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Environmental Biotechnology
 
 

Environmental Biotechnology, 1st Edition

A Biosystems Approach

 
Environmental Biotechnology, 1st Edition,Daniel Vallero,ISBN9780123750891
 
 
 

  

Academic Press

9780123750891

9780123785510

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Key Features

* Provides a systems approach to biotechnologies which includes the physical, biological, and chemical processes in context

* Case studies include cutting-edge technologies such as nanobiotechnologies and green engineering

* Addresses both the applications and implications of biotechnologies by following the life-cycle of a variety of established and developing biotechnologies


Description

For more than a century, biotechnology has acted as a vital buffer among people, pollution and the environment. The field is designed to moderate, if not eliminate, the stresses we inflict upon the world's ecosystems. To do this effectively, a systems approach must be employed to maximize the sustainability of our efforts and improve the long-term health our environment. This book addresses the questions of how and why knowledge and understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological principles of the environment must be achieved for the effective development of biotechnology applications. Using a systems biology approach, Environmental Biotechnology provides a context for researchers and practitioners in environmental science. It serves to complement the useful guidebooks that provide the necessary specifications and criteria for a wide range of environmental designs and applications by providing the underlying principles for the specifications, a crucial area to scientific researchers in this arena to develop further technologies.

Readership

researchers in environmental biology, nanotechnology, systems biology and microbiology; environmental engineers; scientists at engineering and remediation companies and public organizations; practitioners in applied biology fields; graduate and post-doctoral students in these areas of science

Daniel Vallero

Dan Vallero is an internationally recognized expert in the transport, chemical transformation and environmental fate of hazardous pollutants. His three decades of professional experience in hazardous waste engineering and management have included research, teaching and regulatory advice related to a wide range of human health risk and ecological issues, from global climate change to the release of hazardous products of incomplete combustion from waste incinerators to the assessment of the risks from exposures to environmental endocrine disruptors. Dr. Vallero recently established the Engineering Ethics program at Duke University. This innovative program introduces students to the complex relationships between science, technology and societal demands on the engineer. The lessons learned from the cases in this book are a fundamental part of Duke’s preparation of its future engineers to address the ethical dilemmas likely to be encountered during the careers of the next generation engineers.

Affiliations and Expertise

Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

View additional works by Daniel Vallero

Environmental Biotechnology, 1st Edition


Biochemodynamics: A Systems Approach to Environmental Biotechnology

Daniel A. Vallero, Ph.D.


Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgments


Chapter 1: Environmental Biotechnology: An Overview
Biochemodynamics
Assessing the Biotechnological Impacts
Biotechnology and Bioengineering
 Discussion Box: Little Things Matter in a Chaotic World
The Environmental Biotechnology Discipline
  Biotechnology and Society
Risk and Reliability: Some Forethought
Beyond Biotechnological Applications
 Terminology
Eureka!
Oh No!
The Science of Environmental Biotechnology
Boxes and Envelopes
Review Questions
Notes and Commentary

Chapter 2: A Question of Balance: Using versus Abusing Biological Systems
 Environmental Biomimicry
 Engineered Systems Inspired by Biology
Environmental Biochemodynamics
 Biophile Cycling
Sequestration
  Carbon Sequestration in Soil
  Active Sequestration
Nitrogen and Sulfur Biochemodynamics
Review Questions
Notes and Resources

Chapter 3: Environmental Biochemodynamic Processes
Cellular Thermodynamics
  Importance of Free Energy in Microbial Metabolism
Dissolution
  Phase Partitioning
 Thermodynamics in Abiotic and Biotic Systems
  Volatility/Solubility/Density Relationships
  Environmental Balances
  Fugacity
 Sorption
 Volatilization
 Bioavailability
  Persistent Bioaccumulating Toxic Substances
  Discussion Box: The Inuit and Persistent Organic Pollutants
   Extrinsic Factors
 Biochemodynamic Persistence and Half-Life
 Fugacity, Z Values, and Henry’s Law
 Advection
 Dispersion
  Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Dispersion
 Diffusion
 Overall Effect of the Fluxes, Sinks and Sources
 Biochemodynamic Transport Models
 Level 1 Model
Level 2 Model
Level 3 Model
Review Questions
Notes and Commentary

Chapter 4: Systems
 Biotechnological Systems
 Putting Biology to Work
 Scale
 Systems Synergies: Biotechnological Analysis
 Using Bioindicators
 Biosensors
 Relationship between Green Engineering and Biotechnology
 Review Questions
 Notes

