Mouse Behavioral Testing, 1st Edition

How to Use Mice in Behavioral Neuroscience

 
Mouse Behavioral Testing, 1st Edition,Douglas Wahlsten,ISBN9780123756749
 
 
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Academic Press

9780123756749

9780123756756

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Authoritative step-by-step guide to methods of mouse behavioral testing

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Key Features

  • A guide to running a behavioral testing lab, including the many aspects of mouse research beyond the confines of the specific test
  • Diagrams and photographs are shown for many kinds of apparatus and test situations with sufficient details such as dimensions to enable building of replicas
  • Provides step-by-step instructions on planning and executing behavioral experiments in order to run them successfully
  • A companion website will provide access to statistical utilities in Excel and test protocols, examples of real documents used for published studies, and video clips of the mice behaviors resulting from various tests

Description

Mouse Behavioral Testing: How to Use Mice in Behavioral Neuroscience provides detailed explanations of how to conduct an experiment on mouse behavior from the initial planning of the research design through every step of the process until the data analysis phase. The book discusses the practical matters that need to be considered carefully when working with any species of animal, such as how many animals need to be tested. It describes the tests and techniques devised specifically for work with mice. Every step of the research process is illustrated with real situations encountered in previous studies. All examples are based on real experiments, and extensive details of several published experiments are provided. The essential features of a behavioral test protocol are outlined, and several complete protocols are provided. Methods to balance the order of tests and determine throughput are described, then a completely balanced order of tests in a complex experiment is presented. The book will be useful for those already familiar with the general principles of research but are new to the realm of behavioral testing of live mice. It will also serve as a text for a formal course, most likely at the graduate level.

Readership

Experienced behavioral researchers working with mice, as well as undergraduate and graduate students and postdoc investigators

Douglas Wahlsten

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Psychology University of Alberta Canada

Mouse Behavioral Testing, 1st Edition


Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1 Introduction to the Research Process

The Research Process: Scientific Aspects

Adapting the approach to the stage of an investigation

Mice, mice, and more mice

Measuring instruments: Tests

The formal research design

Sample size

Ethics approval

Logistics

Obtaining subjects

The test day

Prelude to data analysis

Data analysis

Publishing results

The Institutional Context of Research

People

Facilities

Policies

Chapter 2 Mice

Mice Versus Rats

Models of Human Functions

Origins of Standard Mouse Strains

Kinds of Breeding Schemes

Outbred animals

Closed colony

Inbred strains

F1 hybrids

Selectively bred lines

The Process of Close Inbreeding

Inbred Strains for Research

Special Genotypes Derived from Inbred Strains

Coisogenic strains

Congenic strains

Consomic strains

Conplastic strains

Recombinant inbred strains

Designer Mice: Transgenic Methods and Targeted Mutations

Chapter 3 Tests of Mouse Behavior

Popularity of Tests

Commercial Devices

Exploration

Open field

Nose poke hole board

Symmetrical Y maze

Home cage activity

Anxiety

Lightdark box

Elevated plus maze

Elevated zero and square mazes

Vogel conflict test

Geller conflict test

Motor Function

Ataxia observation

Grip strength

Balance beam

Grid test

Rotarod

Running wheel

Treadmill

Learning

Operant learning

Mazes

Spatial memory

Electric shock

Other Tests

Chapter 4 Designs

One Group

Two Groups

Matched Pairs

Repeated Measures

Single-Factor Study With More Than Two Groups (One-Way Design)

Two-Factor Studies

Multi-Factor Studies

Specialized Designs

Reciprocal hybrid crosses

Manipulations of the maternal environment

Transgenerational influences

Selective breeding with control for environmental influences

Complications

Fixed and random effects

Nested factors

Litter as unit

Consulting experts

Utilities

One- and two-factor studies

Three- and higher factor studies

Breeding list

Chapter 5 Sample Size

Utilities to do the Calculations

Population and Sample

Two kinds of populations

Specifying an entire population

Random choice of a sample

Comparing two groups

Comparing several groups

Size of an Effect

What is an effect?

