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Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition
 
 

Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, 3rd Edition

 
Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, 3rd Edition,Lindsay H Allen,Andrew Prentice,ISBN9780123848857
 
 
 

Allen   &   Prentice   

B Caballero   

Academic Press

9780123848857

2190

The award-winning 4-volume reference revised and updated with the latest research in the multidisciplinary field of human nutritional science

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Key Features

  • Selected for inclusion in Doody's Core Titles 2013, an essential collection development tool for health sciences libraries
  • Approximately 30% new content ensures readers have the latest research information
  • Extensive cross-referencing provides key connections between topics in this multidisciplinary field
  • Presents current information on relationships between disease and nutrition
  • Covers thoroughly topics ranging from nutrient biochemistry and function to clinical nutrition and the epidemiology of diet, health and disease.

Description

The role of nutrition in improving quality of life and combating disease is undeniable — and researchers from different disciplines are bringing their perspectives to bear on this fundamental topic.

The 4-volume Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, Third Edition, is a thorough revision of the previous award-winning version and reflects the scientific advances in the field of human nutrition. It presents the latest understanding on a wide range of nutrition-related topics including food safety, weight management, vitamins, bioengineering of foods, plant based diet and raw foods among others. New articles on organic food, biofortification, nutritional labeling and the effect of religious customs on diet, among many others, reflect the dedication to currency in this revision.  It not only contains the most current and thorough information available on the topic, but also contains broader cross-referencing on emerging opportunities for potential treatment and prevention of diseases.

An ideal starting point for scientific research, Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, Third Edition, continues to provide authoritative information in an accessible format, making this complex discipline available to readers at both the professional and non-professional level.

Readership

Nutritionists, clinical nutritionists, dietitians and allied health workers will all find this MRW useful. Libraries including university, medical school, public; food industry corporations; and government sectors dealing with nutritional policies will want this MRW in their library

Lindsay H Allen

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California Davis, USA

Andrew Prentice

Andrew Prentice is Professor of International Nutrition at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. He leads the Medical Research Council's International Nutrition Group which is based in London and The Gambia. His research interests have encompassed human energy metabolism and obesity as well as maternal and child nutrition in developing countries.

Affiliations and Expertise

London School of Tropical Medicine, UK

Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, 3rd Edition

Editor-In-Chief Biography

Co-Editors Biography

Editorial Advisory Board

Preface

Permission Acknowledgments

Volume 1

A

Adipose Tissue: Structure, Function and Metabolism

Abbreviations

Glossary

Introduction

Development

Structure

Distribution

Function

Regulation of Metabolism

See also

Further Reading

Adolescents: Nutritional Problems of Adolescents

Introduction: Normal Adolescent Growth and Diet

Obesity

Eating Disorders

Other Nutritional Diseases

Specific Nutrient Requirements

Calcium

Iron

Folate

Zinc and Other Minerals

Further Reading

Adolescents: Requirements for Growth and Optimal Health

Abbreviations

Glossary

Introduction

Physical Changes During Adolescence

Dietary Recommendations

Dietary Intakes

Impact of Lifestyle on Nutrition

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

See also

Further Reading

Aging

Glossary

Introduction

Theories of Aging

Age-Related Diseases

Modification of the Aging Process

See also

Further Reading

Alcohol: Absorption, Metabolism, and Physiological Effects

Glossary

Physical Properties of Ethanol

Absorption and Distribution of Alcohol

Metabolism of Alcohol

Nonoxidative Metabolism of Alcohol

Blood Ethanol Concentration

Factors Affecting Blood Ethanol Concentration

Physiological Effects of Alcohol

Effects of Acetate

See also

Further Reading

Alcohol: Effects of Consumption on Diet and Nutritional Status

Glossary

Introduction

Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Dietary Intake

The Potential Benefits of Moderate Alcohol Consumption

The Risks of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

Anemia

The Effects of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Nutritional Status

Further Reading

Aluminum

Glossary

Properties and Natural Occurrence

Nonfood Uses

Food Uses of Aluminum Compounds

Aluminum in Beverages and Foods

Aluminum in Foods from Processing, Packaging, and Storage

Exposure and Dietary Intake

Bioavailability and Biotransformation

Biokinetics of Aluminum in Blood

Aluminum Tissue Deposition and Body Retention

Aluminum Excretion

Toxicity of Systemic Aluminum

See also

Further Reading

Amino Acids: Chemistry and Classification

Introduction

Chemical Structures and Nomenclature

Post-Translational Modification

Nonprotein Amino Acids

Peptides

Analysis

Classification

See also

Further Reading

Amino acids: Metabolism

Introduction

Amino Acid Supply

Disposal of Amino Acids

Interorgan Exchange of Amino Acids

See also

Further Reading

Amino Acids: Specific Functions

Glossary

Introduction

Amino Acid Flux, Concentration, and Function

Amino Acid Deficiencies and Supplementation

Assessment of Amino Acid Function

Alanine

Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine, and Proline

Asparagine and Aspartic Acid

Cysteine, Cystine, Methionine, and Taurine

Glutamine, Glutamic acid, and Ornithine-α-Ketoglutarate

Glycine, Serine, and Threonine

Histidine

Branched Chain Amino Acids (Isoleucine, Leucine, Valine)

Lysine

Phenylalanine and Tyrosine

Tryptophan

See also

Further Reading

Antioxidants

Introduction

Cardiovascular Disease

Cancer

Other Diseases Associated with Oxidative Damage

Possible Explanations for the Disagreement between the Findings of Observational Studies and Clinical Trials

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Appetite: Physiological and Neurobiological Aspects

Glossary

Appetite Expression

Interrelated Levels of the System

Psychological Experiences: Hunger, Satiety, and the Satiety Cascade

Central Neural Processes: Structure of the Appetite System

Peripheral Physiological Signals

Integration of Episodic and Tonic Signals Within the CNS

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Appetite: Psychobiological and Behavioral Aspects

Glossary

The Nature of Feeding Behavior and Appetite Control

Learned Appetites, Satieties, and Feeding Behavior

Methodological Issues

Meal Patterns, Appetite, and Energy Balance

Social and Situational Influences on Feeding Behavior

Diet Composition and Appetite

How do Macronutrients and Energy Density Affect Satiety?

Diet Composition and Satiety to Prevent Weight Gain

See also

Further Reading

Arthritis

Definitions and Etiology

Prevalence

Clinical Features

Role of Diet in the Management of Inflammatory Arthritis

Conclusions

Role of Diet in the Management and Prevention of Degenerative Arthritis

See also

Further Reading

Vitamin C: Deficiency States

Glossary

Scurvy: The History and Discovery of Vitamin C

Degradation, Turnover, and Factors that Induce Increased Requirements for Vitamin C

Well-Established Metabolic Functions of Vitamin C that are Impaired by Deficiency

Measurement of Vitamin C Status; Biochemical Tests for Adequacy and Deficiency

Occurrence of Low Intakes and Poor Biochemical Status in Present-Day Societies

See also

Further Reading

Vitamin C: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements

Glossary

Introduction

Absorption, Transport, and Storage

Metabolism and Excretion

Metabolic Functions of Ascorbic Acid

Assessment of Vitamin C Status

Requirements

Dietary Sources and High Intakes

See also

Further Reading

Asthma

Glossary

Epidemiology

Definition of Asthma

Development and Pathophysiology of Asthma

Development of Asthma: The Roles of Vitamins A and D

Development of Asthma: The Role of Breastfeeding

Development of Asthma: The Importance of Probiotics and Intestinal Flora

Management of Chronic Asthma

Management of Asthma: Nutritional Influences and Genetics

Fatty Acids in Asthma

Obesity and Asthma

Amino Acid Supplementation and Asthma

Vitamins and Antioxidants in Asthma

Dietary Minerals and Asthma

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

B

Behavior: Effects of Diet on Behavior

Glossary

Introduction

Effects of Meals

Carbohydrates, Stress, Mood, and Mental Function

Glucose, Mood, and Mental Function

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Beverages and Health

Glossary

Introduction

Coffee and Tea

Milk

100% Fruit or Vegetable Juice

Soft Drinks

Summary

Further Reading

Bioavailability

Glossary

Introduction

Nonheme Iron Bioavailability

Bioavailability of Provitamin A Carotenoids

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Biochemical Indices

Glossary

Introduction

Protein Nutritional Status

Essential Fatty Acid Status

Vitamin Nutritional Status

Essential Mineral and Trace Element Nutritional Status

Choice of Laboratory Tests

Evaluation of Laboratory Indices

Conclusions and Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Biofortification

