Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, 2nd Edition

 
Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, 2nd Edition,Vilayanur Ramachandran,ISBN9780080961804
 
 
 

V Ramachandran   

Academic Press

9780080961804

2518

Comprehensive reference source on human action and reaction, and the thoughts, feelings, and physiological functions behind those actions

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Key Features

  • Named a 2013 Outstanding Academic Title by the American Library Association's Choice publication
  • Concise entries (ten pages on average) provide foundational knowledge of the field
  • Each article features suggested further readings, a list of related websites, a 5-10 word glossary and a definition paragraph, and cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedi
  • Newly expanded editorial board and a host of international contributors from the United States, Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom

Description

The Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, Second Edition is an award-winning three-volume reference on human action and reaction, and the thoughts, feelings, and physiological functions behind those actions. Presented alphabetically by title, 300 articles probe both enduring and exciting new topics in physiological psychology, perception, personality, abnormal and clinical psychology, cognition and learning, social psychology, developmental psychology, language, and applied contexts.

Written by leading scientists in these disciplines, every article has been peer-reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. The most comprehensive reference source to provide both depth and breadth to the study of human behavior, the encyclopedia will again be a much-used reference source. This set appeals to public, corporate, university and college libraries, libraries in two-year colleges, and some secondary schools.

Carefully crafted, well written, and thoroughly indexed, the encyclopedia helps users—whether they are students just beginning formal study of the broad field or specialists in a branch of psychology—understand the field and how and why humans behave as we do.

Readership

Undergraduate and graduate students in psychology and the behavioral sciences, as well as researchers in various psychological subdisciplines and psychiatry; the encyclopedia is also useful for the lay public who may have an interest in topics related to human behavior

Vilayanur Ramachandran

MBBS, PhD, Hon. FRCP

V. S. Ramachandran is Director of the Center for Brain and Cognition and Distinguished Professor with the Psychology Department and Neurosciences Program at the University of California, San Diego, and Adjunct Professor of Biology at the Salk Institute. Ramachandran initially trained as a doctor and subsequently obtained a Ph.D. from Trinity College at the University of Cambridge. Ramachandran's early work was on visual perception but he is best known for his experiments in behavioral neurology which, despite their apparent simplicity, have had a profound impact on the way we think about the brain. He has been called "The Marco Polo of neuroscience" by Richard Dawkins and "The modern Paul Broca" by Eric Kandel. In 2005 he was awarded the Henry Dale Medal and elected to an honorary life membership by the Royal Institution of Great Britain, where he also gave a Friday evening discourse (joining the ranks of Michael Faraday, Thomas Huxley, Humphry Davy, and dozens of Nobel Laureates). His other honors and awards include fellowships from All Souls College, Oxford, and from Stanford University (Hilgard Visiting Professor); the Presidential Lecture Award from the American Academy of Neurology, two honorary doctorates, the annual Ramon Y Cajal award from the International Neuropsychiatry Society, and the Ariens-Kappers medal from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences. In 2003 he gave the annual BBC Reith lectures and was the first physician/psychologist to give the lectures since they were begun by Bertrand Russel in 1949. In 1995 he gave the Decade of the Brain lecture at the 25th annual (Silver Jubilee) meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. In 2010 he delivered the annual Jawaharlal Nehru memorial lecture in New Delhi, India. Most recently the President of India conferred on him the second highest civilian award and honorific title in India, the Padma Bhushan. And TIME magazine named him on their list of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2011. Ramachandran has published over 180 papers in scientific journals (including five invited review articles in the Scientific American). He is author of the acclaimed book "Phantoms in the Brain" that has been translated into nine languages and formed the basis for a two part series on Channel Four TV (UK) and a 1 hour PBS special in USA. NEWSWEEK magazine has named him a member of "The Century Club" one of the "hundred most prominent people to watch in the next century." He has been profiled in the New Yorker Magazine and appeared on the Charlie Rose Show. His book, "The Tell Tale Brain" is a New York Times best-seller.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Center for Brain and Cognition, and Professor, Psychology Department and Neurosciences Program, University of California, San Diego; Adjunct Professor of Biology, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, CA, USA

Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, 2nd Edition

Editorial Advisory Board

About the Editor-in-Chief

About the Editorial Advisory Board

Reviewers

Preface

Permission Acknowledgments

Article Titles

Academic Achievement

Importance of Academic Achievement

Indicators of Academic Achievement

Predictors of Academic Achievement

Equal Opportunities and Academic Achievement

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Addictions and Adolescence

Introduction

Developmental Issues

Applicability of Addiction Diagnostic Criteria for Adolescents

Three Adolescent Addictive Disorders

Nicotine Dependence

Epidemiology

Etiology

Other Substances Use Disorders (Excluding Nicotine)

Pathological Gambling

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Readings

Relevant Websites

Adolescence

Primary Changes in Adolescence

Contextual Areas of Interest Regarding Adolescent Development

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Adrenal Glands

Introduction

Anatomy and Physiology of the Adrenal Gland

Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Aggression

What Is Aggression?

Why Do We Use Aggression?

What Causes Aggression?

What Reduces Aggression?

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Aging and Cognition

Introduction

Declarative Memory

Nondeclarative Memory

Executive Function

Decision-Making

Processing Speed

The Relationship Among Cognitive Functions

Cognitive Rehabilitation: Behavioral Interventions and Their Impact on Cognition

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Aging and the Brain

Major Neuronal Theories of Brain Aging

Systems-Level Anatomical Changes in the Brain with Age

Age-Associated Neurological Disorders

Maintaining a Healthy Brain

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Agnosia (including Prosopagnosia and Anosognosia)

Visual Agnosia: Overview

Object Agnosia

Face Agnosia (Prosopagnosia)

Color Agnosia

Tactile Agnosia

Agnosia for Words

Agnosia for Landmarks and Environment (Topographic Agnosia)

Anosognosia

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder

Agoraphobia and Panic: Past and Present

Descriptive Psychopathology, Diagnosis, and Epidemiology

Theories of Etiology and Maintenance

Clinical Assessment

Treatment

Conclusions and Prospects

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Agraphia and Alexia

Peripheral Dyslexias

Pure Alexia (Alexia Without Agraphia)

Attentional Dyslexia

Neglect Dyslexia

Central Dyslexias and Dysgraphias

Phonological Dyslexia and Dysgraphia

Surface Dyslexia and Dysgraphia

Deep Dyslexia and Dysgraphia

Semantic Dyslexia and Dysgraphia

Graphemic Buffer Impairment

More Peripheral Agraphias

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Alcohol: Psychosocial Effects

Introduction

Acute and Chronic Effects of Alcohol

Moderators of Alcohol Effects

Individual Differences in Moderating Effects

Beliefs and Expectancies

Personality Differences

Family History of Alcoholism

Selected Important Acute and Chronic Effects of Alcohol

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Alexithymia

History

Measurement of Alexithymia

Related Constructs

Cognitive Aspects

Physiological Aspects

Neurological Aspects

Alexithymia and Emotional Expression/Regulation

Alexithymia and Physical Health

Alexithymia and Mental Health

Treatment

Controversial Issues

Future Directions

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Altruism and Helping Behavior

Forms of Helping

A Process Model of Helping

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Alzheimer’s Disease

History

Symptoms

Prevalence and Mortality

Causes

Diagnosis

Genetics

Risk Factors and Prevention

Treatment

Societal Impact

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Amnesia

Amnesia

The Amnesic Syndrome

Traumatic RA

Functional Amnesia

Amnesia Through the Life Span

Amnesias of Everyday Experience

Theoretical and Practical Implications

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Amnesia and the Brain

The Amnesic Syndrome

Etiologies of Amnesia

Information-Processing Descriptions of Amnesia

Theoretical and Clinical Implications

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Analogical Reasoning

Introduction

Mapping

Evaluation

Analogical Retrieval

Factors that Influence Mapping

Neuropsychology of Analogical Reasoning

Analogy in Naturalistic Settings

Analogical Reasoning Without Awareness

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Anger

Generic and Specific Uses of the Concept of Anger

Anger in Historical Perspective

Anger in Courts of Law

Anger in Everyday Affairs

Rules of Anger

Anger and the Social Order

Anger in Health and Disease

Gender Differences

Wrongful Anger

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Animal Cognition

The Science of Animal Cognition

Numerical Processing

Memory

Conceptualization

Metacognition

Final Comments

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Antisocial and Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Introduction

Conceptualizations of ASPD and NPD

Comorbidity

Relationship to Normal Personality Traits

Etiological Influences: Genes and Environment

Treatment

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Anxiety and Fear

What Is Anxiety and What Is Fear?

