Modern Physics, 1st Edition

Preface

Introduction

Chapter 1 The Wave-Particle Duality

1.1 The Particle Model of Light

1.1.1 The Photoelectric Effect

1.1.2 The Absorption and Emission of Light by Atoms

1.1.3 The Compton Effect

1.2 The Wave Model of Radiation and Matter

1.2.1 X-Ray Scattering

1.2.2 Electron Waves

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 2 The Schrödinger Wave Equation

2.1 The Wave Equation

2.2 Probabilities and Average Values

2.3 The Finite Potential Well

2.4 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator

2.4.1 The Schrödinger Equation for the Oscillator

2.5 Time Evolution of the Wave Function

Suggestion for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 3 Operators and Waves

3.1 Observables, Operators, and Eigenvalues

3.2 *Algebraic Solution of the Oscillator

3.3 Electron Scattering

3.3.1 Scattering from a Potential Step

3.3.2 Barrier Penetration and Tunneling

3.4 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

3.4.1 The Simultaneous Measurement of Two Variables

3.4.2 Wave Packets and the Uncertainty Principle

3.4.3 Average Value of the Momentum and the Energy

Suggestion for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 4 Hydrogen Atom

4.1 The Gross Structure of Hydrogen

4.1.1 The Schrödinger Equation in Three Dimensions

4.1.2 The Energy Levels of Hydrogen

4.1.3 The Wave Functions of Hydrogen

4.1.4 Probabilities and Average Values in Three Dimensions

4.1.5 The Intrinsic Spin of the Electron

4.2 Radiative Transitions

4.2.1 The Einstein A and B Coefficients

4.2.2 Transition Probabilities

4.2.3 Selection Rules

4.3 The Fine Structure of Hydrogen

4.3.1 The Magnetic Moment of the Electron

4.3.2 The Stern-Gerlach Experiment

4.3.3 The Spin of the Electron

4.3.4 The Addition of Angular Momentum

4.3.5 Rule for Addition of Angular Momenta

4.3.6 *The Fine Structure

4.3.7 *The Zeeman Effect

Suggestion for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 5 Many-Electron Atoms

5.1 The Independent-Particle Model

5.1.1 Antisymmetric Wave Functions and the Pauli Exclusion Principle

5.1.2 The Central-Field Approximation

5.2 Shell Structure and the Periodic Table

5.3 The LS Term Energies

5.4 Configurations of Two Electrons

5.4.1 Configurations of Equivalent Electrons

5.4.2 Configurations of Two Nonequivalent Electrons

5.5 The Hartree-Fock Method

5.5.1 A Hartree-Fock Applet

5.5.2 The Size of Atoms and the Strength of Their Interactions

Suggestion for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 6 The Emergence of Masers and Lasers

6.1 Radiative Transitions

6.2 Laser Amplification

6.3 Laser Cooling

6.4 *Magneto-Optical Traps

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 7 Statistical Physics

7.1 The Nature of Statistical Laws

7.2 An Ideal Gas

7.3 Applications of Maxwell-Boltzmann Statistics

7.3.1 Maxwell Distribution of the Speeds of Gas Particles

7.3.2 Black-Body Radiation

7.4 Entropy and the Laws of Thermodynamics

7.4.1 The Four Laws of Thermodynamics

7.5 A Perfect Quantum Gas

7.6 Bose-Einstein Condensation

7.7 Free-Electron Theory of Metals

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 8 Electronic Structure of Solids

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The Bravais Lattice

8.3 Additional Crystal Structures

8.3.1 The Diamond Structure

8.3.2 The Hexagonal Close-Packed Structure

8.3.3 The Sodium Chloride Structure

8.4 The Reciprocal Lattice

8.5 Lattice Planes

8.6 Blochs Theorem

8.7 Diffraction of Electrons by an Ideal Crystal

8.8 The Band Gap

8.9 Classification of Solids

8.9.1 The Band Picture

8.9.2 The Bond Picture

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 9 Charge Carriers in Semiconductors