Glossary

Biofortification as a Public Health Nutrition Intervention

Processes Used to Achieve Biofortification

The Potential of Biofortification to Improve Nutritional Status

See also

Further Reading

Biotin: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements

Glossary

Biotin is a Vitamin

Digestion of Protein-Bound Biotin

Intestinal Absorption

Transport from the Intestine to Peripheral Tissues

Biotin uptake by Liver and most Peripheral Tissues

Biotin Transport

Metabolism and Urinary Excretion of Biotin and Metabolites

Biliary Excretion of Biotin and Metabolites

Metabolic Functions

Biotin Deficiency Diseases

Potential Role for Biotin in Gene Expression

Assessment of Biotin Status

Requirements and Allowances

Dietary Sources, Deficiency, and High Intakes

Pharmacology

See also

Further Reading

Body Composition

Glossary

Introduction

Body Composition Determination

DXA

Hydrodensitometry/Air Plethysmography

Dilution Techniques

Whole-Body Counting

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance (QMR)

Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA)

Anthropometry

Body Mass Index (BMI)

In Vivo Neutron Activation

Models in Body Composition

Tissues and Organs

Body Composition Applications During Growth

Body Composition Applications During Aging

Physiological Application: Two Examples

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

See also

Further Reading

Brain and Nervous System: Biology, Metabolism, and Nutritional Requirements

Glossary

Design of the Nervous System

The Blood–Brain Barrier (BBB)

Energy Substrates

Amino Acids and Protein

Fatty Acids and Choline

Vitamins

Minerals

Further Reading

Breast Feeding

Breast Feeding Recommendations

Breast Milk Composition and Volume

Risks of not Breast Feeding

Promotion of Breast Feeding

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Infant Feeding

Global Breast Feeding Practices

Further Reading

Burns Patients

Glossary

Introduction

Nutritional Requirements

Balance of Energy-Producing Substrates

Nutritional Management

Route of Feeding

Nutritional Monitoring

See also

Further Reading

C

Caffeine

Glossary

Caffeine Pharmacokinetics

Mechanisms of Action

Physiological and Health Effects of Caffeine

Caffeine and Performance

Caffeine and Exercise

Caffeine Genetics

Caffeine Subjective Effects

Caffeine Reinforcement

Caffeine Withdrawal

Caffeine Tolerance

Caffeine Intoxication

Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disorder

Caffeine-Induced Anxiety Disorder

Caffeine Dependence

Caffeine and Food

Acknowledgments

See also

Further Reading

Calcium

Glossary

Introduction

Functions

Dietary Calcium Intake

Metabolism

Health Consequences of Calcium Deficiency

Health Consequences of Calcium Excess

See also

Further Reading

Cancer: Carcinogenic Substances in Food

Glossary

Introduction

Naturally Occurring Carcinogens

Carcinogens Produced by Food Processing

Mechanisms of Carcinogenicity

Metabolic Activation of Epigenetic Carcinogens

Carcinogenicity Tests

Monitoring and Control of Hazards

See also

Further Reading

Cancer: Dietary Management

Glossary

Nutritional Support

Practical Management of Eating Difficulties

The Potential Therapeutic Role of Vitamins

See also

Further Reading

Cancer: Epidemiology and Associations Between Diet and Cancer

Glossary

Sources of Evidence Linking Diet and Cancer

Epidemiological Issues in the Study of Diet and Cancer

Summary of Known Relations Between Diet and Cancer

See also

Further Reading

Cancer: Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Cancers Other than Colorectal Cancers

Esophageal Cancer

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Cancer: Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

Glossary

Lung Cancer

Diet

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Classification

Glossary

Introduction

Classification

Nutritional Importance

Chemistry

See also

Further Reading

Carbohydrates: Regulation of Metabolism

Glossary

Introduction

Carbohydrates and Energy Metabolism

Glucose Production by the Liver and Kidneys (Glycogen)

Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism

Diseases of Carbohydrate Metabolism

See also

Further Reading

Carbohydrates: Requirements and Dietary Importance

Glossary

Introduction

Dietary Sources and Intakes

Health Effects of Carbohydrates

Low-Carbohydrate Diets

Requirements and Recommendations

See also

Further Reading

Carotenoids: Chemistry, Sources and Physiology

Glossary

Chemistry

Reactions

Dietary Sources

Effects of Storage and Processing

Physiology

Mechanisms Affecting Human Health

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Carotenoids: Health Effects

Glossary

Introduction

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Celiac Disease

Introduction

Pathogenesis

Adaptive Immune Response to Gluten

Innate Immune Response

Triggers for Lack of Tolerance to Gliadin

Epidemiology of Celiac Disease

Associated Disorders

Clinical Presentation

Diagnosis

Serological Screening Tests

Treatment

The Gluten-Free Diet

Bone Metabolism

Complications

Malignant Complications of Celiac Disease

Nonmalignant Complications of Celiac Disease

See also

Further Reading

Cereal Grains

Glossary

Introduction

Types of Cereal and their Role in the Diet

Energy, Macronutrient, and Fiber Content

Micronutrient Content

Nonnutrients of Potential Benefit

Potential Adverse Effects

See also

Further Reading

Cerebral palsy: Nutritional Aspects

Glossary

Definition and Etiology

Nutritional Assessment

Assessment of Feeding Skills and Safety

Feeding Issues

See also

Further Reading

Children: Nutritional Requirements

Abbreviations

Introduction

Methodology for Definition of Nutrient Requirements and Recommended Intakes

Physical Activity

Bone Minerals: Phosphorous, Calcium, and Magnesium

Essential Trace Elements

Water-Soluble Vitamins

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

See also

Further Reading

Cholesterol: Factors Determining Blood Levels

Introduction

Serum Lipoproteins

Chylomicrons

Very-Low-Densisty Lipoproteins

Low-Density Lipoproteins

High-Density Lipoproteins

Dietary Regulation of Serum Lipoproteins

Dietary Cholesterol

Macronutrient Composition of the Diet

Energy Balance

Other Factors Affecting Serum Lipoproteins

See also

Further Reading

Cholesterol: Sources, Absorption, Function, and Metabolism

Absorption, Transport, and Storage

Biosynthesis

Metabolic Function

Dietary Sources

See also

Further Reading

Choline and Phosphatidylcholine

Glossary

Introduction

Metabolism and Biochemistry

Dietary Requirements and Food Sources

Functional Consequences of Dietary Choline Availability

Genetic Variations Influence Dietary Requirements

Roles in the Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression

Detection Methods

See also

Further Reading

Chromium

Glossary

Essentiality and Metabolic Functions of Chromium

Mechanism of Action

Recent Advances

Not all People Respond to Supplemental Chromium

Chromium and Stress

Dietary Intake and Requirements of Chromium

Absorption, Transport, Storage, and Excretion

Dietary Sources

Safety of Chromium

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Cofactors: Inorganic

Glossary

Introduction

History

Macro- Versus Microminerals

Metal-activated Versus Metalloenzymes

Individual Metal Cofactors

Nonmetal Mineral Cofactors

Conclusions

See also

Further reading

Cofactors: Organic

Glossary

Introduction

History

Cofactors in Biochemical Pathways

Specific Vitamins as Cofactors

Nonvitamin Cofactors

Other

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Colon: Structure, Function, and Disorders

Glossary

Structure and Function

Function

Disorders of the Colon

Further Reading

Copper

Introduction

Copper Function

Dietary Sources and Reference Values

Copper Trafficking and Kinetics

Copper Absorption

Copper Distribution

Copper Excretion and Homeostasis

Inborn Errors of Metabolism

Measuring Copper Status

Copper Deficiency

Copper Excess

Conclusion

Further Reading

Coronary Heart Disease: Lipid Theory

Introduction

Determinants of Serum Cholesterol – Cholesterol and Cholesterolemia

Protein

Fiber

Variations in Cholesterol Levels

See also

Further Reading

Coronary Heart Disease: Prevention

Abbreviations

Introduction

Global Trends in CHD as a Reflection of Nutrition Transition

Understanding the Links between Nutrition and CHD

Nutrients and CHD

Food Items

Composite Diets and CHD

Prevention Pathways

See also

Further Reading

Cystic Fibrosis

Definition and Etiology

Prevalence

Prognosis

Clinical Features

Nutritional Management

Dietary Management of CF

Dietary Supplements

Enteral Feeding

Specific Dietary Considerations

Body Composition Studies in CF

Assessment of Nutritional Status

Vitamin Status in CF

Mineral Status in CF

The Oxidant/Antioxidant Imbalance in CF Patients

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Cytokines: Nutritional Aspects

