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Diffusion MRI
 
 

Diffusion MRI, 2nd Edition

From Quantitative Measurement to In vivo Neuroanatomy

 
Diffusion MRI, 2nd Edition,Heidi Johansen-Berg,Timothy E.J. Behrens,ISBN9780123964601
 
 
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Johansen-Berg   &   Behrens   

Academic Press

9780123964601

9780124055094

632

276 X 216

The first comprehensive reference to cover all aspects of diffusion MRI technology and how to use the technology in neuroscience studies from acquisition through analysis to interpretation

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Key Features

  • Fully revised and updated edition of the first comprehensive reference on a powerful technique in brain imaging
  • Covers all aspects of a diffusion MRI study from acquisition through analysis to interpretation, and from fundamental theory to cutting-edge developments
  • New chapters covering connectomics, advanced diffusion acquisition, artifact removal, and applications to the neonatal brain
  • Provides practical advice on running an experiment
  • Includes discussion of applications in psychiatry, neurology, neurosurgery, and basic neuroscience
  • Full color throughout

Description

Diffusion MRI remains the most comprehensive reference for understanding this rapidly evolving and powerful technology and is an essential handbook for designing, analyzing, and interpreting diffusion MR experiments.

Diffusion imaging provides a unique window on human brain anatomy. This non-invasive technique continues to grow in popularity as a way to study brain pathways that could never before be investigated in vivo.

This book covers the fundamental theory of diffusion imaging, discusses its most promising applications to basic and clinical neuroscience, and introduces cutting-edge methodological developments that will shape the field in coming years. Written by leading experts in the field, it places the exciting new results emerging from diffusion imaging in the context of classical anatomical techniques to show where diffusion studies might offer unique insights and where potential limitations lie.

Readership

Neuroscientists interested in the study of connections in the brain, brain imaging, within Cognitive Neuroscience, Neuroscience, Radiology, Medical Physics and adjacent areas.

Heidi Johansen-Berg

Affiliations and Expertise

Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB), Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, UK

Timothy E.J. Behrens

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford; Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain (FMRIB), UK

Diffusion MRI, 2nd Edition

Foreword

References

Contributors

Section I: Introduction to Diffusion MRI

Chapter 1. Introduction to Diffusion MR

Abstracts

Acknowledgments

1.1 What is Diffusion?

1.2 Magnetic Resonance and Diffusion

1.3 Diffusion in Neural Tissue

1.4 Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 2. Pulse Sequences for Diffusion-Weighted MRI

Abstracts

2.1 MRI Pulse Sequence Primer

2.2 Adding Diffusion Weighting to a Pulse Sequence

2.3 Bulk Motion Sensitivity

2.4 Single-Shot Echo Planar Imaging Methods

2.5 Parameter Optimization

2.6 Other DWI Pulse Sequences

References

Chapter 3. Diffusion Acquisition: Pushing the Boundaries

Abstracts

Acknowledgments

3.1 The Modular Nature of Diffusion Sequences

3.2 Improving Image Quality

3.3 Improving Diffusion Contrast

3.4 Conclusions

References

Chapter 4. Geometric Distortions in Diffusion MRI

Abstract

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Echo Planar Imaging

4.3 Where Does the Off-Resonance Field Come From?

4.4 Modified Imaging Techniques that Yield Less-Distorted Images

4.5 Imaging Techniques that Acquire Information about the Off-Resonance Field

4.6 Image Registration-Based Methods for Correcting Distortions

4.7 Recent Work at the FMRIB

References

Chapter 5. Gaussian Modeling of the Diffusion Signal

Abstracts

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Diffusion Basics

5.3 Basic Modeling and Quantification

5.4 Data Acquisition Strategies

5.5 Artifacts

5.6 What is a Model?

References

Chapter 6. Multiple Fibers: Beyond the Diffusion Tensor

Abstract

Acknowledgments

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Multiple Fibers: What’s All the Fuss About?