What Makes Human Beings Anxious and/or Fearful?

Theories of the Development and Maintenance of Anxiety and Fear

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Anxiety Disorders

What Is Anxiety?

The Anxiety Disorders

Etiology

Treatment

Issues in Diagnosis

Special Populations

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Aphasia

Introduction

Evaluation of Aphasia

Classification of Aphasias

Recovery of Aphasia

Miscellaneous Topics in Aphasia

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Appetite

Introduction

Eating and Homeostasis

Within-Meal Controls of Eating

Across-Meal Controls of Eating

Brain Mechanisms

Sex Differences

Anorexia

Psychiatric Eating Disorders

Genetics of Eating

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Asperger’s Syndrome and Nonverbal Learning Disorder

Introduction

Diagnosis of Asperger’s Syndrome

Diagnosis of NLD

Common Characteristics of AS and NLD

Distinguishing Characteristics of AS and NLD

Etiology

Prevalence

Treatment Considerations

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Associative Learning

Basic Concepts

Habituation

Complex Phenomena

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Learning

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Attention

Introduction

The Theory of Perceptual Load

Working Memory and Selective Attention

Inattentional Blindness, Change Blindness, and Change Detection

Spatial Attention

Exogenous Spatial Attention

Endogenous Spatial Attention

Endogenous Versus Exogenous Spatial Orienting: One Mechanism or Two?

Crossmodal Spatial Attention

The Attentive Brain

Feature Integration Theory

Temporal Attention

Attention: The Future

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Historical Overview

Introduction

Epidemiology

Etiology

Assessment Issues

Developmental Course

Treatment Issues

Challenges and Perspectives

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Attitude Change

Overview of Attitudes and Attitude Change

Two Routes to Attitude Change

Central Route Approaches to Attitude Change

Peripheral Route Approaches

A Dual Process Approach to Understanding Attitude Change

Consequences of Attitude Changes Produced by Different Processes

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Attitude Formation

Introduction and Relevant Distinctions

Origins

Additional Considerations

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Attribution

Introduction

Classical Theories

Biases

Automatic and Controlled Components

Perceiver Differences

Implications

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Perspective

Diagnosis

Prevalence

Etiology

Treatment Challenges

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Autobiographical Remembering and the Self

Is Autobiographical Memory Necessary for Individuals to Experience a Sense of Personal Identity?

Does the Self Direct, Affect, or Alter the Content of the Autobiographical Memories That Can Be Recalled?

Mechanisms that May be Related to the Recall of Events from the Personal Past

Coda

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Avoidant Personality Disorder

Introduction

Diagnosis

DSM Definition and Criteria

ICD Definition and Criteria

ICD-11, DSM-5, and the Future of APD

Comorbidity

Are APD and Social Phobia Separate Disorders?

APD and Other Personality Disorders

Stability and Course

Interpersonal Experiences, Development, and Risk for APD

Treatment

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Behavior Analysis

Introduction

Basic Principles of Behavior

The Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Applied Behavior Analysis

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Behavior Genetics of Personality

Introduction

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Personality Traits

Multivariate Modeling of Personality

Environmental Influences

Summary

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Behavior Measurement in Psychobiological Research

Introduction

Some Principles of Multilevel Measurement of Behavior

Application of Psychophysiological Measurement

Measurement of Autonomic Nervous System Function in Neurobehavioral Processes

Psychophysiological Relations

Inference in Psychophysiological Measurement

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Behavioral Economics

Introduction

Decision Theories

Heuristics and Biases

Mental Accounting and Framing

Emotions

Fairness and Reciprocity

Time Discounting

Neuroeconomics

Behavioral Game Theory

Liberalism and Paternalism

Brief Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Behavioral Genetics

Introduction

Evolution and Mendelian Genetics

Population Genetics

Quantitative Genetics

Molecular Genetics

Behavioral Genetics and Psychology

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Behavioral Medicine

Introduction

Brief Historical Context

Understanding Interactive Pathways of Disease

Behavioral Interventions

Challenges in Behavioral Medicine

Innovations in Behavioral Medicine

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Behavioral Pharmacology

History of Behavioral Pharmacology

Environmental Influences on Drug Effects

Drugs as Discriminative Stimuli

Drugs as Reinforcing Stimuli

Conditioned Drug Effects

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

The Behavior-Genetics of Intelligence

Behavioral Genetics Methods

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Big Five Model and Personality Disorders

Advantages of Integrating DSM-IV-TR with the Big Five

Scientific Foundation

FFM Personality Disorder Diagnosis

Feasibility

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Bilingualism and Multilingualism

Introduction

Pathways to Bilingualism and Multilingualism

Factors Contributing to the Success or Failure of Becoming Bilingual and Multilingual

What Does it Mean to Be Bilingual or Multilingual?

Conclusion

Glossary

Further Reading

Biofeedback Therapy

Underlying Learning Theory and Biologic Mechanism

Early Development

Methods

Clinical Applications

Glossary

Further Reading

Bipolar Disorder

Mechanism

Prevention

Medications

Mood Stabilizers

Age of Onset

Medication and Mood Stabilization

Perceptual Rivalry and Interhemispheric Switching

Jet Lag

Bipolar I Versus Bipolar II

Famous Bipolars

fMRI

Conclusion

Glossary

Further Reading

Birth Order, Effect on Personality, and Behavior

Introduction

Parental Investment

Sibling Competition

Personality: The Big Five

Birth Order and Behavior

Some Methodological Issues

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Review

Introduction

Clinical Characteristics

Gender Differences

Diagnosing BDD

Comorbidity

Relationship to Other Mental Illnesses

Neurobiology

Treatment

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Body Image

Introduction

History

Theories of Body Image Disturbance

Risk Factors for Negative Body Image

Gender Differences

Assessment of Body Image and Body Image Disturbance

Treatment and Prevention

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Borderline Personality Disorder

Clinical Features and Diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder

Epidemiology and Cross-Cultural Prevalence

Etiology: Biological, Psychological, and Social

Course and Prognosis

Treatment

Chronic Suicidality in BPD

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

The Brain

Anatomical Organization of the Brain

Functional Organization of the Brain

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Brain and Behavior Relationships

Historical Background

Principles of Behavioral Neuroanatomy

Chemical and Neural Basis of Behavior

Cognitive–Behavioral Neuroanatomy

Neuropsychiatry

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Brain Chemicals: Global Projections of Ancient Aromatic Neurotransmitters

Introduction

Aromatic Chemicals

Biosynthesis of Aromatic Amino Acids

Derivatives of Aromatic Neurotransmitters

Homeostasis

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Brainwashing and Totalitarian Influence

Uses of the Term

The Mythic Definition: Induced by Exotic Techniques

The Social–Psychological Definition: Coercive Persuasion Through Mundane Social Influences

Theories of Brainwashing

Difficulties with the Scientific Study of Brainwashing

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Bulimia Nervosa

Introduction

Clinical Characteristics

Epidemiology

Longitudinal Course

Psychotherapy

Pharmacothearpy

Psychobiology

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Bullying

Definition

Prevalence

Development

Impact

Gender Differences

Cyberbullying

Workplace Bullying and Sexual Harassment

Intimate Partner Aggression

Cycle of Aggression

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Caffeine

Introduction

Sources and Consumption of Caffeine

Physiology of Caffeine

Affective, Behavioral, and Cognitive Effects of Caffeine

Caffeine as a Tool for Psychological Research

Conclusion

Glossary

Further Reading

Career Development

How It Began

History of Career Development

Life Stages and Career Theories

Measuring Vocational Interests

Holland’s Approach to Career Development

Values and Career Development

Life Stages

The Theory of Work Adjustment

Social, Economic, and Technological Influences on Career Development

Issues Involved in Choice

Comparison of Theories

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Catecholamines and Behavior

Introduction

What are Catecholamines?

Measurement of Catecholamines

Catecholamines and Stress

Catecholamines and Mood

Learning and Reward

Movement

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Central Auditory Processing Disorders

Introduction

Neural Architecture of Central Auditory Processing

CAPD: Diagnostic Considerations

Central Deafness

General Auditory Agnosia

Verbal Auditory Agnosia

Nonverbal Auditory Agnosia

Idiopathic Acquired CAPD

Etiologic Heterogeneity/Diversity

Developmental CAPD

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Central Nervous System

Neuroanatomy

Behavior

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Child Abuse

Introduction

Attachment

Types of Child Abuse

Human Trafficking and Exploitation

Risk Factors and Protective Factors

Treatment and Support

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Childhood Mental Disorders

Introduction

Anxiety Disorders

Mood Disorders

Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

Pervasive Developmental Disorders

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Chunking

Introduction

What Is Chunking?

