Encyclopedia of Creativity

Encyclopedia of Creativity, 2nd Edition

Encyclopedia of Creativity, 2nd Edition,Mark Runco,Steven Pritzker,ISBN9780123750396

Runco  &   Pritzker   

Academic Press




The perfect starting point for creativity research

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Key Features

  • Named a 2012 Outstanding Academic Title by the American Library Association's Choice publication
  • Serves as a compendium of reviews of a number of domain-specific areas, such as acting, dance, expressive arts, film, food, music, religion, science, sports, theater, and writing.
  • Creativity and education are examined in articles about thought processes, such as developmental trends in creative abilities and potentials, the enhancement of creativity, intelligence, knowledge, play, prodigies, programs and courses, talent and teaching creativity.
  • Cognitive aspects of creativity can be investigated in articles about altered and transitional states, analogies, attention, cognitive style, divergent thinking, flow and optimal experience, metacognition, metaphors, problem-finding, problem-solving, and remote associates.
  • Covers business and organizational creativity in articles about advertising with art, creative visuals, business/management, creativity coaching, creativity exercises, entrepreneurship, group dynamics, innovation, leadership, organizational culture, organizational development, teams, and training, among others.
  • Explicitly examines the complex interrelationship between society and creativity in articles about awards, conformity and conventionality, the creative sector and class of society, cultural diversity, the dark side of creativity, East vs. West, networking, social psychology, war, zeitgeist, and others.
  • Personal and interpersonal creativity is discussed in articles relating to collaboration, family, life stages, mentors, networking, personal creativity and self-actualization.
  • Focuses on scientific information about creativity, there are also articles that discuss brain and neuropsychology, concepts of creativity, definitions of creativity, expertise, longitudinal studies, researching art, artists and art audiences, research methods, phenomenology research and qualitative research.
  • Online version contains an additional 26 biographies of famously creative people


The first edition of the successful Encyclopedia of Creativity served to establish the study of creativity is a field in itself. Now completely updated and revised in its second edition, coverage encompasses the definition of creativity, the development and expression of creativity across the lifespan, the environmental conditions that encourage or discourage creativity, creativity within specific disciplines like music, dance, film, art, literature, etc., the relationship of creativity and mental health, intelligence, and learning styles, and the process of being creative. This reference also appeals to a lay audience with articles specifically on the application of creativity to business settings. Available online via ScienceDirect and in limited print release.


When the first edition of The Encyclopedia of Creativity was published in 1999, creativity research had become broad and important enough to be treated as a legitimate field of scientific study. Now creativity research is being conducted throughout the world in many different disciplines including psychology, arts and humanities, health sciences, education, and business. This global interest is reflected in the number of authors throughout the world who have contributed to this edition.

Mark Runco

Mark Runco has studied creativity and innovation for 35 years. He holds a PhD in Cognitive Psychology and is Professor at the University of Georgia, as well as Distinguished Research Fellow at the American Institute for Behavioral Research and Technology. His PhD is in Cognitive Psychology from the Claremont Graduate School. He also earned his MA and his BA from Claremont. He is founding Editor of the Creativity Research Journal and is on the Editorial Board of Creativity and Innovation Management, the Journal of Creative Behavior and various other academic journals. He is co-editor of the Encyclopedia of Creativity (1999, 2011) and in 2015 he collaborated with the International Center for Studies in Creativity to introduce two new academic journals, Business Creativity and the Creative Economy and the Journal of Genius and Eminence. Dr. Runco was Adjunct Professor at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration and the Torrance Professor and Director of the Torrance Creativity Center at UGA. He is Past President of the American Psychological Association’s Division 10. Dr. Runco has published over 200 articles, chapters, and books on creativity and innovation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Torrance Center for Creativity and Talent Development, USA

View additional works by Mark A. Runco

Steven Pritzker

STEVEN R. PRITZKER, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology at Saybrook University in San Francisco. He is Director of The Creativity Studies Certificate and Masters in Psychology with a Specialization in Creativity Studies. Dr. Pritzker writes both academic and popular press articles and books concerning creativity. He is a fellow and educational coalition representative for the American Psychological Association’s Division 10 (Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and The Arts). He serves on the editorial board of the APA journal Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and The Arts. Dr. Pritzker is a former comedy writer-producer who worked on over 200 network television episodes including such popular shows as The Partridge Family, Maude, Fish, The Hogan Family and the Emmy winning Mary Tyler Moore Show and Room 222. He has received Emmy recognition and been nominated for the Writers Guild of America Award. Dr. Pritzker is President of Creativity Source where he consults and coaches organizations and individuals on maximizing their creativity.

Affiliations and Expertise

Saybrook University, San Francisco, CA, USA

Encyclopedia of Creativity, 2nd Edition

Tagcloud based on keywords, showing relative importance of these terms to creativity research

Executive Advisory Board

About the Editors-in-Chief

About the Executive Advisory Board


Permission Acknowledgments


Adaptation, Adaptiveness, and Creativity

Advertising with Art: Creative Visuals

Aesthetics and Creativity


Altered and Transitional States



Art and Aesthetics

Art, Artists, and Arts Audiences: Their Implications for the Psychology of Creativity

