Food Security, Poverty and Nutrition Policy Analysis

Food Security, Poverty and Nutrition Policy Analysis, 2nd Edition

Statistical Methods and Applications

Food Security, Poverty and Nutrition Policy Analysis, 2nd Edition,Suresh Babu,S.N. Gajanan,Prabuddha Sanyal,ISBN9780124058644

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Explore the problems and identify and implement appropriate methods of analysis for food resource policy.

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Key Features

  • Updated to address the latest datasets and tools, including STATA software, the future of policy analysis
  • Includes a new chapter on program evaluation taking the reader from data analysis to policy development to post-implementation measurement
  • Identifies the proper analysis method, its application to available data and its importance in policy development using real-world scenarios
  • Over 30% new content and fully revised throughout


Food insecurity, the lack of access at all times to the food needed for an active and healthy life, continues to be a growing problem as populations increase while the world economy struggles. Formulating effective policies for addressing these issues requires thorough understanding of the empirical data and application of appropriate measurement and analysis of that information.

Food Security, Poverty and Nutrition Policy Analysis, 2nd edition has been revised and updated to include hands-on examples and real-world case studies using the latest datasets, tools and methods. Providing a proven framework for developing applied policy analysis skills, this book is based on over 30 years of food and nutrition policy research at the International Food Policy Research Institute and has been used worldwide to impart the combined skills of statistical data analysis, computer literacy and their use in developing policy alternatives.

This book provides core information in a format that provides not only the concept behind the method, but real-world applications giving the reader valuable, practical knowledge.


Food scientists and nutritionists, consultants, professionals and advanced students involved in the development and implementation of successful policies and programs for addressing the concerns of adequate food supply to the world.

Suresh Babu

Suresh C Babu is a Senior Research Fellow and Head of Capacity Strengthening at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington D.C. Before joining IFPRI in 1992 as a Research Fellow, Dr. Babu was a Research Economist at the Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Between 1989 and 1994 he spent 5 years in Malawi, Southern Africa on various capacities. He was Senior Food Policy Advisor to the Malawi Ministry of Agriculture on developing a national level Food and Nutrition Information System; an Evaluation Economist for the UNICEF-Malawi working on designing food and nutrition intervention programs; Coordinator of UNICEF/IFPRI food security program in Malawi; and a Senior Lecturer at the Bunda College of Agriculture, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (LUANR). He has been coordinator of IFPRI’s South Asia Initiative and Central Asia Program. His past research covers a range of developmental issues including nutrition economics and policy, economics of soil fertility, famine prevention, market integration, migration, pesticide pollution, groundwater depletion, and gender bias in development. He has published more than 18 books and monographs and 80 peer reviewed journal papers. He has been on the advisory board of World Agricultural Forum and a Coordinating Lead Author of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. He currently conducts research on Capacity Development including Economic Analysis of Extension and Advisory Services; Reforming of National agricultural Research Systems; Understanding Policy Process; and Institutional Innovations for Agricultural Transformation. He is or has been a Visiting as Honorary Professor of Indira Gandhi National Open University, India, American University, Washington DC, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, and Zhejiang University, China. He currently serves or has served on the editorial boards of the following journals - Food Security, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Agricultural Economics Research Review, African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Journal of Management, and African Journal of Food, Nutrition, and Development. Dr. Babu was educated at Agricultural Universities in Tamil Nadu, India (B.S. Agriculture; M.S. Agriculture) and at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (M.S. Economics and PhD Economics).

Affiliations and Expertise

Int'l Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, USA

View additional works by Suresh Babu

S.N. Gajanan

Shailendra Gajanan is a Professor in the Department of Economics, and is the Chair of the Department of Business Management and Education at the University of Pittsburgh, Bradford. He received his BA and MA in Economics from the Presidency College and the Loyola College, University of Madras, India. He received and MA (1985) from the University of Akron, Ohio and PhD (1991) in Economics from the University of Pittsburgh. He joined the faculty of the Social Sciences Division at the University of Pittsburgh in 1991. He served previously as the Chair of the Social Sciences Division. Dr. Gajanan has served as the Program Director for Economics and has taught lower and upper level theory and policy classes in economic theory, econometrics, game theory, as well as applied classes in global hunger and environmental economics. He has also taught courses in India and West Germany. He supervises and directs International Study Abroad Programs and is slated to coordinate the Pitt-in-Himalayas in the summer of 2016. He has also served as an external evaluator on several thesis committees from universities in India and Malaysia. Dr. Gajanan’s research focuses on applied microeconomics dealing with water depletion within the commons, capacity utilization in manufacturing, the premium in the labor market for skills with English, and the impact of Category Management on product assortment in retail. He is the co-author of Food Security, Poverty and Nutrition Policy Analysis: Statistical Methods and Applications (Elsevier 2014).