The Purpose of Chunking

How Chunking Works

How Chunks Are Measured

Unresolved Issues

Concluding Remarks

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Classical Conditioning

Introduction

Terminology

Forms of Classical Conditioning

Human Examples

The Acquisition of Associative Strength in Classical Conditioning

Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

The Clinical and Cognitive Psychology of Conflict

The Motivational Aspects of Conflicts

The Unconscious and Emotional Aspects of Conflicts

The Bodily Effects of Stressful Conflicts

The Cognitive and Executive Aspects of Conflict

Positive Psychology

Resolving Social Conflict

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Clinical Assessment

The Guiding Role of Practice Theories

Sign and Sample Approaches: Diagnosis and Assessment

A Contextual Evidence-Informed Assessment

Sources of Influence

Sources of Information

Assessing the Value of Data

The Social Context of Assessment

Common Assessment Errors and Their Sources

Ethical Issues and Future Directions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Clinical Psychology: An Information Processing Approach

Introduction

Overview of the Information Processing Paradigm

Evolution of the IP Paradigm Within Clinical Psychology

Significance of the IP Paradigm to Clinical Psychology

Emotional Disorders and Information Processing Biases

Clinical Applicability of Information Processing Models and Treatments

The Self-Regulatory Model of Executive Dysfunction in Emotional Disorders

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Cognition and Personality

Introduction and Historical Context

Personality Traits, Information Processing, and Performance

Toward Cognitive Theories of Personality Effects

Further Research Directions

An Integrative Perspective on Personality and Cognition

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Introduction

What Is CBT?

The Third Wave of Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Cognitive Bias

Heuristics and Biases: A Short History of Cognitive Bias

Ecological Rationality: Putting Cognitive Biases in an Environmental Context

Evolutionary Rationality: Understanding Why Cognitive Biases Occur

Examples of Research on Cognitive Biases

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Cognitive Disorders

What Are Cognitive Disorders?

How Do We Recognize and Treat Delirium?

How Do We Recognize and Treat Amnestic Disorders?

How Do We Recognize and Treat Dementia?

Differential Diagnoses of Cognitive Disorders

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

The Original Version of the Theory

Experimental Paradigms Used to Test the Theory

Challenges to the Research and Original Theory

Action-Based Model of Dissonance

Experimental Tests of the Action-Based Model

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Comparative Primate Psychology

Evolutionary Foundations of Comparative Primate Psychology

History of Comparative Primate Psychology

Comparative Primate Cognition

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Competition

Competition

The Social Function of Competition

Dominance and Competition

Sex Differences in Competition

Competition and Behavioral Economics

Conclusions and Current Research Trends

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Confabulation and Reality Filtering

Definition

Forms of Confabulation

Disorders Associated with Confabulation

Etiologies and Anatomy of Confabulations

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Conflict Communication

The System–Behavior–Interactionist Approach to the Study of Conflict Communication Behavior

The Rules–Interventionist Approach to Mediated Conflict Communication Rules

The Cognitive Approach to the Study of Conflict Communication Strategies

The Qualitative Research Approach to the Study of Conflict Communication Perceptual and Evaluative Processes

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Conformity and Obedience

Conformity

Mechanisms Underlying Conformity

Minority Influence

Mechanisms Underlying Nonconformity

Types of Conformity and Nonconformity

General Relational Norms Versus Context-Specific Norms

Obedience

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Consumer Psychology

Core Principles of Consumer Psychology

Managerial Applications of Consumer Psychology

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Coping

Introduction

Theories of Coping

Coping Strategies

Coping Resources

Some Additional Factors

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Creative and Imaginative Thinking

Introduction

Defining Creativity and Imagination

Stage Theories

Uncontrolled Cognition and Creative Syntheses

Extra- and Meta-Cognitive Processes

Conclusions

Glossary

Further Reading

Creativity

Definitions of Creativity

Methods of Studying Creativity

Stages of Creativity

Intelligence and Creativity

Divergent and Convergent Thinking in the Assessment of Creativity

Neurological Diseases, the Right Hemisphere, and Creativity

The Role of the Frontal Lobes and the Influence of Dopamine on Creativity

The Role of White Matter Connectivity in Creativity

Relaxation, Depression, and Creativity

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Crisis Management

Introduction

Definition of Crisis

Detection of Potential Crises

Preparation and Prevention of Crises

When a Crisis Happens

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Cross-Cultural Adaptation

Background

The Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation

Factors Influencing the Process

Facets of Adaptive Change

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Crowd Psychology

Introduction

Classic Crowd Science: A Tale of Loss

Crowd Patterns and Crowd Norms

The Social Identity Model and Intragroup Dynamics in Crowds

The Elaborated Social Identity Model and Intergroup Dynamics in Crowds

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Crowding: Effects on Health and Behavior

Distinction Between Density and Crowding

Role of Social and Personal Characteristics

Effects of Crowding on Health and Behavior

Explaining the Negative Effects of Crowding

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Cultural Psychology

Core Premises of Cultural Psychology

Research Traditions and Findings

Cultural Neuroscience

Challenges

Promise of Cultural Psychology

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Decision Making (Individuals)

Introduction

History: Expected Value, Expected Utility, and Prospect Theory

Contemporary Approaches

Emotional Influences on Decision Making

The Neuroscience of Decision Making

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Defense Mechanisms

Freud’s Discovery of the Concept of Defense

Modern Conceptualizations of Defense

Identification of Defenses

See also

Further Reading

Delusions

Introduction

Delusions Defined?

Perception

Cognition

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Dependent Personality (Disorder)

Antecedent Validators for Dependent Personality Disorder

Predictive Validators and Treatment for Dependent Personality Disorder

Concurrent Validators for Dependent Personality Disorder

Dependent Personality Disorder and Trait Dependency

Trait Dependency, Temperament, and Normal Personality

Models of Dependency

Detachment/Autonomy

Dependency and the DSM

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Depression

Depression

Definition of Depression

Classification of Mood Disorders

Epidemiology

Theories of Depression

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Depth Perception

Introduction

Specialized Mechanisms for Near Distance

General Mechanisms for Near and Far Distance

Depth Perception in the Brain

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Developmental Psychopathology

Introduction

Key Concepts, Principles, and Challenges

Applied Example: Antisocial Behavior

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Disgust

Introduction

Attempts at Explanation

The Problem of Parasites

Disgust of Unfamiliar Food

Moral Disgust

Explaining Disgust

Disgust and Its Uses

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Dissociative Disorders

Dissociation

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Divorce

The Extent of Divorce

The Causes of Divorce

Consequences of Divorce

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Drugs, the Brain, and Behavior

Introduction

Caffeine

Nicotine

Sedative-Hypnotics

Cocaine

Amphetamine

Opioids

Cannabinoids

Psychedelics or Hallucinogens

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine

Nitrous Oxide

Dissociative Anesthetics

Anticholinergics

Salvia divinorum

Antipsychotics

Antidepressants

Mood Stabilizers

Drugs and the Brain

Withdrawal, Dependence, and Addiction

Drugs and the Mind

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Dyslexia

Models of Reading

What Is Dyslexia?

The Discrepancy Definition

What Is Reading Comprehension Impairment?

Prevalence

Referral Routes and Assessment

Causes of RDs

Cognitive Explanations

Biological Bases

Environment

Development

Comorbidities

Interventions

Future Directions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

A Brief History of EDNOS

Current Definition of EDNOS

Epidemiology and Significance of EDNOS

Assessment of EDNOS

Treatment of EDNOS

Problems with the EDNOS Diagnosis

Current Trends

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Ecological Psychology

Ecology in the Biological Sciences

Ecological Approaches in Psychology

Gibson’s Ecological Psychology

Barker’s Ecological Psychology

Future of Ecological Psychology

Present Status and Future of Gibson’s Approach

Present Status and Future of Barker’s Approach

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Electroconvulsive Therapy and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Electroconvulsive Therapy

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Electroencephalography

Window on the Mind

Sources of Scalp Potentials

Volume Conduction of Head Currents

Recording Methods

Time Dependence

Topography

Dynamic Behavior of Sources

Glossary

Further Reading

Embarrassment and Blushing

Introduction

Theoretical Explanations for Embarrassment and Blushing

Causes of Embarrassment and Blushing

Blushing and the Expression of Embarrassment

Individual Differences in Embarrassment

Face Saving and Embarrassment

Observer Reactions

Coping with Blushing

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Empathy

Empathy as Knowing or Understanding Another’s Internal States

Empathy as Feeling What Another is Feeling

Empathy as Being Upset by Another’s Situation

Empathy as Feeling for Another

Empathy as Matching Another’s Overt Responses

Empathy as a Personality Characteristic

Sex Differences in Empathy

Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Consequences of Empathy

Empathy, Accuracy, and Social Relationships

Empathy and Attributions

Empathy and Attitudes

Implications and Future Directions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Empirical Challenges to Conventional Mind–Brain Theory

Introduction

Extreme Psychophysiological Influence

Extremes of Informational Capacity and Precision

Memory

Psychological Automatisms and Secondary Centers of Consciousness

Psi Phenomena

Genius-Level Creativity

Mystical Experience

The Unity of Conscious Experience

The Heart of the Mind

Conclusion: Toward an Expanded Scientific Psychology

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Environmental Cognition

Introduction

The Nature of Stored Spatial Information: Analog, Propositional, or Both?