Chemistry and Classification

Metabolism and Metabolic Functions

Role in Disease and Disease Processes

Influence of Genetic Factors on Inflammatory Processes

Influence of Nutrients on Cytokine Biology

Influence of Fats on Cytokine Production and Effects

Modulation of Cytokine Biology by Amino Acid and Protein Intake

Modulation of Cytokine Biology by Micronutrients

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Volume 2

D

Dehydration

Glossary

Physiological Functions of Water

Development of Dehydration

Pathophysiology of Dehydration

Management of Dehydration

Groups at Risk for Dehydration

Prevention of Dehydration

See also

Further Reading

Dental Disease: Etiology and Epidemiology

Glossary

Enamel Defects

Dental Caries, Erosion, and Gum Disease

Protection from and Prevention of Dental Caries

Epidemiology

Further Reading

Diabetes Mellitus: Classification and Chemical Pathology

Glossary

Introduction

Definition

Diagnostic Criteria in the NonPregnant Patient

Classification

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Secondary Diabetes Mellitus/Other Specific Types

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Pathophysiology of Diabetes

See also

Further Reading

Diabetes Mellitus: Dietary Management

Overall Objectives in the Management of Diabetes

Dietary Approaches to Diabetes

Effects of Ingested Nutrients on Blood Glucose

Major Non-nutrient Factors that Regulate Blood Glucose

Dietary Prevention and Management of Comorbidities

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Diabetes Mellitus: Etiology and Epidemiology

Introduction

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Other Types of Diabetes

See also

Further Reading

Diarrheal Diseases

Glossary

Introduction

Definition of Diarrhea

Pathophysiology of Diarrhea

Causes of Diarrhea

Management

Risk Factors

Intervention Studies

Prevention and Control

See also

Further Reading

Dietary Fiber: Physiological Effects and Health Outcomes

Glossary

Introduction

The Evolution of the Dietary Fiber Concept

Large Bowel Bacterial Fermentation and the Health Effects of Fiber

Evidence for the Health Benefits of Dietary Fiber

Physiological Actions of Dietary Fiber and Improved Health Outcomes

Specific Actions of Fiber

Conclusions

Further Reading

Dietary Fiber: Role in Nutritional Management of Disease

Glossary

Introduction

Hyperlipidemia

Diabetes

Bowel Disorders

See also

Further Reading

Dietary Guidelines, International Perspectives

Introduction

Historical Background

Types of Guidelines

The Development of FBDG

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Dietary intake measurement: Methodology

Glossary

Introduction

Dietary Intake Measurements

Methods for Measuring Food Consumption at the National Level

Methods for Estimating Dietary Intake at the Household Level: Household Budget Surveys

Individual Dietary Intake Methods

Use of Data and Conversion of Reported Intake to Nutrients and Food Types

Issues Associated with Measurement of Dietary Intake

Future Developments

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Dietary Modulation of Inflammation

Glossary

Introduction

What Mediates Inflammation?

Resolution of Inflammation by Negative Regulators of PRRs

Modulation of PRR-Mediated Inflammation by Dietary Components and Metabolic Intermediates

Postprandial Inflammation: Blood Monocyte Activation

Monocyte Activation: PRR (TLR4 and NOD2)-Mediated Expression of Prointerleukin-1β and Inflammasome-Mediated Secretion of Mature Interleukin-1β

Inhibition of PRR Activation by Bioactive Phytochemicals

See also

Further Reading

Dietary Surveys: Surveys of Food Intake in Groups and Individuals

Glossary

Research Questions and Data Needs

Issues in Survey Design

Selection of Dietary Assessment Measure

Data Analysis and Limitations

See also

Further Reading

Down’s Syndrome: Nutritional Aspects

Glossary

Nutritional Status

Laboratory Assessment

Anthropometric Assessment

Nutritional Requirements

Dietary Management

Obesity

Celiac Disease

Ageing

Care in the Community

See also

Further Reading

Drug–Nutrient Interactions

Glossary

Introduction

Interactions Affecting Transport, Metabolism, and Excretion

Host-related Functional Interactions

Major Drug–Nutrient Interactions of Clinical Relevance

Herb–Drug Interactions

Further Reading

E

Early origins of disease: Fetal

Glossary

Introduction

Epidemiological Data

Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Hypothesis

Evidence from Human Studies

Animal Models

Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Early Origins of Disease: Non-Fetal

Introduction

Long-Term Effects of Infant Feeding

Postnatal Growth and Later Risk of Disease

See also

Further Reading

Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa

Classification of Eating Disorders

Anorexia Nervosa

Other Clinical Characteristics

Laboratory Investigations

Endocrine Changes

Inflammatory Cytokines

Hypothalamic Control of Hunger in Anorexia Nervosa

Differential Diagnosis

Treatment

Prognosis

See also

Further Reading

Eating disorders: Binge Eating

Glossary

Introduction

Assessment of Binge Eating

Comorbidity

Treatment of Binge Eating

Summary

Further Reading

Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa

Introduction

Diagnostic Criteria

Psychopathology

Etiology

Groups at Risk

Nutritional Findings

Dietary Management

Long-Term Prognosis

See also

Further Reading

Eggs

Egg Types

Egg Macronutrient and Micronutrient Content and Distribution

Egg Protein

Egg Lipids

Egg Vitamins

Egg Minerals

Egg Choline

Egg Carotenes

Egg Cholesterol

Allergenic Aspects of Egg Proteins

Specialty Eggs

Egg Food Safety

Role of Eggs in the Diet

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Electrolytes: Acid–Base Balance

Glossary

Definitions, Acids, Bases, and Buffers

Maintenance of the pH of Blood and Extracellular Fluids

Regulation

Measurement of Urinary Acid Excretion

Effects of Acid–Base Disturbance

Abnormalities in Acid–Base Balance

Compensation

Treatment

Transporter Mechanisms: Physiology and Pathophysiology

See also

Further Reading

Energy Expenditure: Doubly Labeled Water

Glossary

Instrumentation

Uses for the Doubly Labeled Water Method

Further Reading

Energy Expenditure: Indirect Calorimetry

Glossary

Introduction

Laboratory Methods

Field Methods

Tracer Methods of Indirect Calorimetry

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Energy Metabolism

Glossary

Cellular Respiration and Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Glycolysis

Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (also known as the TCA Cycle, Citric Acid Cycle, or Kreb’s Cycle)

The Electron Transfer Chain (Oxidative Phosphorylation)

Energy Metabolism of Other Nutrients

Overview of Fat Metabolism

Protein Metabolism

Gluconeogenesis

Glycogen Metabolism

See also

Further Reading

Energy Requirements

Glossary

Definition of Energy Requirements

The Difficulty of Estimating Energy Requirements by Measuring Food Intake

An Assessment of Food Needs by Estimating or Measuring Energy Use

Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate

The Components of Metabolic Rate

Postprandial Thermogenesis

Extra Energy Costs of Growth, Pregnancy and Lactation

See also

Further Reading

Energy: Adaptation

Abbreviations

Glossary

Energy Adaptation: Beyond Mass Action

Energy Adaptation: InterIndividual Variability

Adaptive Thermogenesis at Rest and During Movements

Spontaneous Physical Activity

Efficiency of Muscle Work

Interactions between Resting and Nonresting Energy Expenditure

Autoregulation of Body Weight and Body Composition

A Compartmental Model

Biological Significance

Energy Adaptation During a Longitudinal Human Study of Weight Fluctuations

Energy Adaptation and Susceptibility to Leanness and Fatness

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgment

See also

Further Reading

ENERGY: Balance

Introduction

Energy Balance: Definition

Model of Energy Balance: A Dynamic State

Gross and Metabolizable Energy

Total Energy Expenditure and its Components

Basal Metabolic Rate or Resting Metabolic Rate

Thermic Effect of Food or Postprandial Thermogenesis, Nonshivering Thermogenesis

Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity

Macronutrient Balance, Energy Balance, and Storage

Energy Imbalance and Body Weight

Timescale of Energy Balance

Overfeeding Studies

Underfeeding Studies

Energy Expenditure is Less Effective than Food Intake as a Control Mechanism of Energy Balance

Dynamics of Energy Balance with Overfeeding and Underfeeding (Figure 10)

Summary

See also

Further Reading

F

Famine: Causes, Consequences, and Responses

Famines in History

Definition

Causes

Coping Strategies

Government and International Responses

See also

Further Reading

Fats and Oils

Glossary

Dietary Fats and Oils – The Good, Bad, and Ugly

Lipids – In Food and in the Body

Dietary Fats and Oils

Dietary Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

Composition of Dietary Fats

Dietary Guidance

Summary

Further Reading

Fatty acids: Health Effects of Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Abbreviations

