## Key Features

- Develops modern quantum mechanical ideas systematically and uses these ideas consistently throughout the book
- Carefully considers fundamental subjects such as transition probabilities, crystal structure, reciprocal lattices, and Bloch theorem which are fundamental to any treatment of lasers and semiconductor devices
- Uses applets which make it possible to consider real physical systems such as many-electron atoms and semi-conductor devices

## Description

Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of modern physics and to the various fields of contemporary physics. The book's main goal is to help prepare engineering students for the upper division courses on devices they will later take, and to provide physics majors and engineering students an up-to-date description of contemporary physics.
The book begins with a review of the basic properties of particles and waves from the vantage point of classical physics, followed by an overview of the important ideas of new quantum theory. It describes experiments that help characterize the ways in which radiation interacts with matter. Later chapters deal with particular fields of modern physics. These include includes an account of the ideas and the technical developments that led to the ruby and helium-neon lasers, and a modern description of laser cooling and trapping of atoms. The treatment of condensed matter physics is followed by two chapters devoted to semiconductors that conclude with a phenomenological description of the semiconductor laser. Relativity and particle physics are then treated together, followed by a discussion of Feynman diagrams and particle physics.

Readership

Sophomore-Junior level students in engineering, physics and other science related disciplines taking a modern physics course

Modern Physics, 1st Edition

Preface
Introduction
Chapter 1 The Wave-Particle Duality
1.1 The Particle Model of Light
1.1.1 The Photoelectric Effect
1.1.2 The Absorption and Emission of Light by Atoms
1.1.3 The Compton Effect
1.2 The Wave Model of Radiation and Matter
1.2.1 X-Ray Scattering
1.2.2 Electron Waves
Suggestions for Further Reading
Basic Equations
Summary
Questions
Problems
Chapter 2 The Schrödinger Wave Equation
2.1 The Wave Equation
2.2 Probabilities and Average Values
2.3 The Finite Potential Well
2.4 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator
2.4.1 The Schrödinger Equation for the Oscillator
2.5 Time Evolution of the Wave Function
Suggestion for Further Reading
Basic Equations
Summary
Questions
Problems
Chapter 3 Operators and Waves
3.1 Observables, Operators, and Eigenvalues
3.2 *Algebraic Solution of the Oscillator
3.3 Electron Scattering
3.3.1 Scattering from a Potential Step
3.3.2 Barrier Penetration and Tunneling
3.4 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
3.4.1 The Simultaneous Measurement of Two Variables
3.4.2 Wave Packets and the Uncertainty Principle
3.4.3 Average Value of the Momentum and the Energy
Suggestion for Further Reading
Basic Equations
Summary
Questions
Problems
Chapter 4 Hydrogen Atom
4.1 The Gross Structure of Hydrogen
4.1.1 The Schrödinger Equation in Three Dimensions
4.1.2 The Energy Levels of Hydrogen
4.1.3 The Wave Functions of Hydrogen
4.1.4 Probabilities and Average Values in Three Dimensions
4.1.5 The Intrinsic Spin of the Electron
4.2 Radiative Transitions
4.2.1 The Einstein A and B Coefficients
4.2.2 Transition Probabilities
4.2.3 Selection Rules
4.3 The Fine Structure of Hydrogen
4.3.1 The Magnetic Moment of the Electron
4.3.2 The Stern-Gerlach Experiment
4.3.3 The Spin of the Electron
4.3.4 The Addition of Angular Momentum
4.3.5 Rule for Addition of Angular Momenta
4.3.6 *The Fine Structure
4.3.7 *The Zeeman Effect
Suggestion for Further Reading
Basic Equations
Summary
Questions
Problems
Chapter 5 Many-Electron Atoms
5.1 The Independent-Particle Model
5.1.1 Antisymmetric Wave Functions and the Pauli Exclusion Principle
5.1.2 The Central-Field Approximation
5.2 Shell Structure and the Periodic Table
5.3 The LS Term Energies
5.4 Configurations of Two Electrons
5.4.1 Configurations of Equivalent Electrons
5.4.2 Configurations of Two Nonequivalent Electrons
5.5 The Hartree-Fock Method
5.5.1 A Hartree-Fock Applet
5.5.2 The Size of Atoms and the Strength of Their Interactions
Suggestion for Further Reading
Basic Equations
Summary
Questions
Problems
Chapter 6 The Emergence of Masers and Lasers
6.1 Radiative Transitions
6.2 Laser Amplification
6.3 Laser Cooling
6.4 *Magneto-Optical Traps
Suggestions for Further Reading
Basic Equations
Summary
Questions
Problems
Chapter 7 Statistical Physics