The Way the Brain Acquires, Stores, and Handles Environmental Information. Can We Identify Key Structures?

Cognitive Maps in Animals and Humans as Drivers of Action

Direct and Indirect Sources of Information About the Person’s Environment

Communicating and Sharing Environmental Information

The Development of Environmental Competence

Wayfinding, Becoming Lost, and Signage

The Legibility of Places

Environmental Cognition Without Sight; and Devices for the Blind

Individual, Specialist, and Cultural Differences in Environmental Cognition

Electronic and Other Devices for Storing and Using Environmental Information

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Environmental Psychology

Background, Theory, and Method

Environmental Perception

Environmental Cognition

Environmental Appraisal

Environmental Assessment

Environmental Personality

Personal Space

Human Territoriality

Crowding and Population Density

Privacy

Home and Community Settings

Work and Travel Settings

Learning Environments

Architectural Psychology

Resource Management

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Episodic and Semantic Systems of Autobiographical Memory

Episodic Versus Semantic Autobiographical Memories

Basic Phenomena in Autobiographical Remembering

Maintaining and Updating Semantic Self-Knowledge

Coincidental and Motivated Autobiographical Memory Errors

Sources of Inaccuracy in Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Episodic Memory

The Episodic Memory System

Episodic Memory Tasks

Episodic Memory Processes and Subjective Awareness

The Past Orientation of Episodic Memory

Emotions

Dissociations among Memory Systems

The Neuroscience of Episodic Memory

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Equity Theory

The Nature of Equity

Equity Theory

Current Research: A Multidisciplinary Approach

Equity in Love Relationships

Equity in Work Settings

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)

Introduction

The Neurophysiological and Physical Origins of ERPs

Measurement and Analysis of ERPs

ERPs and Psychological Processes

Source Analysis

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Evidence-Based Practice

Introduction

Terminology, Rationale, and Tools for EBP

Conceptual Model of EBP: Three Circles

Roles in EBP

The EBP Process

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Evolutionary Clinical Psychology

Introduction

Defining Psychopathology

Etiology of Psychopathology

Specific Disorders

Evolutionary Informed Psychological Treatments

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Evolutionary Developmental Psychology

Evolutionary Developmental Psychology

Evolutionary Psychology and Developmental Systems Theory

Applications of EDP

Adaptive Individual Differences

Concluding Remarks

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Evolutionary Personality Psychology

Introduction

Directional Social Selection

Disruptive Social Selection

Genetic Diversification

Developmental Plasticity

Behavioral Flexibility

Conclusion: An Integrated Overview

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Evolutionary Psychology

Principles of EP

Research in EP

Controversies in EP

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Evolutionary Social Psychology

Evolutionary Social Psychology

Multiple Levels of Causal Analysis

Historical Background of Evolutionary Social Psychology

Life History, Parental Investment, and Sexual Selection

Evolutionary History and Human Relationships

Evolution and Social Information Processing

Social Dynamics and the Emergence of Culture: The Mind as a Coloring Book

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Exercise and Sport Psychology

Introduction

A Definition of Exercise and Sport Psychology

The Origins of Sport Psychology

Sport Psychology Professional Organizations

What Do Sport Psychologists Do?

Why Sport Psychology?

Major Challenges Within Sport Psychology

The Future of Sport Psychology

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Expectation

Definition and Types of Expectations

Role of Expectations in Human Behavior

Sources

Measurement

Accuracy and Biases

Meta-Characteristics

Cognitive Effects of Expectations

Expectations and Verbal Communication

Expectations Affect Reality

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Extraversion–Introversion

Extraversion: An Overview

History

Contemporary Views of Extraversion

The Measurement of Extraversion

The Basis of Extraversion

Hereditary Influences

The Link Between Biology and Extraversion

Cross-Cultural Research into Extraversion

Drug Studies and Extraversion

Extraversion and Other Personality Factors

Extraversion and Social Behavior

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Eye Movements

Functions of Eye Movements

Types of Eye Movements

Eye Movements and Attention

Evolution and Anatomy of the Eye Movement System

Eye Movements in Sleep

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Eyewitness Identification

Introduction

Memory

General Overview

Weapon Focus

Stress

Confidence/Malleability

Facial Recognition

Lineups

Court Remedies

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Facial Expression of Emotion

Introduction

Emotion: A Complex and Multidimensional Phenomenon

From the Brain to the Face: An Emotional Journey

Facial Expression: From Universality to Cultural Influences

Facial Expression: Its Contribution to the Study of the Emotions

Emotion Manifested on the Face: Some Theories Compared

Macroexpression and Microexpression

Neuromuscular Structure and Facial Expression

The Face: Moderating Variables

Truth and Falsehood in Facial Expression

Psychosocial Implications and Applications

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Family Systems

Family Systems Theory

Systems Theory

The Development of Family Systems Theory

Glossary

Further Reading

Forensic Psychology in Contemporary Society

Forensic Psychology: Background and Contributions

Professional Training

The Role of the Forensic Psychologist

Predictions of Dangerousness

Commitment

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Free Will

Libertarianism

Determinism

Compatibilism

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Friendship

Friendship Formation

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Overview

Phenomenology of GAD

Conceptual Models of GAD

Treatment of GAD

Conclusion and Future Directions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Genius, Eminence, and Giftedness

Historical Legacies

Childhood Giftedness

Adulthood Genius

Adulthood Eminence

Putting the Pieces Together

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Gerotechnology

Introduction

Gerontechnology Defined

The Time for Gerontechnology Has Arrived

The Technology and Aging Imperative

Theoretical Contexts for Technology and Aging

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Gestalt Psychology and the Development of Perceptual Organization

Traditional Views on the Development of Perceptual Organization

Initial Empirical Efforts and Their Theoretical Implications

Progress on the Classic Grouping Principles

Progress on New Grouping Principles

Progress on the Special Case of Form Similarity

Progress on Understanding the Deployment of Lightness and Form Similarity: Automatic Versus Constructivist Grouping

Theoretical Progress

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Gestures

Introduction

Gesture and Speech

Emotions and Interpersonal Attitudes

The Role of Gesture in Interpersonal Communication

Conclusions

Glossary

Further Reading

Glial Cells

The Predominant Cells in the Brain are Glia

Functions of Glia

Glossary

Further Reading

Grandparenthood

Introduction

A Life Course Perspective on Grandparents

Grandparents and Divorce

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Grief and Bereavement

Introduction

Symptoms and Course of Grief

Health Consequences

Risk Factors

Measurement: Normal and Complicated Grief

Forms of Intervention: Counseling and Therapy

The Efficacy of Intervention

Theoretical Approaches

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Group Dynamics

Major Characteristics of Groups

Influence Processes in Groups

Working in Groups

Group Decision-Making

Influence of Individuals on Groups

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Hallucinations

Introduction

Classification of Hallucinations by Proposed Mechanism

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Handedness

Historical and Sociological Overview

Early Research on Handedness

Modern Research on Handedness

Measurement of Handedness

Handedness and Other Lateral Preferences

Handedness in Nonhumans

A New Approach to Handedness: Degree, Not Direction

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Hippocampal Formation

Introduction

A Seahorse in the Brain: Anatomy

Spikes and Waves: Physiology

Maps and Compasses: Neural Coding

Mapping, Declaring, Relating, Binding, Constructing: Theories of Function

Dying Cells: Pathology

New Birth: Adult Neurogenesis and Morphological Change

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

History of Film and Music

Introduction

Semantic Differential

Visual Information

Auditory Versus Visual Information

Music, Film, and Association

Music, Film, and Structure

Music, Film, and Emotion

Music, Film, and Memory

Music, Film, and Closure

Music, Film, and Plot Continuation

Music, Film, and Sound Quality

Physiological Affect

Music, Film, and Affect

Music, Film, and Meaning

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Histrionic Personality Disorder