6.3 Model-Based Approaches

6.4 Nonparametric Algorithms

6.5 Derived Information

6.6 Applications and Exploitation

6.7 Summary

Appendix A Qball Implementation

Appendix B Spherical Deconvolution Implementation

References

Section II: Diffusion MRI for Quantitative Measurement

Chapter 7. White Matter Structure: A Microscopist’s View

Abstract

Acknowledgments

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Cellular Components of the CNS White Matter

7.3 Water Content of White Matter

7.4 Changes in White Matter Due to Abnormalities in Myelin

7.5 The Ultrastructural Effects of Demyelination and Axonal Damage in Humans

7.6 Plasticity in White Matter

7.7 Summary

References

Chapter 8. The Biological Basis of Diffusion Anisotropy

Abstract

Acknowledgments

8.1 Utility of Microscopic Water Motion

8.2 Relationship of Water Diffusion Anisotropy to Tissue Microstructure

8.3 Role of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficients for Interpreting Anisotropy

8.4 Issues Related to Diffusion Anisotropy Measurements in Tissue by MRI

8.5 Summary

References

Chapter 9. Inferring Microstructural Information of White Matter from Diffusion MRI

Abstract

9.1 The Morphological Features of White Matter

9.2 Diffusion MRI and Tissue Microstructure

9.3 Diffusion Tensor Imaging—A Tool for White Matter Microstructural Mapping

9.4 Diffusion Tensor Imaging—A Tool for White Matter Microstructural Mapping?

9.5 Types of Diffusion Processes in the Tissue

9.6 Q-Space Analysis

9.7 Models of Diffusion in White Matter

9.8 Towards Virtual Biopsy of White Matter With Diffusion MRI

9.9 Summary

References

Chapter 10. Cross-Subject Comparison of Local Diffusion MRI Parameters

Abstract

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Cross-Subject Registration (Image Alignment)

10.3 Voxel-Based Morphometry—Overview and Application to Diffusion Data

10.4 Problems of Interpretability in VBM-Style Analyses

10.5 Region-of-Interest and Tractography-Based Strategies for Localizing Change

10.6 Tract-Based Spatial Statistics

10.7 Other Skeleton-Based Work

10.8 Statistical Modeling, Thresholding, and Multivariate Approaches

10.9 Alternative Diffusion Measures to Test

10.10 Interpretation Issues: Partial Volume Effects and Complex Tract Structure

10.11 Standard Space Templates and Atlases

10.12 Empirical Studies of Gaussianity and Repeatability in Diffusion MRI Data

10.13 Example Multi-Subject Studies

10.14 Conclusions

References

Chapter 11. Diffusion MRI in Neurological Disorders

Abstract

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Brief Overview of Methods for Clinical Research

11.3 Clinical Applications

11.4 Conclusions

References

Chapter 12. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in the Study of Aging and Age-Associated Neural Disease

Abstract

Acknowledgments

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Typical Diffusion Metrics Utilized in the Study of Tissue Microstructure Across the Lifespan

12.3 Diffusion in Aging

12.4 Associations Between DTI Metrics and Gray Matter Morphometry

12.5 Caveats to the use of Diffusion Imaging in the Study of Aging and Age-Associated Disease

12.6 Future Directions

References

Chapter 13. Diffusion Imaging in the Developing Brain

Abstract

13.1 Changes in Diffusion Measures with Increasing Gestational Age

13.2 Abnormal White Matter and Cortical Gray Matter Development in Preterm Infants at Term

13.3 Assessing the Connectome in the Developing Brain

13.4 DTI in Preterm Brain Injury

13.5 Diffusion MRI Studies of the Developing Preterm Brain and Association with Neurodevelopmental Outcome

13.6 MRI in the Term Infant with Perinatal Brain Injury

13.7 Future Directions

13.8 Conclusions

References

Chapter 14. Individual Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Healthy Brain

Abstract

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Gender and Handedness

14.3 Changes in White Matter Microstructure with Development and Aging are Associated with Development or Deterioration in Cognitive Skills

14.4 Age-Independent Variation in Brain Structure Reflects Inter-Individual Variation in Behavior

14.5 Are Individual Differences in White Matter due to Nature or Nurture?

14.6 Conclusion

References

Chapter 15. Diffusion Tensor Imaging and its Application to Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