Glossary

Introduction

Structure, Function, and Nutritional Requirements

Endothelial Function, Atherosclerosis, and Cardiovascular Disease

Eicosanoids: Relevance to Endothelial Function, Thrombosis, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis

n-6 Fatty Acids and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Conclusions

Further Reading

Fatty Acids: Health Effects of Saturated Fatty Acids

Glossary

Cholesterol Metabolism

Platelet Aggregation

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Fatty acids: Metabolism

Glossary

Introduction

Fatty Acid Nomenclature Conventions

Physical Properties of Fatty Acids

Fatty Acid Activation

Mitochondrial Fatty Acid β-Oxidation

Peroxisomal Fatty Acid β-Oxidation

Fatty Acid α-Oxidation and ω-Oxidation

Fatty Acid de novo Synthesis

Fatty Acid Elongation

Fatty Acid Unsaturation and the Essential FAs

Fatty Acids as Components of Complex Lipids

Eicosanoid Synthesis

Fatty Acylation of Proteins

Vitamins and Fatty Acid Metabolism

Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism

See also

Further Reading

Fertility

Glossary

Fertility and Darwinian Fitness

Frisch and the Minimum Fatness Hypothesis

Energetics and Fecundity

Energy Status and Fecundity

Energy Balance and Fecundity

Energy Flux and Fecundity

Energetics and Pregnancy Outcomes

Energetics and Lactation

Central Regulatory Pathways

Peripheral Regulatory Pathways

Adaptation and Pathology in the Relationship of Energy Metabolism and Reproductive Physiology

Further Reading

Fiber: Physiological and Functional Effects

Glossary

Introduction

Sources and Types of Dietary Fiber

Fiber in the Digestive Tract

The Mouth and Pharynx

The Stomach

The Small Intestine

The Large Intestine

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Fiber: Resistant Starch and Oligosaccharides

Abbreviations

Glossary

Resistant Starch

Oligosaccharides

Resistant Starch, Oligosaccharides, or Just Dietary Fiber?

See also

Further Reading

Fish and seafood: Nutritional Value

Glossary

Introduction

General Characteristics of Finfish

General Characteristics of Shellfish

Nutritional Value of Fish and Shellfish

Fish Lipids

Omega-3 PUFA in Fish and Shellfish

Nonprotein Nitrogen (NPN) Compounds in Fish

Fish Vitamins

Fish Minerals

See also

Further Reading

Folic Acid

Introduction

Chemistry and Biochemical Functions

Nutritional Aspects

Absorption, Transport, and Excretion

Deficiency and Excess

Biomarkers and Status Assessment

See also

Further Reading

Food Allergies: Diagnosis and Management

Documenting Possible Food Allergies

Documenting a Diagnosis of Food Allergy

Practical Diagnostic Difficulties

Diagnostic Tests

Management

The Role of the Dietitian

Drug Treatment in the Management of Food Allergy

Desensitization

See also

Further Reading

Food Choice: Behavioral Aspects

Introduction

Why do We Overeat?

Food Psychology and Eating Behavior

Three Myths of Mindless Eating

The Future of Mindless Eating

Further Reading

Food Composition Data

Glossary

Overview – Why Compile Food Composition Tables?

Procedures for Compiling Food Composition Data

Uses of Food Composition Data

Potential Limitations of Food Composition Data

Conferences on Food Composition Issues

See also

Further Reading

Food Culture

Glossary

Introduction and Definitions

History of Food in Culture

Food Folklore and Food Culture Today

Food, Culture, Folklore, and Evidence-Based Nutrition

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Food Fortification: Programs

Glossary

Mass Food Fortification: Programs

Further Reading

Food Fortification: Technological Aspects

Glossary

What is Food Fortification?

How does Food Fortification Work?

Which Factors Limit the Amount of Micronutrients in Fortified Foods?

Example of Estimating the Impact of Vitamin A Fortification in Uganda

Types of Food Fortification

What Else is Needed to Implement a Fortification Program?

See also

Further Reading

Food Intolerance

Definition of Food Intolerance

Principal Mechanisms and Pathophysiology of Food Intolerance

Food Storage

Practical Applications

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety: Bacterial Contamination

Glossary

Bacterial Toxins

Invasive Bacteria

Other Organisms

Prevention of Bacterial Food Poisoning

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety: Heavy Metals

Glossary

Lead

Mercury

Cadmium

Nickel and Bismuth

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety: Mycotoxins – Occurrence and Toxic Effects

Glossary

Introduction

Aflatoxins

Fumonisins

Ochratoxins

Trichothecenes

Other Mycotoxins

Summary

Further Reading

Food Safety: Other Contaminants

Background

Dioxins

Acrylamide

Perchlorate

Bisphenol A

See also

Further Reading

Food Safety: Pesticides

Glossary

Introduction

Why Do We Need Pesticides?

Types of Pesticides

Important Pesticide Groups

Control of Pesticides

MRL

Endocrine Disruption

Future Prospects

Further Reading

Food Security

Abbreviations

Glossary

Introduction

Framework and Definitions

Indicators and Classification of Food Security Status

Factors Affecting Food Security

Consequences of Food Insecurity

Mitigating the Consequences of Food Insecurity

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Fructose: Absorption and Metabolism

Abbreviations

Introduction

Properties and Sources of Fructose

Absorption of Fructose

Fructose Metabolism

Fructose and Lipid Metabolism

Fructose and Glucose Metabolism

Fructose and Diabetes

Fructose Consumption, Body Weight, and Obesity

Inborn Errors of Fructose Metabolism

Further Reading

Functional Foods: Health Effects and Clinical Applications

Glossary

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

G

Glucose: Chemistry and Dietary Sources

Glossary

Nomenclature and Chemical Structure

Glucose Oligosaccharides

Occurrence

Analysis

Physiology

Possible Effects of Prolonging Absorption Time of Carbohydrate

The Glycemic Index

Calculation of Mixed Meal or Total Day’s Glycogen Index

Calculation of Glycemic Load

See also

Further Reading

Glucose: Glucose Tolerance

Glossary

Definition and Impact of Glucose Tolerance

Glucose Tolerance Tests

Metabolic Basis for Oral Glucose Tolerance

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Glucose: Metabolism and Maintenance of Blood Glucose Level

Glossary

Glucose

Body Glucose Pool

Glucose Space

Blood Glucose

Effects of Feeding on Blood Glucose

Postabsorptive Stage

Gluconeogenesis

Hormones and Glucose Homeostasis

Counterregulatory Hormones

Glycosuria

See also

Further Reading

Glycemic Index

Background and Definition

Type of Dietary Carbohydrate and the Glycemic Index

Concerns Related to the Glycemic Index

Clinical Significance of Postprandial and Fasting Hyperglycemia in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Populations

Benefits of Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates on Diabetic Control

Benefits of Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates on CVD Risk Factors

Glycemic Index and the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes

Obesity and Glycemic Index

Pregnancy and Glycemic Index

Proposed Mechanism by which Dietary Carbohydrates/Glycemic Index Influence Insulin Resistance

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Growth and Development: Physiological Aspects

Glossary

Introduction

Growth of Fetal Size

Developmental Change of Fetal Body Composition

Regulation of Fetal Growth

Interpretation of Growth Curves

Extremes of Growth and Development: Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Macrosomia

Intrauterine Growth Restriction

Macrosomia

Further Reading

Growth Monitoring

Glossary

Introduction

Objectives and Activities

Monitoring Growth Successfully

Anthropometric Indicators

Growth References and Standards

Cutoff Points and Interpretation of Anthropometric Measurements

Accuracy of Anthropometric Measures

Interventions

See also

Further Reading

H

Health Disparities

Glossary

Nutrition and Health Inequities Epidemiology

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Homocysteine

Introduction

Structure and Forms

Biosynthesis and Metabolism

Regulation of Metabolism

Hyperhomocysteinemia

Homocysteine and Vascular Disease

Measurement of Blood Levels

See also

Further Reading

Hunger

Glossary

Definition

The Measurement of Hunger

Hunger and Satiety

Hunger: Physiological Determinants

Learning and Hunger

Hunger and Eating Behavior

Disorders of Hunger

See also

Further Reading

Hyperactivity: Nutritional Aspects

Glossary

Introduction

Diagnostic Issues

Treatments Other than Diet

Dietary Interventions

Objective Standards

Study Designs

Oligoallergenic Diet

Sugar Restriction

Feingold Diet

FA Supplementation

Zinc Supplementation

The Challenge of Dietary Interventions

Summary

Further Reading

Hyperlipidemia: Overview

Normal Lipid Metabolism

Classification of Hyperlipidemia

Dietary Effects

Recommendations

See also

Further Reading

Hyperlipidemia: Prevention and Management

Glossary

Assessing CVD Risk

Dietary Lipids: Approaches for the Prevention and Management of CVD

Saturated Fatty Acids

Unsaturated Fatty Acids

Dietary Cholesterol

Other Dietary Considerations for the Prevention and Management of CVD

Plant Sterols (Phytosterols)