Description

History

Prevalence and Demographics

Co-occurrence and Comorbidity

Assessment

Etiology

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

HIV/AIDS: The Role of Behavior and the Social Environment in a Global Pandemic

Introduction

History and Epidemiology of HIV

Understanding the Role of Behavior

Evolving Prevention Responses

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Homeostasis

Introduction

History of Homeostasis

Current Concepts in Homeostasis

Homeostatic Control Systems

Examples of Homeostasis

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Homicide

The Epidemiology of Homicide

Theories of Homicide

Deterring Homicide

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Hope and Optimism

Definitions

Leading Standardized Measures

Adaptive Consequences

Possible Risks

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Hormones and Behavior

Introduction

Sexual Behavior

Male Sexual Behavior

Female Sexual Behavior

Sexual Dysfunction

Testosterone and Aggression

Parental Behavior

Sex Differences in Energy Homeostasis

Feeding Regulation by Estradiol

Sex Differences in Eating Disorders

Hormones and Cognition

The Stress Hormones and the Stress Response

Sex Differences in the Stress Response

Stress and Drug Abuse

Environmental Factors Influencing Hormones and Behavior

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Human Factors/Ergonomics

Introduction

A Brief History of HF/E

The Rise of Computer Influence in HF/E

Contemporary Issues in HF/E

On Being an HF/E Professional

Future Concerns of HF/E

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Human Intelligence

Theories of Intelligence

Development of Intelligence

Measuring Intelligence

Heritability and Malleability of Intelligence

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Human Mating

Introduction

Parental Investment Theory

Mating Systems

Homosexuality

Clash of the Sexes

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Hypnosis

Introduction

History of Hypnosis

Misconceptions About Hypnosis

Contemporary Theories and Research

Clinical and Forensic Aspects of Hypnosis

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Hypochondriasis or Health Anxiety

Introduction

Diagnostics and Prevalence

Treatment

Studies of Long-Term Follow-Up After Psychotherapy Has So Far Not Been Published

The Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Treatment

Discussion

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Id, Ego, and Superego

Freud in Context

The Cornerstone of Psychoanalysis

Evolution of Theory and the Emergence of the Tripartite Personality

Id, Ego, and Superego

Summary

Selected Post-Freudian Developments

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Implicit Memory

Early History

Indirect Memory Tests Reveal Implicit Memory

Implicit Memory Supports Priming

Varieties

Brain Basis of Implicit Memory

Other Priming Phenomena and Their Mechanisms

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Impression Formation

Introduction

Impression Formation at First Glance

Impression Formation over Time

Biases in Impression Formation

Automatic and Controlled Aspects of Impression Formation

Neural Correlates of Impression Formation

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Individual Differences in Temperament: Definition, Measurement, and Outcomes

Introduction

What Is Temperament? Psychological and Physiological Perspectives

How Is Temperament Measured? Subjective, Behavioral, and Physiological Measures

What Determines Temperament? Behavioral and Molecular Genetic Investigations

How Does Temperament Predict Developmental Outcome? Risk and Resilience

What Does the Future Hold? Moving Forward

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Individualism

Individualism

Defining Individualism and Collectivism

Cultural Variation in Mentality

Antecedents of Individualism and Collectivism

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Inner Speech

Overview

Theoretical Themes

Methodology of Research

Development of Inner Speech

Characteristics of Inner Speech

Neuroanatomy

Functions

Dysfunctional Inner Speech

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Intellectual Disabilities

Issues Related to Intellectual Disabilities

Defining and Classifying Intellectual Disability

Genetic Etiology

Dual Diagnosis

Interventions

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Intention

Introduction

Understanding the Intentions of Others: Developmental Milestones

Understanding Our Own Intentions

Failures of Intention

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Internet Behavior

Introduction

Demographics and Social Use of ICT

Types of Online Social Environments and Tools

Psychological Aspects of Online Social Environments

Effects of Online Social Environments on Behavior

Managing Impressions

Online Deceptions

Online Group Dynamics

Conclusions and Looking Ahead

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Interpersonal Perception and Communication

Nonverbal Communication

Attributions for Others’ Behaviors

Person Perception and Communication

Communicating About Oneself to Others

Expectancy Effects

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Interpersonal Psychotherapy

Depression

Theoretical and Empirical Background

Life Events

Focus and Techniques of IPT

Treatment Phases

Efficacy Review

Practical Training in IPT

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Jealousy

Problems in Defining Jealousy

Meanings of Jealousy and Methods for Its Study

Jealousy in Comparative Perspective

Jealousy and the Law

Jealousy in Social History: Traditional to Victorian

The Twentieth Century Dynamic: The Sibling Jealousy Crisis

Adult Jealousy: New Standards

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Judgment

Psychophysics

Signal Detection Theory

Higher Order Judgments

Judgments and Decision Making

Heuristics

Conclusion

Glossary

Further Reading

Jury Psychology

Rendering the Venire

Jury Selection

Courtroom Influences

Jury Psychodynamics

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Kinship

Kinship and Kindness

Kinship, Mating, and Marriage

Kinship in Mind

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Language Development

The Components of Language

Language Development Over the Life Span

Theories of Language Development

The Biological Bases of Language

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Leadership

Introduction

What Is Leadership?

Leadership and Levels of Analysis

Leadership Antecedents and Consequences

Classical Leadership Views

Contemporary Leadership Views

Alternative Leadership Views

New Wave Leadership Views

Applications for Effective Leadership

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Learned Helplessness

Definition

Initial Findings

The Initial Learned Helplessness Theory

Critique and Reformulation

The Neurobiology of Learned Helplessness

Effects of Learned Helplessness

Assessing Learned Helplessness

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Leisure*

A Brief History of Leisure

Time

Activity/Recreation

State of Mind

Places and Spaces

Cultural Context

Expanding Leisure Meanings

Expanding Leisure Opportunities

The Potential of Leisure

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Logic: Development of Logical Operations

The Logic of High Cognition Versus Low Cognition

Other Compatible Ways of Conceiving the Origin of Logic

A Psychological Construct: The Organismic-Scheme Unit

Development of Logical Operations: Developmental Stages

Levels of Mental Operations According to Piaget and Neo-Piagetians

Logical Reasoning in Adolescence and Adulthood

Final Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Love and Intimacy

Defining and Measuring Love

Passionate Love

Companionate Love and Intimacy

The Endurance of Love

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Marital Dysfunction

Introduction

Defining and Assessing Marital Dysfunction

Impact of Marital Distress

Determinants of Marital Distress

Treatment of Marital Dysfunction

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Mate Selection

Introduction

Perspectives

Relationship Selection

Long-Term Mate Preferences

Short-Term Mate Preferences

Ovulatory Effects

Same-Sex Mate Preferences

Actual Mate Choices

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Media Influence on Behavior

What Is Media Influence?

Media Influence Processes

Effects of Violence in Media

Other Media Effects

Regulating Media Influence

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Meditation: The Science and the Art

Introduction

The Science of Meditation

Description of Kundalini Yoga Meditation Techniques

Descriptions of Other Popular Meditation Techniques

The Art of the Practice and the Application of the Techniques

The Development of a Personal Practice

The Clinical Application of Techniques for Patient Populations

Summary

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Memory

Introduction

Types of Memory

Organization of Long-Term Memory

Reminding

Explicit and Implicit Memory

Evidence from Amnesia

Permanence of Memories

Evidence for the Transience of Memory

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Memory, Neural Substrates

Introduction

Terms and Paradigms

Multiple Memory Systems in the Brain

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Mental Imagery

Introduction

Brief History

Using Cognitive Neuroscience to Study Visual Mental Imagery

Shared Neural Systems Between Visual Mental Imagery and Visual Perception

Summary and Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Military Psychology

History

Industrial–Organizational Psychology

Social Psychology

Applied Experimental Psychology

Clinical/Counseling Psychology

Recent Developments

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

The Mind–Body Problem

What Is the Problem?

