Neuropsychology of Visual Feature Binding

Chapter 45: Visual Saliency and Spike Timing in the Ventral Visual Pathway

I. INTRODUCTION

II. A “BEHAVIORAL” DEFINITION OF VISUAL SALIENCY

III. VISUAL SALIENCY IN THE VENTRAL VISUAL PATHWAY

IV. SPIKE TIMING AND VISUAL SALIENCY

V. DISCUSSION

Chapter 46: Object Recognition in Cortex: Neural Mechanisms, and Possible Roles for Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. OBJECT RECOGNITION IN CORTEX: SOME EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

III. THE “STANDARD MODEL”

IV. EXTENDING THE FEEDFORWARD SYSTEM: ROLES FOR TOP-DOWN ATTENTIONAL AND TASK-DEPENDENT MODULATIONS

V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Acknowledgments

Chapter 47: Binding Contour Segments into Spatially Extended Objects

I. INTRODUCTION

II. AN ALGORITHM FOR GROUPING OF CONNECTED IMAGE ELEMENTS

III. THE NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF CONTOUR GROUPING

IV. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CONTOUR GROUPING

V. CONCLUSIONS

Acknowledgments

Chapter 48: Scanpath Theory, Attention, and Image Processing Algorithms for Predicting Human Eye Fixations

ABSTACT

I. SCANPATH AND ATTENTION

II. SALIENCY PREDICTS INFORMATIVENESS

Chapter 49: The Feature Similarity Gain Model of Attention: Unifying Multiplicative Effects of Spatial and Feature-based Attention

I. MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF SPATIAL ATTENTION IN AREA MT

II. MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF FEATURE-BASED ATTENTION IN AREA MT

III. FEATURE SIMILARITY GAIN CAN EXPLAIN ATTENTIONAL EFFECTS

Chapter 50: Biasing Competition in Human Visual Cortex

I. LIMITED PROCESSING CAPACITY AND COMPETITION

II. A NEURAL BASIS FOR COMPETITION AMONG MULTIPLE STIMULI

III. EVIDENCE FOR AN ATTENTIONAL TOP-DOWN BIAS IN VISUAL CORTEX

Chapter 51: Nonsensory Signals in Early Visual Cortex

I. NEURAL CORRELATES OF VISUAL ATTENTION

II. NEURAL CORRELATES OF VISUAL PERCEPTION

III. CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 52: Effects of Attention on Auditory Perceptual Organization

I. INTRODUCTION

II. AUDITORY STREAMING

III. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES

IV. INDIRECT EFFECTS OF STREAMING ON COMPETING TASKS

V. MANIPULATING ATTENTION DURING THE BUILDUP OF AUDITORY STREAMING

VI. THE HIERARCHICAL DECOMPOSITION MODEL

VII. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH

VIII. CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 53: Attention in Language

I. INTRODUCTION

II. ATTENTION AND THE STRUCTURE OF DISCOURSE

III. ATTENTION AND SEMANTICS

Chapter 54: Attention and Spatial Language

I. INTRODUCTION

II. ATTENTION IS NECESSARY FOR APPREHENDING SPATIAL RELATIONS

III. THE ROLE OF ATTENTION IN APPREHENDING SPATIAL RELATIONS

IV. CONCLUSION

Acknowledgments

Chapter 55: The Sustained Attention to Response Test (SART)

I. VALIDITY

II. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES

III. NEURAL BASIS OF SART PERFORMANCE

Chapter 56: ERP Measures of Multiple Attention Deficits Following Prefrontal Damage

I. INTRODUCTION

II. SELECTIVE ATTENTION

III. NOVELTY AND DEVIANCE DETECTION AND INVOLUNTARY ATTENTION SHIFT

Chapter 57: Nonspatially Lateralized Mechanisms in Hemispatial Neglect

I. INTRODUCTION

II. SPATIALLY LATERALIZED DEFICITS MAY NOT BE ENOUGH

III. NONSPATIALLY LATERALIZED DEFICITS MIGHT BE IMPORTANT

IV. SELECTIVE ATTENTION CAPACITY

V. NONSPATIALLY LATERALIZED SUSTAINED ATTENTION

VI. DETECTING SALIENCE OVER SPACE AND TIME

VII. TRANS-SACCADIC SPATIAL WORKING MEMORY

VIII. COMBINING NONLATERALIZED AND SPATIALLY LATERALIZED IMPAIRMENTS

Acknowledgments

Chapter 58: Visual Extinction and Hemispatial Neglect after Brain Damage: Neurophysiological Basis of Residual Processing