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Economics, Department of Business Management and Education, University of Pittsburgh, Bradford, USA

Prabuddha Sanyal

Affiliations and Expertise

Int'l Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, USA

Food Security, Poverty and Nutrition Policy Analysis, 2nd Edition


Preface to the Second Edition


I: Food Security Policy Analysis

Section I: Food Security Policy Analysis


Why Study Food Security Policy Analysis?

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

1: Introduction to Food Security: Concepts and Measurement


Conceptual Framework of Food Security

Food Security in the Developed World

Other Policy Issues in the US

Food Security Concerns in Other Countries

Measurement of the Determinants of Food Security

Food Availability

Food Utilization

Stability of Availability


A Natural Question is Why is Measuring Food Insecurity Important for Better Program Design in Developing Countries?


2: Implications of Technological Change, Post-Harvest Technology, and Technology Adoption for Improved Food Security—Application of t-Statistic


Review of Selected Studies

Food Security Issues and Technology in the United States

Biofuels—The Chinese Experience

US Farm Policy and Food Security—Background and Current Issues

GEO-5 and Coping Mechanisms for the Future

Empirical Analysis—A Basic Univariate Approach

Data Description and Analysis

Two Measures of Household Food Security are Computed:

Student’s t-test for Testing the Equality of Means

Policy Implications

Technical Appendices

Using Stata for t-tests



3: Effects of Commercialization of Agriculture (Shift from Traditional Crop to Cash Crop) on Food Consumption and Nutrition—Application of Chi-Square Statistic


A Few Concepts

Review of Selected Studies

Organic Farms and Commercialization in the United States

Organic Farming in a Global Context

Empirical Analysis

Data Description and Analysis

Descriptive Analysis: Cross-Tabulation Results

Conclusion and Policy Implications

Technical Appendices

Limitations of the Chi-Square Procedure


4: Effects of Technology Adoption and Gender of Household Head: The Issue, Its Importance in Food Security—Application of Cramer’s V and Phi Coefficient


Review of Selected Studies

Female Farm Operators in Kenya and Ethiopia: Recent Evidence

Female Farm Operators in the United States

Women in Agriculture: The Global Scene

Uganda’s Coffee Market: A Case Study

Empirical Analysis

Data Description and Analysis

Descriptive Analysis: Cross-Tabulation Results

Cramer’s V and Phi Tests

Conclusion and Policy Implications

Cramer’s V in STATA

Technical Appendices


5: Changes in Food Consumption Patterns: Its Importance to Food Security—Application of One-Way ANOVA


Determinants of Food Consumption Patterns and Its Importance to Food Security and Nutritional Status

Impact on Food Security

Review of Selected Studies

Empirical Analysis and Main Findings

Data Description

Analysis Method



Conclusion and Policy Implications


Underlying Assumptions in the ANOVA Procedure

Decomposition of Total Variation

Number of Degrees of Freedom

F-Test and Distribution

Relation of F to T-Distribution


6: Impact of Market Access on Food Security—Application of Factor Analysis


Assessing the Linkages of Market Reforms on Food Security and Productivity

Empirical Analysis

Technical Concepts

Data Description and Methodology

Factor Analysis by Principal Components

Examining Eigenvalues

Principal Components Analysis in STATA

Conclusion and Policy Implications

Technical Appendices


II: Nutrition Policy Analysis

Section II: Nutrition Policy Analysis


Why Study Nutrition Security?

What is Nutrition Security and Why Study It?

What Interventions are Desirable to Improve Nutrition Security?

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

7: Impact of Maternal Education and Care on Preschoolers’ Nutrition—Application of Two-Way ANOVA


Conceptual Framework: Linkages Between Maternal Education, Child-Care, and Nutritional Status of Children

Maternal Education and Nutrition Status in the United States

Children’s Nutrition and Maternal Education in Kenya

Cross-Tabulation of Weight for Height with Mothers’ Educational Levels

Interpreting the Interaction Effect and Post-hoc Tests


Technical Appendices

Post-hoc Procedures


8: Indicators and Causal Factors of Nutrition—Application of Correlation Analysis


Review of Selected Studies

Food Insecurity and Nutrition in the United States

Food Insecurity in Brazil

Global Monitoring Report on Nutrition and Millennium Development Goals

The Impact of the Food Price Spike on Rural Bangladesh

Malnutrition and Chronic Disease in India

Malnutrition in Guatemala

Empirical Analysis and Main Findings

Data Description and Methodology

Concepts in Correlation Analysis

Inference About Population Parameters in Correlation

Descriptive Analysis

Main Results

Correlation Analysis of the Outcome Variables

Estimating Correlation Using STATA

Conclusion and Policy Implications


9: Effects of Individual, Household, and Community Indicators on Child’s Nutritional Status—Application of Simple Linear Regression