The Mind–Body Problem in the Context of Western Science

Attempts to Bridge the Gap

Toward a Revolution in the Mind Sciences

Toward an Empirical Science of the Subjective

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

The Mirror Mechanism

Introduction

The Mirror Mechanism in Monkeys

The Mirror Mechanism in Humans

A General Overview

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Molecular Genetics and Human Behavior

The Conceptual Foundations of Gene Theory

Traditional Quantitative Behavioral Genetics

A Developmental Systems Perspective on the Role of Genes in Development

The Impasse Between Genocentric and Developmental Systems Perspectives

Contemporary Molecular Behavioral Genetics

Genes and Development

Molecular Behavioral Genetics

Further Reading

Moral Development

A Historical Overview

Piaget’s Theory

Kohlberg’s Theory

New Directions

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Moral Emotions

Defining Moral Emotions

Theoretical Model of Moral Emotions

Moral Emotions Research

Moral Emotions and Social Behavior

Educating Moral Emotions

Summary and Future Directions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Motivation

Introduction

Approach and Avoidance Motivation

Implicit Motives

Explicit Motivation: The Self-Concept, Goals, and Values

Interactions Between Implicit and Explicit Levels of Motivation

Learning and Performance Goals

Self-Determination Theory and Basic Needs

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Motor Control

How Does Movement Take Place?

General Control Modes

Central and Sensory/Perceptual Elements in Motor Control

Movement Constraints: Computational Simplification

Motor Control Flexibility and Goal Accomplishment

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Near-Death Experiences

Introduction

Phenomenology of NDEs

Aftereffects of NDEs

Psychological Models of NDEs

Comparison of NDEs to Psychopathological Conditions

Physiological Models of NDEs

NDEs in Anesthesia and Cardiac Arrest

Implications of NDEs for the Mind–Brain Problem

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Negotiation

The General Negotiation Paradigm

Issues, Offers, and Outcomes of Negotiation

Strategies and Tactics

Psychological Antecedents of Negotiation Strategy

Social Antecedents of Negotiation Strategy

Expanding the General Negotiation Paradigm

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Neuroesthetics: The Body in Esthetic Experience

Introduction

An Historical Perspective: Einfühlung and Esthetic Experience

Neuroesthetics: Explicit Appraisal and Reward

Neuroesthetics: Embodied Approaches

Conclusions

Glossary

Further Reading

Neuroethics

Neuroscience: The Self, Free Will, and Responsibility

Brain Research, Treatment, and Enhancement

A Neuroscientific Understanding of Moral Judgment and Action

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Neuroexecutive Function

What Is Brain Executive Function?

History of the Executive Concept

Top-Down Cognitive Control

Recent Neuroimaging Studies

Clinical Disorders of Executive Functions

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Neuroimaging of Dementia

Introduction

Neuroimaging to Diagnose Dementia Caused by Nondegenerative Disorders

Neuroimaging to Distinguish the Various Degenerative Dementing Processes

Alzheimer’s Disease

Lewy-body dementia

Frontotemporal dementias, corticobasal degeneration

Use of Neuroimaging for Dementia Research and in the Evaluation of New Therapies

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Neurotechnologies

Introduction

Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

Positron Emission Tomography

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Magnetoencephalography

Combination Methods

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Neurotheology

Introduction

Defining Neurotheology

Brain Functions and Theological Argument

Reflections on Major Topics of Neuroscience

Reflections on Major Topics of Theology

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Nonverbal Communication

Introduction

Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication

Components and Patterns

Determinants

Functions

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

Nature of Symptoms

Epidemiology

Comorbidity

Differential Diagnosis

Models of Development and Maintenance of OCD Symptoms

Treatment

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder

Diagnosis

Assessment

Etiology

Epidemiology

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Operant Conditioning

Basic Concepts

The Nature of Reinforcement

Learning Phenomena

Conditioned Reinforcement

Choice

Other Issues

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Organizational Behavior

Microorganizational Behavior

Macroorganizational Behavior

Context Effects

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Our Cognitive Map

Structure and Form of Our Cognitive Map

Building Our Cognitive Map

The Future of Our Cognitive Map

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Pain

Anatomy and Neurochemistry of Pain

The Psychobiology of Pain

The Theories of Pain

Clinical Implications of Pain

Genetics

Assessment of Pain Therapy

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Paranoia

Paranoid Syndromes

Prevalence

Causes of Paranoia

Treatment of Paranoia

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Parenting

Parenting Goals

Parenting and Emotions

Indexes of Relational Quality

Parental Control

Parenting Practices

The Influence of the Child on Parenting

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant websites

Parent–Offspring Conflict

Historical Perspectives on Parent–Offspring Conflict

A Developmental Overview of Parent–Offspring Conflict

Atypical Parent–Offspring Conflict

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Peer Relationships and Influence in Childhood

Introduction

Theoretical Perspectives

Friendships

Groups

Peer Acceptance and Rejection

Culture and Peer Relationships

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Perceived Control

Historical Development of Perceived Control

Perspectives and Approaches to Studying Perceived Control

Antecedents of Control

Consequences of Control

Complexities, Controversies, and Challenges

Concluding Comments

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Perceptual Development

Constructivist and Ecological Views of Perceptual Knowledge Development

Perceptual Processing Research in Infancy

Perceptual Development Beyond Infancy

Questions and Controversies Concerning Perceptual Knowledge Development

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Personal Relationships in Everyday Life

The Study of Personal Relationships

The Provisions of Relationships

Mental Models of Relationships: Childhood Experience and Adulthood

Strategies in Developing and Maintaining Relationships

The Role of Outsiders in Relationship Activity

Organization of Roles and Time Management

The Role of Daily Life and Everyday Talk

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Personality Assessment

Measurement Models in Personality Assessment

The History of Personality Assessment

Evaluating Personality Measures

Personality Assessment and Personality Theory

Applied Uses of Personality Assessment

Final Comments

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Personality Development

Considering Personality at Multiple Levels

Defining Different Types of Stability and Change

Early Emerging Personality Attributes: Child Temperament

Mean-Level and Rank-Order Stability of the Big Five Across the Life Span

What Mechanisms Account for Personality Stability and Change?

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Personality Development and Aging

Introduction

Personality Traits as Units of Analysis

A Lifespan Development Perspective

Different Types of Change and Stability

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Personality Disorders

Personality Disorder Diagnosis: DSM and ICD Classifications

Paranoid Personality Disorder

Schizoid Personality Disorder

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Histrionic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Borderline Personality Disorder

Avoidant Personality Disorder

Dependent Personality Disorder

Obsessive–Compulsive Personality Disorder

Looking Forward

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Personality, Structure

Major Models of Personality and Trait Affect

Development of a Consensual Hierarchical Structure

Personality Superfactors

Lower Order Traits

Clinical Traits in the Personality Hierarchy

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Persuasion

Persuasion Attempts

Two Routes to Persuasion

Attitude Strength

Resistance

Dissonance: Persuasion from Behavior

Application: Problem of Sustainable Behavior Change in Health Communication

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Phobias

Overview of Specific Phobias

Phenomenology of Specific Phobias

Theoretical Perspectives on Specific Phobias

Treatment of Specific Phobias

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Phonetics

Why Study Phonetics?

A Brief Historical Perspective

Preliminaries to the Study of Phonetics

Articulatory and Acoustic Classification Schemes

Prosody and Suprasegmentals

Features and Feature Detection

Coarticulation

Experimental Phonetics

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Planning

Introduction

Elements of Planning

Early Research on Planning

Measures of Planning Ability

Social Cognitive Aspects of Planning

How to Set Effective Goals

Self-Improvement Plans: The New Year Resolution Fallacy

Delay Discounting

Construal Level and Procrastination

Self-Control and Ego Depletion

Circadian Rhythms

Implementation Intentions

Perfectionism

Planning Fallacy

Related Areas

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Play

Introduction

What Is Play?

Locomotor Play

Object Play

Social Play

Pretend Play

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Pornography

Defining Pornography

History and Content of Sexually Explicit Media

Consumption of Sexually Explicit Material

Effects of Sexually Explicit Material on Feelings, Beliefs, and Evaluations

Effects of Sexually Explicit Material: Behavior

General Summary and Critique

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Positive Psychology

Introduction

What Is Positive Psychology?

The Pillars of Positive Psychology

Well-Being Across Time and Culture

What Is the Good Life?

Applied Positive Psychology and Positive Interventions

Future Directions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

General Description

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) Conceptions

PTSD Criteria

Prevalence

Morbidity

Etiology

Treatment

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Preference Judgments (Individuals)

Introduction

How Rational Are Preference Judgments?

How Do Subjective Experiences Influence Preferences?

How Do Personality Factors Affect Preferences?

How Do Deliberation and (Un)Conscious Thought Affect Preferences?

How Well Do People Predict Their Preferences?

How Are Preferences Assessed?