I. BEHAVIORAL AND ANATOMICAL ASPECTS

II. IMPLICIT RESIDUAL PROCESSING

III. FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING

IV. CONCLUSION

Chapter 59: Attention in Split-Brain Patients

I. INTRODUCTION

II. SPATIAL ORIENTING

III. VISUAL SEARCH

IV. RESOURCES AND DUAL-TASK PERFORMANCE

V. TOP-DOWN VS. BOTTOM-UP CONTROL

VI. CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 60: Divided Attention in the Normal and the Split Brain: Chronometry and Imaging

I. INTRODUCTION

II. ACCOUNTS OF REDUNDANCY GAIN

III. PARADOXICAL INTERHEMISPHERIC RG INCREASE IN THE SPLIT BRAIN

IV. THE FUNCTIONAL AND NEURAL LOCUS OF RG IN THE NORMAL BRAIN

III: MECHANISMS

Chapter 61: Neurophysiological Correlates of the Attentional Spotlight

I. VISUAL ATTENTION IS SPATIALLY SELECTIVE

II. NEUROIMAGING THE SPATIAL TOPOGRAPHY OF ATTENTION

III. IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORIES OF SPATIAL ATTENTION

Chapter 62: Spatially-Specific Attentional Modulation Revealed by fMRI

I. INTRODUCTION

II. ATTENTIONAL MODULATION IN AREA VI AND OTHER VISUAL CORTICAL AREAS

III. SELECTION MECHANISMS OF SPATIAL ATTENTION

IV. FLEXIBLE WINDOWS OF SPATIAL ATTENTION

V. SUMMARY

Chapter 63: The Neural Basis of the Attentional Blink

I. THE ATTENTIONAL BLINK

II. THE NEURAL BASIS OF THE AB BOTTLENECK

III. NEURAL FATE OF T2

IV. EFFECTS OF REAL AND VIRTUAL BRAIN LESIONS ON THE ATTENTIONAL BLINK

V. CONCLUSION

Chapter 64: Neurophysiological Correlates of the Reflexive Orienting of Spatial Attention

Chapter 65: Specifying the Components of Attention in a Visual Search Task

I. A THREE-STEP PLAN FOR BEATING ATTENTION ADDICTION

II. SEARCHING FOR ATTENTIONAL COMPONENTS IN A VISUAL SEARCH TASK

III. A NEUROCOMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF EYE MOVEMENTS DURING VISUAL SEARCH

IV. CONCLUSION

Chapter 66: Neural Evidence for Object-based Attention

I. OBJECT-BASED ATTENTION

II. fMRI OF OBJECT-BASED ATTENTION

III. DISCUSSION AND RELATED STUDIES

Chapter 67: Location- or Feature-based Targeting of Spatial Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. METHODS

III. RESULTS

IV. DISCUSSION

Chapter 68: Dimension-based Attention in Pop-out Search

I. VISUAL SEARCH FOR POP-OUT TARGETS: AUTOMATIC OR ATTENTIONALLY MODULATED?

II. DIMENSION-SPECIFIC EFFECTS IN POP-OUT SEARCH

III. THE FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF DIMENSION-BASED INTER-TRIAL MEMORY AND REDUNDANCY GAINS

Chapter 69: Irrelevant Singletons Capture Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. FEATURE SINGLETONS CAPTURE ATTENTION

III. ATTENTION AND EYE MOVEMENTS

IV. CONCLUSION

Chapter 70: Attentional Modulation of Apparent Stimulus Contrast

I. EFFECTS OF ATTENTION AND STIMULUS CONTRAST ON NEURONAL RESPONSES

II. MEASURING ATTENTIONAL MODULATION AS A FUNCTION OF STIMULUS CONTRAST

III. A COMMON SUBSTRATE FOR ATTENTIONAL AND CONTRAST MODULATION OF RESPONSES

Chapter 71: Attentional Suppression Early in the Macaque Visual System

I. INTRODUCTION

II. A RING OF METABOLIC SUPPRESSION

III. DISCUSSION AND COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

IV. CONCLUSION

Acknowledgments

Chapter 72: Attentional Modulation in the Human Lateral Geniculate Nucleus and Pulvinar

I. INTRODUCTION

II. ATTENTIONAL MODULATION IN THE HUMAN LGN

III. ATTENTIONAL MODULATION IN THE HUMAN PULVINAR

IV. CONCLUSION

Chapter 73: Transient Covert Attention Increases Contrast Sensitivity and Spatial Resolution: Support for Signal Enhancement