9.1 Density of Charge Carriers in Semiconductors

9.2 Doped Crystals

9.3 A Few Simple Devices

9.3.1 The p-n Junction

9.3.2 Bipolar Transistors

9.3.3 Junction Field-Effect Transistors (JFET)

9.3.4 MOSFETs

Suggestions for Further Reading

Summary

Questions

Chapter 10 Semiconductor Lasers

10.1 Motion of Electrons in a Crystal

10.2 Band Structure of Semiconductors

10.2.1 Conduction Bands

10.2.2 Valence Bands

10.2.3 Optical Transitions

10.3 Heterostructures

10.3.1 Properties of Heterostructures

10.3.2 Experimental Methods

10.3.3 Theoretical Methods

10.3.4 Band Engineering

10.4 Quantum Wells

10.4.1 The Finite Well

10.4.2 Two-Dimensional Systems

10.4.3 *Quantum Wells in Heterostructures

10.5 Quantum Barriers

10.5.1 Scattering from a Potential Step

10.5.2 T-Matrices

10.6 Reflection and Transmission of Light

10.6.1 Reflection and Transmission by an Interface

10.6.2 The Fabry-Perot Laser

10.7 Phenomenological Description of Diode Lasers

10.7.1 The Rate Equation

10.7.2 Well Below Threshold

10.7.3 The Laser Threshold

10.7.4 Above Threshold

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 11 Relativity I

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Galilean Transformations

11.3 The Relative Nature of Simultaneity

11.4 Lorentz Transformation

11.4.1 The Transformation Equations

11.4.2 Lorentz Contraction

11.4.3 Time Dilation

11.4.4 The Invariant Space-Time Interval

11.4.5 Addition of Velocities

11.4.6 The Doppler Effect

11.5 Space-Time Diagrams

11.5.1 Particle Motion

11.5.2 Lorentz Transformations

11.5.3 The Light Cone

11.6 Four-Vectors

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 12 Relativity II

12.1 Momentum and Energy

12.2 Conservation of Energy and Momentum

12.3 *The Dirac Theory of the Electron

12.3.1 Review of the Schrödinger Theory

12.3.2 The Klein-Gordon Equation

12.3.3 The Dirac Equation

12.3.4 Plane Wave Solutions of the Dirac Equation

12.4 *Field Quantization

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 13 Particle Physics

13.1 Leptons and Quarks

13.2 Conservation Laws

13.2.1 Energy, Momentum, and Charge

13.2.2 Lepton Number

13.2.3 Baryon Number

13.2.4 Strangeness

13.2.5 Charm, Beauty, and Truth

13.3 Spatial Symmetries

13.3.1 Angular Momentum of Composite Systems

13.3.2 Parity

13.3.3 Charge Conjugation

13.4 Isospin and Color

13.4.1 Isospin

13.4.2 Color

13.5 Feynman Diagrams

13.5.1 Electromagnetic Interactions

13.5.2 Weak Interactions

13.5.3 Strong Interactions

13.6 *The Flavor and Color SU(3) Symmetries

13.6.1 The SU(3) Symmetry Group

13.6.2 The Representations of SU(3)

13.7 *Gauge Invariance and the Higgs Boson

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 14 Nuclear Physics

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Properties of Nuclei

14.2.1 Nuclear Sizes

14.2.2 Binding Energies

14.2.3 The Semiempirical Mass Formula

14.3 Decay Processes

14.3.1 Alpha Decay

14.3.2 The ß-Stability Valley

14.3.3 Gamma Decay

14.3.4 Natural Radioactivity

14.4 The Nuclear Shell Model

14.4.1 Nuclear Potential Wells

14.4.2 Nucleon States

14.4.3 Magic Numbers

14.4.4 The Spin-Orbit Interaction

14.5 Excited States of Nuclei

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Appendix A Natural Constants and Conversion Factors

Appendix B Atomic Masses

Appendix C Solution of the Oscillator Equation

Appendix D The Average Value of the Momentum

Appendix E The Hartree-Fock Applet

Appendix F Integrals That Arise in Statistical Physics

Appendix G The Abinit Applet

Index