Vitamin Supplements

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Hypertension: Dietary Factors

Dietary Factors That Lower BP

Dietary Factors with Limited or Uncertain Effect on BP

Gene–Diet Interactions

Special Populations

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Hypoglycemia

Introduction

Brain Function and Hypoglycemia

The Blood Glucose Concentration

Mechanism of Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemic Syndromes

Neuroglycopenic Syndromes

Diagnosis

Dietary Management

Sepsis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Volume 3

I

Inborn Errors of Metabolism: Classification and Biochemical Aspects

Abbreviations

Introduction

Newborn Screening

Disorders of Protein Metabolism

Disorders of Fatty Acid Oxidation

Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

Disorders of Micronutrient Metabolism

Further Reading

Inborn errors of metabolism: Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria

Abbreviations

Introduction

Introduction of Dietary Therapy

Adequacy of Nutritional Therapy

Maternal PKU

Alternative Therapies

See also

Further Reading

Infection: Nutritional Management in Adults

Metabolic and Nutritional Changes in Patients with Infection

Glucose Utilization in Injury and Infection

Hepatic Glucose Metabolism

Protein Metabolism

Lipid Metabolism

Hormonal Response to Injury, Infection, and Cancer

Acute Phase Response

Urine Urea Nitrogen Loss as a Marker of Catabolism

Vitamin Deficiencies

Vitamin C and Vitamin A

Mineral Deficiencies

Magnesium

Zinc

Copper

Iron

Summary

Nutritional Assessment and Predictors of Hospital Outcome

Predictors of Clinical Outcome

ABC Score: An Acute Predictor of Hospital Survival in Patients with Infection, Injury, or Inflammation:

Nutritional Diagnoses Commonly Seen in Hospitalized Patients

Loss of Lean Body Mass

Elevated Resting Energy Expenditure

Nutritional Feeding of the Patient: Enteral versus Parenteral

Enteral versus Parenteral Feeding

Enteral Products

Energy Intake for Patients with Malnutrition

See also

Further Reading

Iodine: Deficiency Disorders and Prevention Programs

Glossary

Dietary Sources, Absorption, and Metabolism

Iodine Deficiency Disorders

Iodine Requirements

Assessment of Iodine Status

Prophylaxis and Treatment of Iodine Deficiency

Iodine Excess and Toxicity

Further Reading

Iodine: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements

Glossary

Ecology of Iodine

Absorption and Metabolism

Requirements and Dietary Sources of Iodine

Assessment of Iodine Status

See also

Further Reading

Iron: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements

Iron Chemistry and Physiology

Iron Nutrition

Dietary Iron

See also

Further Reading

K

Ketosis

Introduction

Formation of Ketone Bodies

Function of Ketone Bodies

Ketosis

Metabolic Acidosis

See also

Further Reading

L

Lactation: Dietary Requirements

Introduction

Rationale for Recommended Nutrient Intakes

Requirements and Dietary Recommendations

Minerals and Vitamins

See also

Further Reading

Lactation: Physiology

Glossary

Functional Anatomy of Lactation

Milk Composition

Synthesis and Secretion of Milk Components

Regulation of Milk Synthesis, Secretion, and Ejection

Changes in Milk Composition during Secretory Activation

Hormonal Control of Secretory Activation

Delays in Secretory Activation

Further Reading

Lactose Intolerance

Overview

Historical and Geographic Perspective

Lactase Nonpersistence

Lactose Digestion and Gastrointestinal Function

Prevalence

Secondary Lactase Deficiency

Lactose Digestion and Diet

Nutrition policy

Summary

Further Reading

Legumes

Glossary

Introduction

Legume Types

Grain Legume Nutritional Value

See also

Further Reading

Lipoproteins

Classification of Lipoproteins

Synthesis and Catabolism of Lipoproteins

Effects of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol on Lipoprotein Metabolism

Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism

General Guidelines for the Treatment of Lipoprotein Abnormalities for CHD Prevention

See also

Further Reading

Liver disorders: Nutritional Management

Glossary

Introduction

Nutritional Aspects and Liver Physiology in Normal Liver and Liver Diseases

Macronutrient Metabolism

Liver in Specific Hepatobiliary Disorders and Nutritional Management

Hepatobiliary Disorders

Metabolic Liver Disorders

Pregnancy and Liver Disease

Acute Liver Failure

Chronic Liver Disease

End Stage Liver Disease in Pre- and Post-Liver Transplantation

Further Reading

Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants: Causes, Prevalence, and Prevention

Introduction

Assessment of Gestational Age and Fetal Growth. Methods and Limitations

Causes

Health Consequences

Epidemiology

Prevention

Nutritional Interventions to Prevent Preterm Delivery

Nutritional Interventions to Prevent IUGR

Conclusions

Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants: Nutritional Management

Glossary

Introduction

Growth

Energy Needs

PN

Enteral Nutrition

Monitoring Nutritional Status

Preparation for Discharge

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Lung diseases

Glossary

Introduction

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Cystic Fibrosis

Asthma

Other Lung Diseases

See also

Further Reading

Lycopenes and Related Compounds

Introduction

Chemical and Physical Properties of Lycopene; its Food Sources and Enteric Absorption

Tissue Contents and Kinetics of Lycopene Turnover

Functional Properties and Tissue Health

Health, Research Models, and Epidemiological Evidence

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

M

Magnesium

Glossary

Magnesium Metabolism

Dietary Sources of Magnesium

Requirements

Magnesium Deficit

Magnesium Excess

Recommended Dietary Allowances

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Malabsorption Syndromes: Nutritional Management

Glossary

Introduction

Pathophysiology and Symptoms

General Nutritional Management of Malabsorption

Specific Nutritional Management of Malabsorption

Clinical Management of Malabsorption

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Malnutrition: Secondary, Diagnosis and Management

Glossary

Introduction

Coexistence of Primary and Secondary Malnutrition

The Reverse Paradigm: Underlying Pathology Revealed by Detection of Abnormal Nutrition

Diagnosis of Secondary Malnutrition

Management of Secondary Malnutrition

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Manganese

Chemical and Physical Properties

Dietary Sources

Analysis

Physiological Role

Metabolic Function and Essentiality

Manganese Deficiency

Manganese Toxicity

Assessment of Manganese Status

See also

Further Reading

Meal size and frequency: Effect on Absorption and Metabolism

Abbreviations

Introduction

The Effect of Meal Size on Absorption

The Effect of Meal Size on Metabolism

The Effect of Meal Frequency on Absorption

The Effect of Meal Frequency on Metabolism

See also

Further reading

Meat, Poultry, and Meat Products: Nutritional Value

Glossary

Introduction

Nutritional Value

Classes of Nutrients and Meat Products

Bioavailability of Nutrients and Efficiency for Child Development

Meat Sources and Nutritional Values

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Microbiota of the Intestine: Prebiotics

Glossary

Introduction

Intestinal Microbiota in Healthy Individuals

Metabolic Activity of the Microbiota

Prebiotics

Clinical Effects of Prebiotics

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Microbiota of the Intestine: Probiotics

Glossary

Introduction

Probiotics

Intestinal Microbiota

Probiotic Effects

Safety

Future Challenges

Conclusions

Further Reading

N

Niacin and Pellagra

Glossary

History, Signs and Symptoms of Deficiency, and Antimetabolites

Absorption, Transport, and Storage

Metabolism and Excretion

Metabolic Function and Essentiality

Assessment of Niacin Status and Requirements

Dietary Sources and High Intakes

See also

Further Reading

Nucleic Acids, Purine, and Pyrimidine Nucleotides and Nucleosides: Physiology, Toxicology, and Dietary Sources

Introduction

Physiology

Toxicology

See also

Further Reading

Nutrient Requirements: International Harmonization

Glossary

What is a Nutrient?