I. TRANSIENT ATTENTION INCREASES SENSITIVITY ACROSS THE CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTION

II. TRANSIENT ATTENTION INCREASES SENSITIVITY ACROSS THE CONTRAST PSYCHOMETRIC FUNCTION

III. TRANSIENT ATTENTION INCREASES APPARENT CONTRAST

IV. TRANSIENT ATTENTION IMPROVES ACUITY

V. CONCLUSION

Chapter 74: External Noise Distinguishes Mechanisms of Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. THE PERCEPTUAL TEMPLATE MODEL (PTM) APPROACH

III. EMPIRICAL RESULTS AND TAXONOMY OF MECHANISMS OF SPATIAL ATTENTION

IV. OTHER APPLICATIONS AND EXTENSIONS

Acknowledgment

Chapter 75: Attentional Modulation and Changes in Effective Connectivity

I. INTRODUCTION

II. EFFECTIVE CONNECTIVITY ANALYSES

III. DISCUSSION

IV. EFFECTIVE CONNECTIVITY VERSUS CATEGORICAL COMPARISONS

SUMMARY

Chapter 76: Attentional Modulation of Surround Inhibition

I. INTRODUCTION

II. METHODS

III. RESULTS

IV. DISCUSSION

NOTES

Chapter 77: Attentional Processes in Texture Perception

I. TEXTURE JUDGMENTS IN DAILY LIFE

II. CASE STUDY: THE ISOLATION AND ANALYSIS OF BLACKSHOT

III. ATTENTIONAL CONTROL OF TEXTURE JUDGMENTS

IV. CHALLENGES

Chapter 78: Mechanisms of Perceptual Learning

I. PERCEPTUAL LEARNING

II. MECHANISMS OF PERCEPTUAL LEARNING

III. RETUNING VERSUS REWEIGHTING

IV. PHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF LEARNING

V. IMPACT OF PERCEPTUAL LEARNING

Chapter 79: Lateral Interactions between Targets and Flankers Require Attention

I. STIMULUS AND TASK-RELATED CONTEXT EFFECTS IN EARLY VISION

II. BASIC DUAL-TASK DUAL-AXIS PROCEDURE

III. STRENGTH AND SPECIFICITY OF ATTENTIONAL MODULATION

IV. MECHANISM OF ATTENTIONAL MODULATION

V. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF LATERAL INTERACTIONS AND ATTENTIONAL MODULATION THEREOF

VI. PHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF LATERAL INTERACTIONS AND ATTENTIONAL MODULATION

VII. CONCLUSIONS

Acknowledgments

Chapter 80: Attention and Changes in Neural Selectivity

I. INTRODUCTION

II. EXPERIMENTAL FINDINGS

III. IMPLICATIONS

IV. CONCLUSION

Chapter 81: Attentional Effects on Motion Processing

I. INTRODUCTION

II. PSYCHOPHYSICAL STUDIES

III. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES

IV. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NEURAL AND PSYCHOPHYSICAL EFFECTS OF ATTENTION

V. CONCLUSION

Chapter 82: ERP Studies of Selective Attention to Nonspatial Features

I. NONSPATIAL SELECTIVE ATTENTION

II. DORSAL AND VENTRAL STREAMS

III. CONCLUSION

Chapter 83: Effects of Attention on Figure-Ground Responses in the Primary Visual Cortex during Working Memory

I. ATTENTION AND WORKING MEMORY

II. FIGURE-GROUND SEGREGATION

III. WORKING MEMORY IN THE PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEX

IV. ATTENTION CONTROLS WORKING MEMORY

V. EFFECTS OF ATTENTION ON THE NEURAL RESPONSES DURING DELAY PERIOD

VI. CONCLUSION

Chapter 84: Electrophysiological and Neuroimaging Approaches to the Study of Visual Attention

I. INTRODUCTION-ERPS

II. ANALYZING THE NEURAL SOURCE(S) OF ERP COMPONENTS

III. ERP MEASURES OF SPATIAL ATTENTION

IV. SOURCE MODELING OF ATTENTION-RELATED ERP COMPONENTS

V. ERP STUDIES OF ATTENTION TO NONSPATIAL FEATURES

VI. CONCLUSION

Chapter 85: The Timing of Attentional Modulation of Visual Processing as Indexed by ERPs

I. INTRODUCTION

II. ERPS AND THE TIMING OF SPACE- AND FEATURE-DIRECTED VISUAL ATTENTION

III. CONCLUSION

Chapter 86: Selective Visual Attention Modulates Oscillatory Neuronal Synchronization