Abstract

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Review of DTI Findings in Schizophrenia

15.3 Future Directions: What are we Missing and How Can we Fill in the Gaps?

References

Section III: Diffusion MRI for In vivo Neuroanatomy

Chapter 16. Mapping Connections in Humans and Non-Human Primates: Aspirations and Challenges for Diffusion Imaging

Abstract

Acknowledgments

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Neuroanatomical Fundamentals

16.3 Approaches to Imaging Human Brain Connectivity

16.4 Imaging Structural Connectivity: The HCP Strategy

16.5 The Fiber Architecture of Gyral Blades and Deep White Matter

16.6 Discussion

References

Chapter 17. Classic and Contemporary Neural Tract-Tracing Techniques

Abstract

17.1 Introduction

17.2 A Brief Historical Perspective of the Development of Experimental Tract Tracing

17.3 Contemporary Application of Experimental Tract Tracing in Non-Human Primates

17.4 Conclusions

References

Further Reading

Chapter 18. The Human Connectome: Linking Structure and Function in the Human Brain

Abstract

Acknowledgments

18.1 What is the Connectome?

18.2 Modes of Brain Connectivity

18.3 Defining Network Nodes of the Connectome

18.4 Graph Analysis of Brain Connectivity

18.5 Mapping the Network of Structural Connections of the Human Brain

18.6 Relating Structural Connections to Functional Interactions

18.7 Brain Connectivity and Network Disease

18.8 The Future of the Connectome

References

Chapter 19. MR Diffusion Tractography

Abstract

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Streamline Tractography

19.3 Probabilistic Tractography

19.4 Global Tractography Approaches

19.5 Choice of Local Description of Diffusion in Tractography

19.6 Designing a Diffusion Tractography Study

19.7 Future Advances in Diffusion Tractography

19.8 Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 20. Validation of Tractography

Abstract

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Validation of Fiber Orientation Information

20.3 Validation of Tractography

20.4 Summary

References

Chapter 21. Connectivity Fingerprinting of Gray Matter

Abstract

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Application to Subcortical Gray Matter

21.3 Application to Cortical Gray

21.4 Validation

21.5 Conclusions

References

Chapter 22. Contribution of Diffusion Tractography to the Anatomy of Language

Abstract

Acknowledgments

22.1 Introduction

22.2 The Anatomy of the Arcuate Fasciculus: From Blunt Dissections to Tractography

22.3 Lateralization of the Arcuate Fasciculus

22.4 Comparative Anatomy of Perisylvian Language Network

22.5 Functional Correlates of Perisylvian Language Network

22.6 Beyond the Arcuate Fasciculus: Ventral and Frontal Networks

22.7 Application of Tractography to Language Disorders

22.8 Summary and Future Directions

References

Chapter 23. Presurgical Tractography Applications

Abstract

Acknowledgments

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Presurgical Applications, Tract Latitudes, and Tracking Failures

23.3 Potential Surgical Targets and Intentions

23.4 Presurgical Tractography

23.5 Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 24. Comparing Connections in the Brains of Humans and Other Primates Using Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

Abstract

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Comparing Tractography with Tract-Tracing Techniques

24.3 Using Tractography to Examine the Connections of Human Ventral Frontal Cortex

24.4 Language and the Arcuate Fascicle in Humans and other Primates

24.5 Tractography Suggests Basic Similarities in Frontal Cortex Organization in Humans and other Primates

24.6 Premotor Cortex

24.7 Comparing the Parietal Cortex in Humans and other Primates

24.8 Conclusions

References

Chapter 25. Imaging Structure and Function

Abstract

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Structural Imaging and Brain Morphometry

25.3 Combining Sources of Data

25.4 Imaging Anatomo-Functional Networks

25.5 Conclusions

References

Index

Quotes and reviews

"This text outlines the theory and applications of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 25 chapters, radiologists, neuroscientists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and others from North America, Europe, and Israel outline the methods underlying diffusion imaging; the use of diffusion MRI for quantitative measurement and in understanding neurological disorders…"--ProtoView.com, April 2014

 
 
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