Chapter 5: Environmental Risks of Biotechnologies
Estimating Biotechnological Risks
Dose-Response
Exposure Estimation
  Discussion Box: Exposure Calculation
 Direct Bioengineering Risk Calculations
Discussion Box: Cancer Risk Calculation
Discussion Box: Non-cancer Risk Calculation
Risk-based cleanup standards
Discussion Box: Treatment by Genetic Modification
  Discussion Box: Risk-Based Contaminant Cleanup
  Discussion Box: Biotechnical Communications
Review Questions
Notes and Commentary

Chapter 6: Reducing Biotechnological Risks
  Case Study Box: Genetic Biocontrols of Invaders
 Discussion Box: Discussion Box: Biochemodynamics of Pharmaceuticals
 Risk Causes
  Biographical Box: Sir Bradford Hill
 Case Study Box: Managing Risks by Distinguishing between Progenitor and Genetically Modified Microbes
 Failure: Human Factors Engineering
  Utility as a Measure of Success
  Failure Type 1: Mistakes and Miscalculations
Failure Type 2: Extraordinary Natural Circumstances
Failure Type 3: Critical Path
Failure Type 4: Negligence
Failure Type 5: Lack of Imagination
Bioterrorism: Bad Biotechnology
Review Questions
Notes and Commentary

Chapter 7: Applied Microbial Ecology: Bioremediation
Systematic View of Oxygen
Biodegradation and Bioremediation
Biochemodynamics of Biodegradation
  Off-site Treatment
Digestion
Discussion Box: Biochemodynamic Films
Aerobic Biodegradation
  Trickling Filter
Activated Sludge
Aeration Ponds
Anaerobic Biodegradation
Multimedia-Multiphase Bioremediation
Phytoremediation
Biomarkers
Bioengineering Considerations for Genetically Modified Organisms
 Discussion Box: Measuring Biodegradation Success
   Nitric Oxide as an Indicator of Degradation
   Humility in Biotechnological Modeling
 Developing an Indirect, Chemical Model of Microbial Activity
Model Comparison to Laboratory Study for Toluene Degradation
Review Questions
Notes and Commentary

Chapter 8: Biotechnological Implications: A Systems Approach
 Systematic View of Biotechnological Risks
 Applied Thermodynamics
 Predicting Environmental Implications
 Environmental Implications of Engineering Organisms
 Genetic Engineering Basics
  Conventional Breeding Approaches
  Modification of Organisms without Introducing Foreign DNA
Modification of Organisms by Introducing Foreign DNA
Transfected DNA
Vector-borne DNA
Environmental Aspects of Cisgenic and Transgenic Organisms
Foreign DNA in Plants
Biochemodynamic Flow of Modified Genetic Material
Review Questions
Notes and Commentary

Chapter 9: Environmental Risks of Biotechnologies: Economic Sector Perspectives
 Industrial Biotechnology
  Production of Enzymes
  The Organism
  Health and Safety Regulations
  Environmental Implications
 Medical Biotechnology
  Discussion Box: Patenting Life
  Bio-Uptake and Bioaccumulation
  Discussion Box: Hormonally Active Agents
   Determining Estrogenicity
   Environmental Fate of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds
   Treatment of EDCs in Drinking Water – UV applications
   Modeling the UV/H2O2 Process
  Environmental Implications
  Animal Biotechnology
 Agricultural Biotechnology
Discussion Box: “King Corn or Frankencorn”
   Genetic Modification
  Gene Flow
Review Questions
Notes and Commentary

Chapter 10: Addressing Biotechnological Pollutants
 Cleaning Up Biotechnological Operations
Intervention at the Source of Contamination
Intervention at the Point of Release
Intervention during Transport
Intervention to Control the Exposure
Intervention at the Point of Response
Thermal Treatment of Biotechnological Wastes
Calculating Destruction Removal
Other Thermal Strategies
Nitrogen and Sulfur Problems
Review Questions
Notes and Commentary

Chapter 11: Analyzing the Environmental Implications of Biotechnologies
   Discussion Box: Biological Agent: Stachybotrys
Life Cycle as an Analytical Methodology
 Revisiting Failure and Blame
 Environmental Accountability
 Life Cycle Applications
Utility and the Benefit/Cost Analysis
Predicting Environmental Damage
  Analysis of Biotechnological Implications
  Checklist for Ethical Decision Making
Review Questions
Notes and Commentary

Chapter 12: Managing Biotechnologies
 Bioengineering Perspectives
 Systematic Biotechnology and the Status Quo
 A Few Words about Environmental Ethics
 Biotechnology Decision Tools
  Accountability
  Value
  Informing Decisions
 Green Engineering and Biotechnology
 Green Engineering and Biotechnology
  Discussion Box: Probability and Biotechnology
 Risk Homeostasis and the Theory of Offsetting Behavior
 Artifacts
 Review Questions
 Notes and Commentary
Glossary
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Index

 
 
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