Associative Theory



Attitudes and Creativity

Attribution and Creativity

Sri Aurobindo 1872–1950: A Yogi and a Poet


Barriers to Creativity and Creative Attitudes

The Beatles

Ludwig van Beethoven 1770–1827

Behavioral Approaches to Creativity

Bipolar Mood Disorders

Birth Order


David Bohm 1917–1992

Brain and Neuropsychology


Mary Cassatt 1844–1926

Chaos Theory and Creativity

Charlie Chaplin 1889–1977

Julia Child 1912–2004

Camille Claudel 1864–1943

Climate for Creativity

Cognitive Style and Creativity


Componential Models of Creativity

Computers and Creativity



Consensual Assessment

Contrarianism and Creativity

Creative Environments, Conditions, and Settings

Creative Products

The Creative Sector and Class of Society

Creative Trajectories

Creativity Complex

Creativity in Science

Creativity Through History

Creativity Training

Crime and Creativity

Critical Thinking

Cross-Cultural Differences in Creativity


Cultural Diversity and Creativity

Dance and Creativity

The Dark Side of Creativity

Definitions of Creativity


Developmental Trends in Creative Abilities and Potentials


Dialectical Thinking: Further Implications for Creative Thinking


Distribution of Creativity

Divergent Thinking

Domains of Creativity

Dreams and Creativity

East vs. West


Economic Perspectives on Creativity

Education and Creativity



Enhancement of Creativity


Everyday Creativity

Evolving Systems Approach



Expressive Arts Therapy

Families and Creativity


Ella Fitzgerald 1917–1996

Flow and Optimal Experience

Food, Creativity of Recipes, Pairings, Menus

The Four Ps of Creativity: Person, Product, Process, and Press

Friendship and Creativity

Mahatma Gandhi 1869–1948

Gender Differences


Genius and Greatness

Giftedness and Creativity

Group Creativity

Joseph Haydn 1732–1809

Handwriting and Creativity

Katharine Hepburn 1907–2003

Heuristics: Strategies in Creative Problem Solving

Historical Conceptions of Creativity


Grace Murray Hopper 1906–1992

Humor and Creativity


Implicit Theories





Intelligence (as Related to Creativity)

Interest Inventories



Janusian, Homospatial and Sepconic Articulation Processes

James Joyce 1882–1941

Jungian Theory

Frida Kahlo 1907–1954


Akira Kurosawa 1910–1998


Life Stages of Creativity

Logic and Reasoning

Longitudinal Studies

Mad Genius Controversy


Matthew, Pygmalion, and Founder Effects

Margaret Mead 1901–1978

Memory & Creativity

Mental Health: Affective Disorders




Michelangelo 1475–1564


Claude Monet 1840–1926

Moral Issues in Creativity


Multiple Discovery

Multiple Intelligences


Nature/Nurture and Creativity



Organizational Culture

Organizational Development


Paradigm Shifts

Perception and Creativity

Personal Creativity

Personality: Autonomy and Independence


Pablo Picasso 1881–1973



Problem Finding

Problem Solving


Programs and Courses in Creativity


Otto Rank 1884–1939

Remote Associates

Research and Methods

Research: Phenomenology

Research: Quantitative

Rewards and Creativity



Schizophrenia and Psychosis

Clara Wieck-Schumann 1819–1896



Social Psychology


Socio-Economic Status and Performance on Creativity Tests


Sports and Creativity

Alfred Stieglitz 1864–1946

Stress and Creativity

Substance Abuse and Creativity



Synchronicity and Creativity

Systems Approach

Tactics and Strategies for Creativity

Talent and Creativity

Teaching Creativity


Sara Teasdale 1884–1933



Theories of Creativity

Therapy and Counseling (Creative Process in)


Transforming Illness and Visual Art




Max Wertheimer 1880–1943

Women and Creativity

Writing and Creativity



Appendix I: Chronology of Events and Significant Ideas and Works on Creativity

Appendix II: Tests of Creativity

Albert Einstein 1879–1955

Alexander Graham Bell 1847–1922

Anne Sexton 1928–1974

The Brontë Sisters: Charlotte Brontë (Currer Bell) 1816–1855, Anne Brontë (Acton Bell) 1818–1848, Emily Brontë (Ellis Bell) 1820–1849

Charles Robert Darwin 1809–1882

Fernando Pessoa (Alberto Caeiro, Alvaro de Campos, Ricardo Reis, Bernardo Soares, and many more) 1888–1935

George Bernard Shaw 1856–1950

Georgia O’Keeffe 1887–1986

Hans Adolf Krebs 1900–1981

Henri-Marie-Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa 1864–1901

Isak Dinesen 1885–1962

Jean Piaget 1896–1980

Leonardo da Vinci 1452–1519

Lev Semenovich Vygotsky 1896–1934

Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) 1832–1898

Marie Sklodowska Curie 1867–1934

Paul Cézanne 1839–1906

Rabindranath Tagore 1861–1941

Robert Schumann 1810–1856

Sigmund Freud 1856–1939

Sylvia Plath 1932–1963

Vincent van Gogh 1853–1890

Virginia (Stephen) Woolf 1882–1941

Wilbur Wright 1867–1912 and Orville Wright 1871–1948

William Shakespeare 1564–1616

William Wordsworth 1770–1850

Quotes and reviews

"Overall, the book does fulfil its aims and is timely, given the increasing interest in developing new approaches and products. It will be of interest to subject librarians with responsibility for psychology and creative courses and others who want to find out about the theoretical viewpoints."--Health Libraries Group Newsletter

Praise for the first edition:

"...an impressive work by any standard. We warmly recommend this tour de force publication... a must for every university library..."

"The Encyclopedia of Creativity is a highly impressive, collaborative achievement... Unprecedented in breadth and scope... a resounding success..."
- CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY (2002, Vol. 47, No. 2)

"...this encyclopedia represents a useful effort to bring together research on creativity and will serve undergraduate and graduate students well."

"...something to catch the interests of nearly any reader with a curious mind...

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