I. ATTENTIONAL MECHANISMS MODULATE NEURONAL IMPACT

II. SELECTIVE ATTENTION MODULATES OSCILLATORY NEURONAL SYNCHRONIZATION

III. CHANGES IN NEURONAL SYNCHRONIZATION MAY BE A GENERAL MECHANISM TO MODULATE NEURONAL IMPACT

Chapter 87: Putative Role of Oscillations and Synchrony in Cortical Signal Processing and Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. TAGGING RESPONSES AS RELATED

III. RATE CODES VERSUS TEMPORAL CODES

IV. SYNCHRONY AS A CODE FOR THE DEFINITION OF RELATIONS

V. SYNCHRONIZATION AND FEATURE BINDING

VI. THE ROLE OF RESPONSE SYNCHRONIZATION IN RESPONSE SELECTION AND ATTENTION

Chapter 88: Attention to Tactile Stimuli Increases Neural Synchrony in Somatosensory Cortex

I. THE NEED FOR SOMATOSENSORY SELECTION

II. CANDIDATE NEURAL MECHANISMS OF SOMATOSENSORY SELECTION

III. POPULATION ACTIVITY

IV. SUMMARY

Chapter 89: Crossmodal Attention in Event Perception

I. CONVENTIONAL CROSSMODAL PHENOMENA AND CROSSMODAL SPATIAL ATTENTION

II. ATTENTIONAL EFFECTS ON EVENT PERCEPTION

III. DEVELOPMENTAL ASSAY UTILIZING THE CROSSMODAL DISPLAY

IV. CROSSMODAL EVENT PERCEPTION BY DYNAMIC ATTENTIONAL ALLOCATION

IV: SYSTEMS

Chapter 90: The FeatureGate Model of Visual Selection

I. INTRODUCTION

II. SELECTING LOCATIONS IN FEATUREGATE

III. HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE

IV. INHIBITION OF RETURN AND SERIAL SEARCH

V. ACCOUNTING FOR FEATURE-DRIVEN SELECTION AND DISTRACTOR INHIBITION

Chapter 91: Probabilistic Models of Attention Based on Iconic Representations and Predictive Coding

I. INTRODUCTION

II. PROBABILISTIC CONTROL OF ATTENTION USING ICONIC REPRESENTATIONS

III. PREDICTIVE CODING MODEL OF ATTENTION

IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Chapter 92: The Selective Tuning Model for Visual Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. THE SELECTIVE TUNING MODEL

III. COMPUTATIONAL AND BIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

IV. CONCLUSION

Chapter 93: The Primary Visual Cortex Creates a Bottom-up Saliency Map

I. THE BOTTOM-UP SALIENCY MAP REGARDLESS OF VISUAL FEATURES SIGNALLED BY FEATURE-SELECTIVE CELLS IN V1

II. DEMONSTRATING THE SALIENCY MAP BY A V1 MODEL

III. BASIC FEATURES AND CONJUNCTION SEARCHES EXPLAINED BY V1 SALIENCY MECHANISM

IV. SALIENCY AND INTERACTIONS AMONG FEATURE DIMENSIONS

V. DISCUSSION

Chapter 94: Models of Bottom-up Attention and Saliency

I. INTRODUCTION

II. PREATTENTIVE FEATURES AND SALIENCY MAP

III. IMPLEMENTED ARCHITECTURES

IV. ATTENTION AND RECOGNITION

V. APPLICATIONS

VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Chapter 95: Saliency in Computer Vision

I. INTRODUCTION

II. THE TENSOR VOTING FRAMEWORK

Chapter 96: Contextual Influences on Saliency

I. INTRODUCTION

II. THE SCENE CONTEXT

III. THE REPRESENTATION OF SCENES

IV. MODEL FOR SCENE PRIORS AND THE MODULATION OF SALIENCY

V. RESULTS

VI. CONCLUSION

Chapter 97: A Neurodynamical Model of Visual Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. VISUAL ATTENTIONAL MECHANISMS

III. A UNIFYING NEURODYNAMICAL COMPUTATIONAL MODEL

IV. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

V. CONCLUSION

Acknowledgments

Chapter 98: How the Detection of Objects in Natural Scenes Constrains Attention in Time

I. INTRODUCTION

II. THE MODEL

III. RESULTS

IV. DISCUSSION

Chapter 99: Memory-Driven Visual Attention: An Emergent Behavior of Map-Seeking Circuits