7.1 The Nature of Statistical Laws
7.2 An Ideal Gas
7.3 Applications of Maxwell-Boltzmann Statistics
7.3.1 Maxwell Distribution of the Speeds of Gas Particles
7.3.2 Black-Body Radiation
7.4 Entropy and the Laws of Thermodynamics
7.4.1 The Four Laws of Thermodynamics
7.5 A Perfect Quantum Gas
7.6 Bose-Einstein Condensation
7.7 Free-Electron Theory of Metals
Suggestions for Further Reading
Basic Equations
Summary
Questions
Problems
Chapter 8 Electronic Structure of Solids
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The Bravais Lattice
8.3 Additional Crystal Structures
8.3.1 The Diamond Structure
8.3.2 The Hexagonal Close-Packed Structure
8.3.3 The Sodium Chloride Structure
8.4 The Reciprocal Lattice
8.5 Lattice Planes
8.6 Blochs Theorem
8.7 Diffraction of Electrons by an Ideal Crystal
8.8 The Band Gap
8.9 Classification of Solids
8.9.1 The Band Picture
8.9.2 The Bond Picture
Suggestions for Further Reading
Basic Equations
Summary
Questions
Problems
Chapter 9 Charge Carriers in Semiconductors
9.1 Density of Charge Carriers in Semiconductors
9.2 Doped Crystals
9.3 A Few Simple Devices
9.3.1 The p-n Junction
9.3.2 Bipolar Transistors
9.3.3 Junction Field-Effect Transistors (JFET)
9.3.4 MOSFETs
Suggestions for Further Reading
Summary
Questions
Chapter 10 Semiconductor Lasers
10.1 Motion of Electrons in a Crystal
10.2 Band Structure of Semiconductors
10.2.1 Conduction Bands
10.2.2 Valence Bands
10.2.3 Optical Transitions
10.3 Heterostructures
10.3.1 Properties of Heterostructures
10.3.2 Experimental Methods
10.3.3 Theoretical Methods
10.3.4 Band Engineering
10.4 Quantum Wells
10.4.1 The Finite Well
10.4.2 Two-Dimensional Systems
10.4.3 *Quantum Wells in Heterostructures
10.5 Quantum Barriers
10.5.1 Scattering from a Potential Step
10.5.2 T-Matrices
10.6 Reflection and Transmission of Light
10.6.1 Reflection and Transmission by an Interface
10.6.2 The Fabry-Perot Laser
10.7 Phenomenological Description of Diode Lasers
10.7.1 The Rate Equation
10.7.2 Well Below Threshold
10.7.3 The Laser Threshold
10.7.4 Above Threshold
Suggestions for Further Reading
Basic Equations
Summary
Questions
Problems
Chapter 11 Relativity I
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Galilean Transformations
11.3 The Relative Nature of Simultaneity
11.4 Lorentz Transformation
11.4.1 The Transformation Equations
11.4.2 Lorentz Contraction
11.4.3 Time Dilation
11.4.4 The Invariant Space-Time Interval
11.4.5 Addition of Velocities
11.4.6 The Doppler Effect
11.5 Space-Time Diagrams
11.5.1 Particle Motion
11.5.2 Lorentz Transformations
11.5.3 The Light Cone
11.6 Four-Vectors
Suggestions for Further Reading
Basic Equations
Summary
Questions
Problems
Chapter 12 Relativity II
12.1 Momentum and Energy
12.2 Conservation of Energy and Momentum
12.3 *The Dirac Theory of the Electron
12.3.1 Review of the Schrödinger Theory
12.3.2 The Klein-Gordon Equation
12.3.3 The Dirac Equation
12.3.4 Plane Wave Solutions of the Dirac Equation
12.4 *Field Quantization
Suggestions for Further Reading
Basic Equations
Summary
Questions
Problems
Chapter 13 Particle Physics
13.1 Leptons and Quarks
13.2 Conservation Laws
13.2.1 Energy, Momentum, and Charge
13.2.2 Lepton Number
13.2.3 Baryon Number
13.2.4 Strangeness
13.2.5 Charm, Beauty, and Truth
13.3 Spatial Symmetries
13.3.1 Angular Momentum of Composite Systems
13.3.2 Parity
13.3.3 Charge Conjugation
13.4 Isospin and Color
13.4.1 Isospin
13.4.2 Color
13.5 Feynman Diagrams
13.5.1 Electromagnetic Interactions
13.5.2 Weak Interactions
13.5.3 Strong Interactions
13.6 *The Flavor and Color SU(3) Symmetries
13.6.1 The SU(3) Symmetry Group
13.6.2 The Representations of SU(3)
13.7 *Gauge Invariance and the Higgs Boson
Suggestions for Further Reading
Basic Equations
Summary
Questions
Problems
Chapter 14 Nuclear Physics
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Properties of Nuclei
14.2.1 Nuclear Sizes
14.2.2 Binding Energies
14.2.3 The Semiempirical Mass Formula
14.3 Decay Processes
14.3.1 Alpha Decay
14.3.2 The ß-Stability Valley
14.3.3 Gamma Decay
14.3.4 Natural Radioactivity
14.4 The Nuclear Shell Model
14.4.1 Nuclear Potential Wells
14.4.2 Nucleon States
14.4.3 Magic Numbers
14.4.4 The Spin-Orbit Interaction
14.5 Excited States of Nuclei
Suggestions for Further Reading
Basic Equations
Summary
Questions
Problems
Appendix A Natural Constants and Conversion Factors
Appendix B Atomic Masses
Appendix C Solution of the Oscillator Equation
Appendix D The Average Value of the Momentum
Appendix E The Hartree-Fock Applet
Appendix F Integrals That Arise in Statistical Physics
Appendix G The Abinit Applet
Index