Conceptual Framework and Indicators of Nutritional Status

Review of Studies on the Determinants of Child Nutritional Status

Child’s Nutritional Status in the United States

AIDS and Double Burden in Africa

Malnutrition and Mortality in Pakistan and INDIA

Social Participation as Social Capital, Women Empowerment, and Nutrition in Peru

Empirical Analysis and Main Findings

Data Description

Incidence of Stunting and Wasting

Normality Tests and Transformation of Variables

Regression Results



10: Maternal Education and Community Characteristics as Indicators of Nutritional Status of Children—Application of Multivariate Regression


Selected Studies on the Role of Maternal Education and Community Characteristics on Child Nutritional Status

Community Characteristics and Children’s Nutrition in the United States

Community Characteristics and Child Nutrition in Kenya

Financial Crisis and Child Nutrition in East Asia

Double Burden within Mother-Child Pairs: Asian Case

Empirical Analysis

Data Description and Methodology

Descriptive Summary of Independent Variables

Main Results



III: Special Topics on Poverty, Nutrition and Food Policy Analysis

Section III: Special Topics on Poverty, Nutrition, and Food Policy Analysis


Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 16

11: Predicting Child Nutritional Status Using Related Socioeconomic Variables—Application of Discriminant Function Analysis


Conceptual Framework: Linkages Between Women’s Status and Child Nutrition

Review of Selected Studies

Indirect Linkages Between Women’s Status and Child’s Nutritional Status

USDA Nutrition Assistance Programs: A Case Study from the US

Case Studies of Women’s Status and Child Nutritional Status from Africa, Asia and Latin America

Can Garden Plots Save Russia?

Empirical Analysis and Main Findings

Data Description and Analysis

Descriptive Statistics

Testing the Assumptions Underlying DA Model

Summary of Main Findings

Classification Statistics

Canonical Discriminant Analysis Using STATA


Technical Appendix: Discriminant Analysis


12: Measurement and Determinants of Poverty—Application of Logistic Regression Models


Dimensions and Rationale for Measuring Poverty

Construction of Poverty Lines Using Food Energy Intake (FEI) and Cost of Basic Needs (CBN) Approaches

New Measures of Poverty Based on the Engel Curve

Selected Review of Studies on Determinants of Poverty

Poverty and Welfare in the United States

Agriculture and Poverty in Laos and Cambodia

Financial Crisis and Poverty in the Russian Federation

Poverty in Europe

Poverty in Developing Countries: China and India

Determinants of Poverty—Binary Logistic Regression Analysis

Dichotomous Logistic Regression Model

An Example with the Malawi Dataset

Expected Determinants of Household Welfare

Empirical Results

Measuring model fit

Interpreting the Logistic Coefficients and Discussion of Results

Estimating Logistic Regression Models in STATA

Conclusions and Implications

Technical appendices


13: Classifying Households On Food Security and Poverty Dimensions—Application of K-Mean Cluster Analysis


Food Hardships and Economic Status in the United States

Food Security, Economic Crisis, and Poverty in India

Cluster Analysis: Various Approaches

Hierarchical Clustering Method

K-Means Method

Review of Selected Studies Using Cluster Analysis

Empirical Analysis: K-Means Clustering

Data Description

Initial Partitions and Optimum Number of Clusters

Descriptive Characteristics of the Cluster of Households

Cluster Centers

Cluster Analysis in Stata

Conclusion and Implications


14: Household Care as a Determinant of Nutritional Status—Application of Instrumental Variable Estimation


Review of Selected Studies

Federal Nutrition Programs and Children’s Health in US

Parental Unemployment and Children’s Health in Germany

Food Security Using the Gallup World Poll

Empirical Analysis



15: Achieving an Ideal Diet—Modeling with Linear Programming


Review of the Literature

Linear Programming Model

Solution Procedures

Graphical Solution Approach



16: Food and Nutrition Program Evaluation


Recent Developments

Summary and Conclusions

Section IV: Technical Appendix

Appendix 1-Introduction to Software Access and Use

Appendix 2-Software Information

Appendix 3-SPSS/PC+ Environment and Commands

Appendix 4-Data Handling

Appendix 5-SPSS Programming Basics

Appendix 6-STATA--A Basic Tutorial

Appendix 7-Anthropometric Indicators--Computation and Use

Appendix 8-Elements of Matrix Algebra

Appendix 9-Some Preliminary Statistical Concepts

Appendix 10-Instrumental Variable Estimation

Statistical Tables



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