Scientific Basis for Establishing Recommended Intakes

AI: Used When an EAR Cannot be Determined

Reference Values: Which to Use When

DRIs for Other Nutrients and Food Constituents

Application of Risk Assessment Methodology to Nutrients

Issues in Establishing Reference Intakes

See also

Further Reading

Nutrient–Gene Interactions: Health Implications

Glossary

Effects of Diet on Genetic Diseases

Genetic Diseases of Interest to Nutrition

See also

Further Reading

Nutrient–Gene Interactions: Molecular Aspects

Glossary

Gene Expression

Gene Structure

Epigenetics

Transcription

Translation

Posttranslational Protein Modification

See also

Further Reading

Nutrition and HIV/AIDS

Glossary

Introduction

Effects of HIV/AIDS on Nutritional Status

Nutritional Intervention Studies

Interactions Between Antiretroviral Drugs and Nutrition

Infant Feeding and HIV/AIDS

Social and Economic Interactions with HIV/AIDS

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Nutrition and Susceptibility to Tuberculosis

Glossary

Further Reading

Nutrition Labeling

Glossary

Forms of Nutrition Labeling

History of Nutrition Labeling

Effects of Nutrition Labeling on Consumers

Effects of Nutrition Labeling on Producers

Outlook

See also

Further Reading

Nutrition Transition, Diet Change, and its Implications

Glossary

Shifts in Dietary and Activity Patterns and Body Composition Seem to be Occurring More Rapidly

Rapid Social Change is Important: Urbanization, Rapid Demographic Change, and Other Behavioral Changes are Occurring Simultaneously

Health Effects: Is the Biology Different? Rather, Do We Have Different Social Structures and Body Composition Patterns That Affect BMI–Disease Relationships? Are There Genetic Variants That Are Important?

The Future

See also

Further Reading

Nutritional Aspects of Bone

Introduction

Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation Studies on Bone

Vitamin D and Risk of Falling

Vitamin K

Observational and Intervention Studies

Nutrients Adversely Affecting Bone Health

Discussion

Concluding Remarks

References

Nutritional Assessment: Anthropometry

Glossary

Uses of Anthropometric Measurements

Advantages and Limitations of Anthropometric Measurements

Errors of Anthropometric Measurements

Anthropometric Measurements

Reference Values

See also

Further Reading

Nutritional Assessment: Clinical Examination

Glossary

Introduction

Medical History

Physical Examination

See also

Further Reading

Nutritional Considerations for the Management of Hypertension

Glossary

Introduction

Recommended Lifestyle Modifications

Nutritional Considerations

Consumption of a DASH Diet (Increasing Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, and Fiber Intakes through Increasing Intakes of Fruits, Vegetables, and Low-Fat Dairy Foods)

Dietary Protein Consumption

Fish Consumption

Other Fatty Acid Effects

Caffeine

Weight Reduction

Strategies for Implementing Nutritional Changes to Control Blood Pressure

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Nutritional Problems of pre-school children

Growth in the Preschool Years

Child Development in the Preschool Years

Dietary Recommendations for Young Children

Obesity and Overweight in Preschool Children

Weight Faltering

Micronutrient Deficiency

Food Allergy and Intolerance

Toddler Diarrhea (‘Nonspecific Childhood Diarrhea’)

See also

Further Reading

Nutritional requirements of infants

Abbreviations

Glossary

Introduction

DRIs for Infants

Summary of DRIs for Infants: Macronutrients – Energy, Carbohydrate, Fat, Protein, and Amino Acids

Research Needs

Assessment of Growth as an Indication of Adequate Nutrition

Practical Aspects of Meeting the Nutrient Needs of Infants

See also

Further Reading

Nutritional Support: Adults, Enteral

Adults, Enteral

Types

Access

Feeding Formulas

Compositions

Disease-Specific Formulas

Indications and Contradictions

Methods of Infusion

Further Reading

Nutritional Support: In the Home Setting

Oral Nutritional Support

Artificial Nutritional Support: Home Parenteral Nutrition and Home Enteral Tube Feeding

Conclusions

Further Reading

Nutritional Support: Infants and Children, Parenteral

Glossary

History and Introduction

Metabolic Complications

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Nutritional Surveillance: Developed Countries

Glossary

Uses of Nutritional Surveillance Data

Nutritional Surveillance Systems

Emerging Nutritional and Health Issues

See also

Further Reading

Nutritional Surveillance: Developing Countries

Glossary

Introduction

Types and Sources of Nutritional Surveillance Data in Developing Countries

See also

Further Reading

Nuts and seeds

Types

Nuts

Seeds

Macronutrient Content

Micronutrient Content

Fiber Content

Toxins and Contaminants

See also

Further Reading

O

Obesity: Childhood Obesity

Body Composition in Childhood and Definition of Childhood Obesity

Characteristics of Obese Children

Management

Prevention of Obesity in Childhood

See also

Further Reading

Obesity: Complications

Glossary

Role of Distribution of Body Fat in the Complications of Obesity

Metabolic and Organ System Complications of Obesity

Diseases of Organ Systems

Cancer

Mechanical Complications of Obesity

Surgical Complications

Psychosocial Complications

See also

Further Reading

Obesity: Definition, Etiology, and Assessment

Glossary

Definition

Etiology

Assessment

See also

Further Reading

Obesity: Genetic Factors

Glossary

Introduction

Rare Forms of Obesity

Common (Polygenic) Obesity

Future Directions

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Obesity: Prevention

Principles of Obesity Prevention

Who Should Obesity Prevention Strategies Target?

Further Reading

Obesity: Treatment

Introduction

Health Risks due to Overweight/Obesity

Patient Selection

Treatment Aims and Realistic Weight Loss Goals

Dietary Treatment of Obesity

Behavior Treatment

Drug Treatment of Obesity

Surgical Treatment for Obesity

A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Management of Overweight and Obesity

Strategies for Weight Loss Maintenance

See also

Further Reading

Older People: Nutritional Management of

Glossary

Introduction

Diagnosis and Evaluation of Undernutrition

Nutritional Assessment Tools

Oral Nutritional Repletion

Enteral Tube Feeding

Parenteral Nutritional Repletion

Pharmacological Management of Undernutrition

Managing Undernutrition in the Community Setting

Managing Undernutrition in Long-Term Care Institutions

Micronutrient Deficiency

Obesity

See also

Further Reading

Older People: Nutritional Requirements

Human Aging and Nutrition

Successful Aging, Normative Aging, and Frailty

Overview of Specific Factors of Aging Influencing Nutritional Requirements

Nutrient Intake Recommendations in Later Life

Definitions Surrounding Recommended Intakes of Nutrients

Established Recommended Intakes for Older Persons

Macronutrients

Water

Micronutrients

Dietary Guidelines for Function, Health, and Disease Prevention

Barriers to Meeting Recommended Nutrient Intakes and Healthful Dietary Intake Patterns by Older Persons

Future Considerations

See also

Further Reading

Older People: Physiological Changes

The Aging of the Population and its People

The Nature of Senescence

Physiological Changes Occurring in Tissues and Organ Systems with Human Aging

Synthesis and Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Nutrigenetic and Nutrigenomic Aspects in the Determination of Dietary Requirements, Development, and Chronic Diseases

Abbreviations

Glossary

Introduction

Eicosanoid Metabolism and Biological Effects of Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Genetic Variation: Nutrigenetics

Nutrigenomics: The Role of Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Gene Expression

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Organic Foods

Essential or Beneficial Nutrients

Undesirable Components

Health Effects (Clinical Trials)