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Prejudice, Discrimination, and Stereotypes (Racial Bias)

Overview

A Brief History of Research on Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

New Perspectives and Current Trends for Research on Prejudice and Stereotypes

The Effects of Prejudice and Stereotypes on the Self

Methods to Study Prejudice and Stereotypes

Reducing Prejudice

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Symptoms, Epidemiology, and Classification

Biopsychosocial Perspective of PMS

Assessment and Treatment of PMS

PMDD Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Quality of Life Impact

Biopsychosocial Perspective of PMDD

Assessment and Treatment of PMDD

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Primate Cognition

Introduction

Physical Cognition

Social Cognition

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Problem Solving

What Is a Problem?

What Is Problem Solving?

What Are the Cognitive Processes in Problem Solving?

What Kinds of Knowledge Are Required for Problem Solving?

What Are the Approaches to the Study of Problem Solving?

What Are Some Enduring Issues in Problem Solving?

Past and Future Research Trends

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: Theory and Practice

Post-Freudian Development of Theory

Object Relations Theory

Self-Psychology

Postmodernist Views

Attachment Theory

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Psychological Predictors of Heart Disease

Historical Perspective

Disease-Prone Personalities

Social Integration

Causal Mechanisms

Noncausal Effects

Self-Healing Personalities

Interventions

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Psychology and Religion

Psychology and Religion

History of Psychology and Religion

Major Methodological Stances in the Psychology of Religion

Major Content Areas in the Psychology of Religion

Controversial Issue in Psychology and Religion

Future Prospects

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Psychology of Reading

Introduction

Historical Review

Perceptual Processes in Reading

The Role of Phonology in Reading

Developmental Aspects of Reading

Dyslexia

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Psychology, Science, and Astrology

Psychology: The Scientific Study of Behavior

The Role of Theory in Science

Scientific Method

Astrology: An Example of Bad Science

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Psychopathology: Diagnosis, Assessment, and Classification

Definitional Issues: Abnormalcy Versus Normalcy

Theories of Cause

Classification and Diagnosis

Assessment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Psychophysics

Components of a Psychophysical Experiment

Classification of Psychophysical Experiments

Varieties of Psychophysical Procedure

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Psychotherapy

Introduction

Recipients of Psychotherapy

Basic Issues in Psychotherapy

Theoretical Orientations

Factors that Contribute to Therapeutic Success

Future Directions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Reading and Phonological Processing

Reading and Writing Exploit Distinctive Properties of Spoken Language

Alphabetic Writing and Syllabic Writing Convey Linguistic Messages Visually by Creating Symbols for the Meaningless Particles of Words

A Role for Phonology in Semantically Based, Nonsegmental Writing

Awareness of Phonemes, Key to Grasping the Alphabetic Principle

English Spelling Is a Hybrid, Based Only Partly on Phonology

Further Steps Toward Literacy

Dyslexia: A Phonological Deficit Affecting the Decoding of Print

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Reasoning

Reasoning and Logic

Developmental Theories of Logical Reasoning

Comparison and Conclusions Regarding the Theories

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Retirement

Introduction

History of Retirement

Definitions of Retirement

The Retirement Process

Self-Management

Retirement Planning

The Changing Nature of Retirement

How Do Future Generations View Retirement?

New Concepts of Later Life

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Risk-Compensating Behavior

Background

Theoretical Construct

Empirical Results: Driving Behavior

Concluding Remarks

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Risk-Taking Behavior (Young Male Syndrome)

Young Male Syndrome

Sex Differences in Risk-Taking

Age Differences in Risk-Taking

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Savant Syndrome

Introduction

What Is Savant Syndrome?

History of Savant Syndrome

How Common Are Savant Skills?

What Is the Source of Savant Talent?

How Is the Savant Brain Different?

Where Do Savant Skills Come From?

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Schizoid and Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Introduction

Schizoid Personality Disorder

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Schizophrenia

Introduction

Brief History of Schizophrenia

Prevalence and Gender Differences

Onset, Course, and Prognosis

Clinical Symptoms and Diagnosis

Etiological Theories

Treatment of Schizophrenia

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Selective Mutism

Diagnosis

Epidemiology

Relationship to Social Anxiety Disorder and Shyness

Oppositionality

Etiology

Assessment

Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Self-Defeating Behaviors

Maladaptive Cognitive Schemas

Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

Fear of Success

Learned Helplessness

Self-Handicapping Behaviors

Procrastination

Perfectionism

Failures in Self-Regulation

Self-Defeating Personality

Insecure Attachment Styles

Selective Attention and Memory

Difference from Psychiatric Disorders

Treatment

The Challenge of Treatment

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Self-Efficacy

Introduction

Defining Self-Efficacy

Self-Efficacy and Social Cognitive Theory

Sources of Self-Efficacy

Mechanisms of Self-Efficacy

Adaptive Benefits of Self-Efficacy Beliefs

Self-Efficacy Interventions

The Agentic Worldview of Self-Efficacy Theory

Impact of Self-Efficacy Theory on Psychology

Future Directions

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Self-Esteem

Self-Esteem Defined

Perspectives on Self-Esteem

Measurement

Self-Esteem and Responses to Failure

Self-Esteem-Related Motives: Self-Enhancement, Self-Verification, and Self-Protection

Development Across the Lifespan

Self-Esteem and Other Personality Dimensions

Emotions and Psychopathology

Self-Esteem and Other Real Life Outcomes

The ‘Dark Side’ of HSE

Relationship Functioning and Self-Esteem

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Introduction

Some Early Experiments

Teacher Expectation Effects

The Meta-Analytic Evidence for the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

The Practical Importance of Experimental Effects

The 10-Arrow Model

The Four-Factor ‘Theory’

Beyond Classrooms and Laboratories

Conclusion

Glossary

Further Reading

Self-Regulatory Skills and Behavior Change

Introduction

Leading Theories of Self-Regulation

Measurement of Self-Regulation in the Context of Behavior

Self-Regulation in the Context of Academic Performance

Self-Regulation in the Context of Health Behavior Change

Self-Regulation in the Context of Sport Performance

Self-Regulation and Coping Behaviors

Conclusions and Outlook

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Self-Relaxation

Relaxation as Reduced Arousal: The Relaxation Response

Neuropsychological Conceptualizations of Relaxation

Types of Relaxation

The Uses of Relaxation

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Semantic Memory

Semantic Memory Is One Type of Memory

Language, Concepts, Categories, and Semantic Networks

Knowledge and Generic Memory Encompass Semantic and Nonsemantic Memory

Knowledge, Priming, and Awareness

Standard Theory of the Semantic Memory System

Semantic Memory Includes Embodied (Grounded) Knowledge

Brain Basis of Knowledge

Frontal Lobe Controls Knowledge Encoding and Retrieval

Simulation, Mental Imagery, and Semantic Memory

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Sensation Seeking

Theoretical and Historical Background for SS

Measuring SS and Characterizing Sensation Seekers

Biological Correlates of Sensation Seeking

Social Influences on the Expression of SS

Conclusion: A Biosocial Model of SS

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sense of Smell

Introduction

The Olfactory Receptors

The Olfactory Bulbs

The Olfactory Cortex

Development of Olfactory Perception

Mammalian Pheromones

Factors That Influence the Ability to Smell in Adulthood

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sense of Taste (Effect on Behavior)

Concepts of Taste

Anatomical and Physiological Substrates in Taste Receptors

Lifespan Development of Taste (In Utero to Elderly)

Taste Disorders

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

The Sense of Touch

Sensors in the Skin

Touch in the Brain

Tactile Acuity

Form Perception

Texture Perception

Motion Perception

The Role of Touch in Object Manipulation and Tool Use

Pleasant Touch

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Sentence Processing

Sentence Structure

Structural Ambiguity

Incremental Processing

Models of Sentence Processing

Incomplete Processing

Sentence Complexity

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Separation Anxiety

Introduction

Clinical Description

Assessment

Differential Diagnosis

Separation Anxiety and School Refusal

Treatment

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Sex Differences

Introduction

Sexual Selection

Sexual Selection and Human Sex Differences

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Sex Roles

Further Definitions and Models

Gender Role Development Across the Life Span

Major Conflicts in the Field of Sex Role Research

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sexual Behavior

Before Puberty

Theoretical Interlude

Puberty and Afterward

Fetishes and Atypical Sexual Behavior

Sexual Problems

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Sign Languages

A Note on Modality Differences

Myths About Sign Languages

Linguistic Structure of Sign Languages

The Acquisition of Sign Languages

Brain Organization

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Sleep, Biological Rhythms, and Performance

Sleep Characteristics and Function

Circadian Rhythms

Sleep Need

Sleep Across the Lifespan

Sleep Deprivation and Performance

Factors Affecting the Impact of Sleepiness on Performance

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Sleep Disorders

Introduction

History of Sleep Medicine

Major Sleep Disorders

Testing in the Sleep Center

Management of Sleep Disorders

Social Implications

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Social Anxiety Disorder

Introduction

Description

Etiology

Prevention

Pharmacological Treatments

Psychological Treatments

Combined Pharmacotherapy and CBT

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Social Cognition

Introduction

Social Cognition, Traditional Social Psychology, and Cognitive Psychology

Historical Background and Intellectual Origins

The Structure and Processing of Social Information

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Social Comparison

Introduction

Festinger’s Original Social Comparison Theory

Directions and Motives

Milestones

Factors that Influence Comparisons

Applications to Health

Future Directions

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Social Development (Attachment, Imprinting)

Roots of Attachment Theory: Ethology and Imprinting

Early Social Connections – Building an Attachment Relationship

The Need for Attachment

Attachment Across Cultures

Individual Differences in Attachment Security

Early Experience and Attachment Security

Infant Characteristics and Attachment Security

Correlates and Sequelae of Early Attachment

Is Attachment Security Stable over Time?