I. INTRODUCTION

II. MAP-SEEKING CIRCUITS

III. ATTENTION SHIFTS

IV. CROSS-MODAL ATTENTION: FINDING 2D TARGETS USING 3D MEMORIES

V. BIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

VI. RELATIONSHIP TO BOTTOM-UP ATTENTIONAL MECHANISMS

VII. CONCLUSION

Chapter 100: The Role of Short-Term Memory in Visual Attention

I. INTRODUCTION

II. ATTENTION AND WORKING MEMORY

III. CONCLUSION

Acknowledgments

Chapter 101: Scene Segmentation through Synchronization

I. INTRODUCTION

II. MODELING

III. SIMULATION RESULTS

IV. CONCLUSIONS

Acknowledgments

Chapter 102: Attentive Wide-Field Sensing for Visual Telepresence and Surveillance

I. INTRODUCTION

II. PHYSICAL DESIGN

III. FUSION

IV. SACCADIC CONTROL

V. TRACKING AND SMOOTH PURSUIT

VI. MEMORY

VII. FUTURE DIRECTIONS

Acknowledgements

Chapter 103: Neuromorphic Selective Attention Systems

I. INTRODUCTION

II. MULTICHIP SELECTIVE ATTENTION MODELS

III. THE SELECTIVE ATTENTION CHIP

IV. A TWO-CHIP ACTIVE VISION SYSTEM

V. CONCLUSION

Chapter 104: The Role of Visual Attention in the Control of Locomotion

I. INTRODUCTION

II. MODEL

III. CONCLUSION

Chapter 105: Attention Architectures for Machine Vision and Mobile Robots

I. INTRODUCTION

II. ATTENTIVE COMPUTER VISION SYSTEMS

III. ATTENTION IN ROBOTIC SYSTEMS

IV. CONCLUSION

Chapter 106: Attention for Computer Graphics Rendering

I. EFFICIENT REALISTIC RENDERING OF SYNTHETIC IMAGES

II. VISUAL ATTENTION-BASED RENDERING ALGORITHM

III. RELATED WORK IN THE FIELD

Chapter 107: Linking Attention to Learning, Expectation, Competition, and Consciousness

I. INTRODUCTION

II. LINKING ATTENTION TO LEARNING, EXPECTATION, COMPETITION, SYNCHRONIZATION, AND CONSCIOUSNESS

III. ATTENTION IS MODULATORY

IV. LAMINAR ORGANIZATION OF BOTTOM-UP, HORIZONTAL, AND TOP-DOWN CONNECTIONS

V. ATTENTION, COMPETITION, AND MATCHING

VI. OBJECT-BASED ATTENTION VIA THE PRE-ATTENTIVE-ATTENTIVE INTERFACE

VII. THE LINK BETWEEN ATTENTION AND LEARNING

VIII. DIVIDED, OBJECT VERSUS SPATIAL, AND HIERARCHICAL ATTENTION

Acknowledgment

Chapter 108: Attention-Guided Recognition Based on “What” and “Where”: Representations: A Behavioral Model

I. INTRODUCTION

II. A MODEL OF ATTENTION-GUIDED RECOGNITION BASED ON “WHAT” AND “WHERE” REPRESENTATIONS

III. DISCUSSION: INVARIANT IMAGE REPRESENTATION AND RECOGNITION

Chapter 109: A Model of Attention and Recognition by Information Maximization

I. INTRODUCTION

II. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR PREPROCESSING

III. SENSORIMOTOR FEATURES AND HIGH-LEVEL SCENE CONCEPTS

IV. THE INFERENCE STRATEGY IBIG

V. SYSTEM BEHAVIOR

VI. DISCUSSION

Index

Quotes and reviews

"4 STARS! - If there is one book to own on the topic of attention, this is it. Although it is not difficult to find books written on more specific attention topics, this is probably the most complete single volume on the market dedicated to attention."
--Christopher J. Graver, PhD, University of Michigan Health SysteM, in DOODY'S (2005)

"This book will be a standard reference for some time to come in this fascinating and important field."
--Donlin M. Long, in NEUROSURGERY QUARTERLY (2005)

"... this volume would be a valuable addition to the bookshelf of any laboratory concerned with perception and attentional issues. The extensive index also ensures the book is an excellent reference volume, showing once again how issues are represented across each section of the book, from their historical foundations to their standing in computational neuroscience and all of the human neuroscience that transpired in-between. Owing to the immense coverage and depth of this book, it should grab the attention of researchers concerned with neurobiology,experienced and naive alike."
Amanda Ellison, Department of Psychology, Oxford in PERCEPTION, Vol 35 (2006)
 
 
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