Organoleptic Quality

Conclusions and Prospects

See also

Further Reading

Osteoporosis: Nutritional Factors

Glossary

Introduction

Dietary Intake and Body Mass

Calcium

Vitamin D

Magnesium

Zinc and Copper

Vitamin K

Phosphorus

Sodium and Potassium

Protein

Phytoestrogens

Homocysteine

Other Lifestyle Factors

Targeting Groups at Risk

Nutrient/Gene Interactions

See also

Further Reading

Volume 4

P

Pantothenic Acid

Glossary

Absorption, Transport, Storage and Status Measurement

Metabolism and Turnover

Metabolic Function and Essentiality

Requirements

Dietary Sources and High Intakes

See also

Further Reading

Parasitism

Introduction

Mechanisms of Parasite–Host Nutrition Interactions

Parasite Epidemiology and Impact on Host Nutrition

Community and Intervention Studies

Treatment and Prognosis

Prevention

See also

Further Reading

Parenteral Nutrition

Indications for Parenteral Nutrition

Contraindications to Parenteral Nutrition

Vascular Access

Nutrition Components of Parenteral Nutrition

Parenteral Nutrition Monitoring

Cyclic Parenteral Nutrition

Complications of Parenteral Nutrition

Home Parenteral Nutrition

Conclusions

Further Reading

Pediatric Feeding Disorders: Feeding Children Who Can’t or Won’t Eat

Glossary

Introduction

Normal Development of Feeding and Swallowing

The Swallowing Process

Classification of Feeding Disorders in Children

Assessment

Treatment of Feeding Disorders

Conclusion

Further Reading

Phosphorus: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements

Glossary

Introduction

Calcium–Phosphate Interrelationships

Dietary Sources of Phosphorus

Intestinal Absorption of Phosphates

Phosphate Homeostatic Mechanisms

Functional Roles of Phosphates

Phosphate in Health and Disease

Conclusions

Further Reading

Physical Activity: Beneficial Effects

Glossary

Introduction

Physical Activity and Energy Balance

Physiological Adaptations to Exercise Training

Benefits of Regular Physical Activity

Physical Activity Prescription

See also

Further Reading

Phytochemicals: Classification and Occurrence

Abbreviations

Glossary

Introduction

Flavonoids

Current Estimates of Intake

Absorption and Metabolism of Flavonoids

Bioavailability of Flavonoids

Potential Mechanisms of Action

Potential Health Effects

Conclusions

Further Reading

Phytochemicals: Health Effects

Introduction

Dietary Sources

Metabolism and Bioavailability

Biological Activity

Cardioprotection

Cancer Prevention

Cognitive Benefits

Bone Protective Effects

Menopausal Symptoms

Health Concerns

Conclusions

Further Reading

Potassium

Acid–Base Considerations

Adverse Effects of Insufficient Potassium

Adverse Effects of Excess Potassium Intake

Recommended Potassium Intake, Current Intake, and Dietary Sources

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Pregnancy: Energy Requirements and Metabolic Adaptations

Extra Energy Costs of Pregnancy

Longitudinal Studies of the Energy Costs of Pregnancy

Between-Country Comparison of the Metabolic Costs of Pregnancy

Individual Variability in the Total Energy Costs of Pregnancy

Implications of Energy-Sparing Adaptations for Mother and Infant

See also

Further Reading

Pregnancy: Nutrient Requirements

Glossary

Introduction

Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Pregnancy

Energy

Protein

Folate

Other B Vitamins

Vitamin A

Vitamin D

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Vitamin E

Calcium

Phosphorus

Magnesium

Iron

Zinc

Iodine

Trace Elements: Copper, Selenium, Chromium, Fluoride, Manganese, and Molybdenum

Water and Electrolytes

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Pregnancy: Placental Regulation of Nutrient Delivery to the Fetus

Glossary

Fetal Nutrient Requirements

The Human Placenta

Methods Used to Study Placental Function

The Mechanisms of Placental Nutrient Transport

Epigenetics and the Placenta

Placental Selectivity

Placental Metabolic Activity

Placental Buffering of Maternal Dietary Intake

Placental Insufficiency and Fetal Growth

The Role of the Fetus

Further Reading

Pregnancy: Pre-eclampsia and Diet

Glossary

Introduction

Classification

Pathophysiology of Pre-eclampsia

The Possible Role of Nutrition in the Pathophysiology of Pre-eclampsia

Nutritional Interventions and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Pregnancy: Prevention of Neural Tube Defects

Glossary

Epidemiology

Genetic and Environmental Factors

Other Causes of NTDs

Mechanisms

Primary Prevention

Fortification

Recommendations

See also

Further Reading

Pregnancy: Safe Diets

Glossary

Introduction

Food-Borne Infections during Pregnancy

Alcohol

Vitamin A

Fish and Pregnancy

Mercury

Dioxins and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

Caffeine

Avoiding Foods to Prevent Allergy

Food Additives and Herbal Supplements

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Pregnancy: Weight Gain

Glossary

Pregnancy Weight Gain Recommendations

Excessive Weight Gain

Pattern of Weight Gain

Variability in Weight Gain

Maternal Weight Gain and Birth Weight

Changes in Body Composition and Maternal Energy Status

Weight Gain for Special Population Groups

Pregnancy Weight Gain and Postpartum Risk of Obesity

Impact of Supplementation

See also

Further Reading

Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes

Introduction

Synthesis

Major Biosynthetic Pathways

Physiological Activities of PGs and LTs

Regulation of PG and LT Synthesis by Dietary Fatty Acids

See also

Further Reading

Protein Deficiency

Glossary

Introduction

Protein Turnover and Regulation

Adaptation to Low Protein Intakes

Causes of Protein and Amino Acid Deficiency

Principles of Treatment of Protein Deficiency

See also

Further Reading

Protein Digestion and Bioavailability

Glossary

Introduction

Digestion

Absorption

Digestibility

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Protein: Quality and Sources

Glossary

Assessment of Protein Quality

Improvement of Protein Quality

Protein Quality and Dietary Sources

See also

Further Reading

Protein: Requirements and Role in Diet

Terminology

Metabolic Demands for Amino Acids

Qualitative Aspects of the Metabolic Demand: Plant versus Animal Sources

Nitrogen Balance

Dietary Protein Allowances for Individuals and Populations and Implications of Adaptation

Protein Requirements for Growth and Special Needs

Pregnancy Requirements

Areas of Uncertainty

Further Reading

Protein: Synthesis and Turnover

Whole-Body Protein Homeostasis

Protein Turnover

Models and Tracer Methods for the Study of Protein Turnover

Applications

Regulatory Mechanisms of Protein Turnover Control

Postprandial Protein Utilization

See also

Further Reading

R

Refugees: Nutritional Implications

Glossary

Introduction

Trends

Nutrition Implications of Displacement

Macronutrients

Micronutrients (Vitamins and Mineral Deficiencies)

Addressing Nutrition in Refugees

Food Baskets for Populations (General Food Distribution)

Challenges

See also

Further Reading

Religious Customs, Influence on Diet

Glossary

Introduction

Christianity

Islam

Hinduism

Buddhism

Conclusion

Further Reading

Riboflavin

Glossary

Absorption, Transport, and Storage

Metabolism and Excretion

Metabolic Function and Essentiality

Assessment of Riboflavin Status

Requirements

Dietary Sources and High Intakes

See also

Further Reading

S

Salt: Epidemiology

Glossary

Introduction

Occurrence in Nature

A History of Salt Intake

Salt in Food Technology

Changes in Mineral Composition of Food Induced by Industrialization and Migration to Urban or Affluent Communities

Rural–Urban Differences in Salt Intake and Blood Pressure (BP)

Salt and Disease

Genetic Influences

Age-Related Changes in BP

Intersalt Studies

Salt Reduction in Preexisting Hypertension

Implications of the Salt–Disease Relationships in Relation to Population and Individual Strategies for Improving Health

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Seasonality

Introduction

Definition and Measures of Seasonality

Effects of Agroclimatic Seasonality on Food Availability and Dietary Intakes

Effects of Agroclimatic Seasonality on Time Allocation and Energy Expenditure

Seasonal Patterns of Disease

Coping Strategies

Nutritional Impact of Seasonality

See also

Further Reading

Selenium

Glossary

Introduction

Metabolism of Selenium

Functions of Selenium

Deficiency and Excess

Selenium and Human Health

Assessment of Selenium Status

Dietary Intake of Selenium

Requirements and Recommended Dietary Intakes

Conclusion

See also

Further reading

Skeletal Muscle

Glossary

Introduction

Structure and Function

Adaptations to Nutrients and Exercise

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Sodium: Physiology

Physiological, Clinical, and Nutritional Importance of Sodium

Distribution

Sodium in Extracellular Fluid

Regulation of ECF Sodium

Sodium-Retaining Hormones

Natriuretic Hormones

Adequate, Inadequate, and Excess Sodium

Unresolved Issues

See also

Further Reading

Sport and Exercise Nutrition

Glossary

Introduction

Nutrition for Training

Protein Requirements

Fat and CHO

Vitamins and Minerals

Water and Electrolyte Balance

Dietary Supplements

Nutrition for Competition

Further Reading

Starvation and fasting: Biochemical Aspects

Glossary

The Feeding/Fasting Cycle

Metabolic Consequences of Fasting and Starvation

See also

Further Reading

Stroke Nutritional Management

Glossary

Introduction

Management of Stroke-related Psychosocial and Physical Problems Impairing Food Consumption

See also

Further Reading

Sucrose: Dietary Sucrose and Disease

Glossary

Introduction

Effects on Energy Intake and Body Weight

Sweetened Beverages

Nutrient Dilution

Dental Caries

Type 2 Diabetes

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Supplementation: Developed Countries

Prevalence of Micronutrient Supplement Use

Motivation for Micronutrient Supplement Use

Research Approach for Determining the Health Impact of Micronutrient Supplements

Evidence Supporting Recommendations for Micronutrient Supplement Use

Infants

Children

Adults

Elderly

See also

Further Reading

Supplementation: Developing Countries

Glossary

Introduction

Iodine Supplementation

Vitamin A Supplementation

Iron/Folate Supplementation

Zinc Supplementation

Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation

See also

Further Reading

Supplementation: Dietary Supplements

Introduction

How is the Sales Data Derived?