The Attachment System in Childhood and Adolescence

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Social Exchange

Exchange Networks and Power

Types of Exchange

Solidarity

Trust

Future Directions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Social Loafing (and Facilitation)

Social Loafing

Social Facilitation

Integrating Social Loafing and Social Facilitation

Relationships with Other Phenomena

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Social Support

Types of Social Support

Relation of Social Support to Physical and Mental Health

Explaining the Positive Effects of Social Support

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Social Values (Influence on Behavior)

Defining Social Values

Problems Measuring Social Value Orientations

Decomposed Games

Interdependence and Social Values

The Logic of the Prisoners’ Dilemma

Research Findings on Social Value Orientations

When Social Value Orientations Do Not Make a Difference

Origins of Social Value Orientations

Conclusions

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Socioemotional Development

Current Perspectives on Emotional Development

The Intersection of Genes and Environment in Socioemotional Development

Socioemotional Development and the Developing Brain

Emotion Regulation

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Somatoform Disorders

Introduction

Historical Overview

DSM-IV Compared to ICD-10

Other Conditions Approximating the SDs

Is SD a Mental or Somatic Disorder?

Epidemiology

Treatment

Challenges and Controversies

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Spatial Orientation

General Definitions and Issues

Perception and Action: Spatial Orientation as Something that People Perceive or Figure Out and Know

History of Concepts and Research

Principles and Research Strategies

Glossary

Further Reading

Spatial Perception

What Is Spatial Perception and What Is It For?

How Do We Perceive Spatial Information?

How Is Spatial Information Represented?

Spatial Perception in the Service of Action

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Stress and Blood Pressure Dysregulation*

Introduction

Origins of Stress-Psychophysiological Investigations

Strategy of Psychophysiological Investigations into Stress-Outcomes Research

BP and Hypertension

The First Study of Acute BP Response

Does BP Reactivity Predict Future HTN and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)?

Predictors/Determinants of Cardiovascular Reactivity

Limitations of the Reactivity Hypothesis

Summary

New Developments in Stress-Psychophysiological Research

A New Approach: Cognitive Underpinnings of Sustained Biological Dysregulation

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Stress and Illness

Brief History of the Interaction of Mind and Body

Physiological Stress Responses

Defining Stressors and Stress Responses

Mechanisms Linking Stress to Disease

Vulnerability to Stress-Induced Illness

Building Stress Resilience

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Website

Studying

Attention

Goal-Setting

Studying Strategies

The Importance of Self-Testing

Discussion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Subjective Culture

Introduction

Theory

Sample Findings

Applications

Cross-Cultural Training

Extension to the Study of Individualism and Collectivism

An Extension to the Study of Self-Deception Across Cultures

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Subliminal Perception

Definition

Methodology

Historical Background

Neurological Evidence for Subliminal Perception

Downstream Effects of Subliminal Perception: Attitudes and Judgments

Downstream Effects of Subliminal Perception: Behavior

Relevance to the Real World

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Suicide

Epidemiology of Suicide

Societal Suicide Rate

Causes of Individual Suicide

Protective Factors

Psychological Autopsy

Preventing Suicide

Surviving the Suicide of a Significant Other

Is Suicide Immoral?

Can Suicide Be Rational?

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Surprise

Pretheoretical Characterization of Surprise

A Short History of Research on Surprise

Theories of Surprise: The Cognitive-Evolutionary Model

Surprise, the Startle Reaction, and the Orienting Response

Is Surprise an Emotion?

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Synesthesia

Introduction

Variants of Synesthesia and Phenomenology

History of Synesthesia Research

Prevalence and Inheritance of Synesthesia

Neurological and Developmental Roots of Synesthesia

Costs and Benefits of Synesthesia

Concluding Remarks

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Syntax

Phrase Structure

The Lexicon

Syntactic Transformations

Trace Theory

Constraints on Transformations

Case Theory

Logical Form

Binding Theory

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Temperament and Individual Differences

The Meaning of Temperament

Origins of Temperament

Neurobiology

Infant Temperaments

Variation in Reactions to the Unfamiliar

High- and Low-Reactive Infants

Temperament and Gender

The Biology of the Sexes

Temperament and Ethnicity

Temperament and Mental Illness

Summary

Further Reading

Terrorism

Defining Terrorism

History and Trends in Terrorism

Types and Tactics of Terrorism

What Makes a Terrorist? Approaches and Advances in the Study of Terrorism

The Role of the Media

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Test Behavior

Introduction

Physical and Physiological Conditions

Cognitive Processes and Strategies

Metacognition

Individual Differences

Social Factors

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Tickling

Two Forms of Tickle: Knismesis and Gargalesis

Tickling in Nonhumans

Ontogeny of Tickle

Positive Emotion and Tickle

Sociality of Tickling

Automatic Response

The Unpleasant Side

Physiology

Functional Theories

Final Remarks

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Touch

Introduction

Information Transfer Through the Skin

Counting Tactile Stimuli

Memory for Touch

Attentional Constraints on Tactile Perception

Spatial Tactile Attention

Attending to the Sense of Touch

Tactile Perception and Attention Following Posture Change

Tactile Awareness

Cross-Modal Interactions Between Touch and the Other Senses

The Affective Aspects of Touch

Touch: What the Future Holds

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Uncertainty

Concepts and Definitions

Perception and Judgment

Social Constructions of Uncertainty

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Violence

Biological Perspectives

Other Psychological Perspectives

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Visual Motion Perception

Motion Integration and Segmentation

3D Formotion Model

The Form Processing System

The Motion Processing System

Converting Motion into Action during Perceptual Decision-Making

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Visual Neglect

Introduction: Clinical and Cognitive Relevance

Clinical Presentation and Functional Consequences

Assessment

Neuropsychological Insights and Cognitive Mechanisms Implicated

Neural Basis (Lesion Correlates)

Recovery and Rehabilitation

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Visual Perception

Hubel and Wiesel: Giving Vision Research an Explicit Edge

Edges at Marr’s Three Levels of Analysis

The Visual Brain as a Modular and Hierarchical System

Interactions in the Visual Hierarchy

Active Vision

Concluding Comments

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

Vocational Choice

Overview and Historical Perspectives

Vocational Choice as a Matching Process

Vocational Choice as a Decision-Making Process

Self as an Integrating Factor in Vocational Choice

Social Psychological Perspectives on Vocational Choice

Special Considerations

Summary

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

War

The Anthropology and Archeology of Warfare: Is the Propensity to Make War Innate?

What is the Role of Warfare in the Evolution of Human Societies?

How is Warfare Collectively Represented in the Psyche or Mentality of Peoples?

What is the Relationship Between Warfare and Individual and Collective Psychological Functioning Today?

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Word Retrieval

The Mental Lexicon

Models of Word Retrieval

Factors Influencing Word Retrieval

Problems in Word Retrieval

Word Retrieval in Specific Populations

Conclusion

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Work Efficiency and Motivation

Introduction

The Nature of Efficiency

The Nature of Motivation

Central Issues in Efficiency and Motivation

Motivational Techniques

Concluding Remarks on Efficiency and Motivation

See also

Glossary

Further Reading

Index

Author Index

Quotes and reviews

"The second edition of this reference work…has been thoroughly revised, expanded, and brought up to date. It deserves the highest praise…The clearly written entries offer readers succinct definitions and significant insights into each topic." --Choice, July 2013

"With his simple, creative and innovative ideas, V.S. Ramachandran is changing how our brains think about our minds" --Thomas Insel, Director of the National Institutes of Mental Health in TIME Magazine

 
 
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