Index of effect size

Effect size for a study with two groups

Effect size for more than two groups

Finding effect size from published data

Significance of an Effect

False positives happen

The more tests, the higher the risk of a false positive

Power of a Test

Finding the Correct Sample Size

Two independent groups

2 2 design, 4 groups

J groups, omnibus test

J groups, linear contrast

Two-way factorial design

Designs with more than two factors

Chapter 6 Ethics Approval

Good Ethics and Good Science

The Era Before Regulation

The Era of Regulated Research With Animals

Ethical Status of Mice and Rats

The Fundamental Ethical Principle of Animal Research

The 3Rs

Replacement

Reduction

Refinement

Case Studies

Death as an end point

Food deprivation

Categories of Invasiveness and Severity

Categories for Behavioral Tests Used with Mice

The Future

Chapter 7 Logistics

The Total Experiment

One-factor design

Two-, three- and four-factor designs

The Principle of Balancing and Randomization

The Total Sample Divided into Smaller Units

Throughput

Partitioning the Work Day

The Balancing Act

Enumeration

Latin square

Randomization to the Rescue

Shipments, Cages, Tail Marks, and Id Numbers

Cages in the Colony Room

The Data Sheet

Final Consultation

Other Examples

More Intricate Designs

Chapter 8 Getting Ready for Testing

Ordering Mice

Shipping

Unpacking

Marking for Individual Identification

Housing

Group versus individual housing

Cage enrichment

Lightdark cycle

Going to School: Test Day

Chapter 9 Prelude to Data Analysis

Know Your Object

Contents of One Row of Data

The Id Code

Order of Variables Across a Row

Naming Variables

The Value of Using the Right Values

The Plague Called Missing Data

Importing the Spreadsheet into the Statistical Program

Checking for Errors in the Data

The Crucial Distinction Between Errors and Exceptions

Looking at Results

Statistical Data Analysis as a Final Step in the Process

Chapter 10 Domains and Test Batteries

Types of Observations

Whole behavior versus criterion response

Free expression versus highly constrained actions

Microscopic analysis versus the whole picture

Short duration versus full day observation

The Ethological Method

Domains and Subdomains

Complexity of Domains

Test Batteries

Every test changes the mouse

Advantages of using different mice for different tests

Efficiency and economy of numbers comes at a price

Current wisdom about test batteries

Testing effects of batteries

Effect size and importance of test order effects

One solution: Standard test orders

How stressful are tests?

Chapter 11 Motivating Mice

Hunger and Food Deprivation

Appetite without deprivation

IntelliCage

Methods of food deprivation

A refined method for daily deprivation

Degree of hunger and eating

Revised eating test

Electric Shock

Basic features of a shock source

Variables that influence intensity

Determining the correct level of shock

Threshold of sensation

Threshold of overt reaction

Kinds of responses and task requirements

Water Escape

Depth

Temperature

Number of trials

Opacity

Cleanliness

Air Puff Aversion

Parameters of air puffs

Determining optimal air flow rate

Avoidance of air puffs

Motivation and Learning

Chapter 12 Qualities of Behavioral Tests

Resolution, Accuracy, and Precision

Consistency

Reliability

Replicability

Validity

Chapter 13 Task Refinement and Standardization

Flawed Tests and Missteps in the Research Process

The lab cat

Mouse shuttle avoidance

Bar press avoidance

Task Complexity

The relatively simple open field

The submerged platform water escape task

Do task parameters matter?

Probe trial performance

Escape latencies and rate of learning

Task Refinement

The accelerating rotarod

The submerged platform water escape task

Prospects for refining other tests

Test Standardization

Standardizing Lab Environment

Chapter 14 Video Tracking

Basic Features

Camera and lens

Spectral sensitivity and filters

Focus of the lens

Hardware Modifications for Video Tracking

Solid floors for uniform fields of view

Paint in the water tank

Eliminating shadows and blind spots

The experimenters hand

Doubts about the Accuracy of Video Tracking

Tracking in Edmonton and Portland

VideoScan versus ANY-maze

Accuracy and Precision from a Mechanical Device

The Solution: Ir Backlighting

The True Path Length

Chapter 15 The Laboratory Environment

Two Sources of Environmental Variance in Test Scores

Environmental Effects on Test Scores: Early Studies

Interactions with Lab Environment: Recent Studies

Complexity of the Lab Environment

Standardizing the Lab Environment

Heterogenization of the Lab Environment

Strategies for Standardizing the Lab Environment

Appendix

Reference List

Index






 
 
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