What is a Dietary Supplement? How are they Regulated in Different Countries?

Product Quality and Safety Issues

Interactions

Label Claims

Potential Benefits of Dietary Supplements

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Supplementation: Programmatic Issues

Abbreviations

Glossary

Introduction

Micronutrient Supplementation

Vitamin A Supplementation

Iron Supplementation

Iodine Supplementation

Zinc Supplementation

Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation in Pregnancy and Childhood

Calcium Supplementation in Pregnancy

Vitamin D

Summary

See also

Further Reading

T

Tea

Description of Tea

Antioxidant Properties of Tea

Tea and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

Tea and Cancer

Tea and Diabetes

Tea and Obesity

Conclusion

Further Reading

Thiamin: Beriberi

Glossary

Epidemiology

Etiology

Experimental Thiamin Deficiency in Man and Measurement of Thiamin Status

Clinical Features of Beriberi

Management/Treatment

Lipid-Soluble Thiamin Derivatives

Toxicity

See also

Further Reading

Thiamin: Physiology

Glossary

Introduction

Dietary Sources of Thiamin

Transport, Storage, and Excretion

Assessment of Thiamin Status

Recommended Dietary Allowances

Drug–Nutrient Interactions

Toxicity

See also

Further Reading

Thirst Physiology

Role of Thirst in Water Balance

Perception of Thirst

Assessment of Thirst

The Physiological Regulation of Thirst

Mechanisms of Thirst Regulation

Osmotic Regulation of Thirst

Volemic Regulation of Thirst

Sensory Regulation of Thirst

Mechanisms for Terminating the Sensation of Thirst

Fluid Requirements

See also

Further Reading

Trans-Fatty Acids: Health Effects, Recommendations, and Regulations

Glossary

Introduction

Dietary Intake

Health Effects

Dietary Recommendations and Regulations

Trans Fat Alternatives

Conclusions

Disclaimer

Further Reading

Tuberculosis: Nutritional Management

Glossary

Introduction

Nutritional Status of Tuberculosis Patients

Effect of Nutritional Factors on the Course of TB

Controlled Intervention Studies of Nutritional Supplements in the Management of TB

Nutritional Management of TB

Nutrient–Drug Interactions

Conclusions

Disclaimer

See also

Further Reading

U

Ultratrace Elements

Definition

Absorption, Transport, and Storage

Metabolism and Excretion

Requirements and High Intakes

Aluminum

Arsenic

Boron

Bromine

Cadmium

Fluorine

Germanium

Lead

Lithium

Molybdenum

Nickel

Rubidium

Silicon

Tin

Vanadium

Dietary Sources

See also

Further Reading

Urban Nutrition

Introduction

Urbanization

Contemporary Food Supplies and Diets for the Cities

Urbanization and Nutritional Transition

Urban Agriculture

Street-Vended Ready-to-Eat Foods

Nutrition and Health in the Urban World

Nutritional Deficiencies of Urban Populations

Nutritional Excess in Urban Populations

Diet, Nutrition, and Quality of Life

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

V

Vegeterian Diets

lntroduction

History

Vegetarian Patterns and Practices

Differences Between Vegetarian Eating and Vegetarianism

Nutritional Adequacy

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Vitamin A: Deficiency and Interventions

Glossary

Introduction

Epidemiology

Further Reading

Vitamin A: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements

Glossary

Vitamin A: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements

Transport

Absorption and Metabolism

Tissue Retinoid Metabolism

Physiological Actions

Functions in Cell Differentiation

Dietary Sources and Nutritional Equivalency

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamin A

See also

Further Reading

Vitamin B6: Physiology

Glossary

Dietary Forms, Biological Availability, and Metabolism

Metabolic Functions of Vitamin B6

Criteria of Adequacy and Assessment of Nutritional Status

Requirements and Recommendations

Pharmacological Uses and Toxicity of Vitamin B6 Supplements

Vitamin B6 Deficiency

See also

Further Reading

Vitamin B12: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements

Glossary

Introduction

Biochemistry and Metabolic Functions

Physiology

Causes, Mechanisms, and Effects of Cobalamin Deficiency

Diagnosis of Cobalamin Deficiency

Inborn Errors of Cobalamin Metabolism

See also

Further Reading

Vitamin D: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements

Introduction

Origin and Structure of Vitamin D

Production of Vitamin D in the Skin

Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion of Vitamin D

Biologic Functions of Vitamin D on Calcium Metabolism

Evaluation for and Consequences of Vitamin D Deficiency

Nonskeletal Consequences of Vitamin D Deficiency

Recommended Dietary Intake of Vitamin D

See also

Further Reading

Vitamin E: Metabolism and Requirements

Glossary

Introduction

General Description and Scientific Name

Vitamin E Actions and Metabolism

Recommended Intake Levels

Vitamin E Bioavailability

Human Vitamin E Deficiency

Chronic Disease Prevention

Further Reading

Vitamin E: Physiology and Health Effects

Introduction

Chemistry

Dietary Sources

Absorption Metabolism and Excretion

Tocopherols as Antioxidants

Vitamin E Deficiency

Tocopherols and Low-Density Lipoprotein Modification

Tocopherols and Other Metabolic Functions

Tocopherols and Cardiovascular Disease – Epidemiological Evidence

Tocopherols and Cancer – Epidemiological Evidence

Tocopherols and Other Diseases – Epidemiological Evidence

Vitamin E Status and Requirements

See also

Further Reading

Vitamin K

Introduction

Food Sources, Absorption, and Catabolism

Vitamin K-Dependent (VKD) Proteins

Potential Non-Gla Functions of Vitamin K

Status, Requirements, and Recommended Intakes

Population Groups at Risk of Vitamin K Deficiency

See also

Further Reading

W

Weight Management: Approaches

The Concept of Desirable Weight

Dietary Management

Exercise and Physical Activity

Behavioral Modification

See also

Further Reading

Weight Management: Weight Cycling/Weight Change

Weight Cycling – A Health Risk?

The Metabolic Hypothesis

Weight Cycling and Mortality

Weight Cycling and Cardiovascular Disease

Other Health Outcomes: Cancer and Diabetes

Psychological Consequences

Methodological Issues

Conclusions

Further Reading

Weight Management: Weight Maintenance

Definition of Successful Weight Loss Maintenance

Data on Prevalence of Long-term Maintenance of Weight Loss

Why is Weight Loss Maintenance Difficult?

Research Investigating Successful Weight Loss Maintenance

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Whole Grains

Glossary

Introduction

Definition of Wholegrains

Structural Components and Composition of Grains

Wholegrain Foods and Health Claims

Recommendations for Whole Grain Consumption and Consumption Patterns

Wholegrains and Reduction in Disease Risk

Wholegrains and Potential Mechanisms of Action

Further Reading

Z

Zinc: Deficiency Disorders and Prevention Programs

Glossary

Causes of Zinc Deficiency

Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency in Developing Countries

Consequences of Zinc Deficiency in Developing Countries: Evidence Derived from Zinc Supplementation Trials

Zinc Intervention Strategies

Biofortification

See also

Further Reading

Zinc: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements

Glossary

Introduction

History of Zinc as a Nutrient

Chemistry of Zinc

Zinc in Foods

Control of Zinc Homeostasis

Zinc Biochemistry

Zinc Physiology

Human Zinc Deficiency

Zinc Toxicity

Assessment

Recommended Intakes

See also

Further Reading

Index

Author Index

Quotes and reviews

"This new edition has been completely revised and expanded to accommodate the enormous growth of the scientific discipline of human nutrition, including the effects of such pivotal events as mapping of the human genome and the discovery that nutrients influence the mutation of viruses. Though comprehensive, the articles are not overly technical, making the work relevant to both general readers and health care practitioners." Summing Up: Essential. --CHOICE Reviews Online, June 2014

 
 
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