Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology, 1st Edition

From Genome to Environment

 
Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology, 1st Edition,Anthony Farrell,ISBN9780123745453
 
 
 

A Farrell   

Academic Press

9780123745453

9780080923239

2272

285 X 216

A comprehensive source of information on fish physiology with topic coverage from fish genomics through behavior.

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Key Features

  • Winner of a 2011 PROSE Award Honorable Mention for Multivolume Science Reference from the Association of American Publishers
  • The definitive encyclopedia for the field of fish physiology
  • Three volumes which comprehensively cover the entire field in over 300 entries written by experts
  • Detailed coverage of basic functional physiology of fishes, physiological themes in fish biology and comparative physiology amongst taxonomic Groups
  • Describes the genomic bases of fish physiology and biology and the use of fish as model organisms in human physiological research
  • Includes a glossary of terms
  • Available online in indexed searchable format

Description

Fish form an extremely diverse group of vertebrates. At a conservative estimate at least 40% of the world's vertebrates are fish. On the one hand they are united by their adaptations to an aquatic environment and on the other they show a variety of adaptations to differing environmental conditions - often to extremes of temperature, salinity, oxygen level and water chemistry. They exhibit an array of behavioural and reproductive systems. Interesting in their own right, this suite of adaptive physiologies provides many model systems for both comparative vertebrate and human physiologists.

This four volume encyclopedia covers the diversity of fish physiology in over 300 articles and provides entry level information for students and summary overviews for researchers alike.

Broadly organised into four themes, articles cover Functional, Thematic, and Phylogenetic Physiology, and Fish Genomics

Functional articles address the traditional aspects of fish physiology that are common to all areas of vertebrate physiology including: Reproduction, Respiration, Neural (Sensory, Central, Effector), Endocrinology, Renal, Cardiovascular, Acid-base Balance, Osmoregulation, Ionoregulation, Digestion, Metabolism, Locomotion, and so on.

Thematic Physiology articles are carefully selected and fewer in number. They provide a level of integration that goes beyond the coverage in the Functional Physiology topics and include discussions of Toxicology, Air-breathing, Migrations, Temperature, Endothermy, etc.

Phylogenetic Physiology articles bring together information that bridges the physiology of certain groupings of fishes where the knowledge base has a sufficient depth and breadth and include articles on Ancient Fishes, Tunas, Sharks, etc.

Genomics articles describe the underlying genetic component of fish physiology and high light their suitability and use as model organisms for the study of disease, stress and physiological adaptations and reactions to external conditions.

Readership

* Undergraduate and Post-graduate students and Research scientists studying the physiology of fishes.
* Comparative vertebrate physiologists
* Biomedical physiologists using fish as animal models of human physiology and genetics

Anthony Farrell

Tony Farrell is a graduate of Bath University, where he was fortunate to study with Peter Lutz. His fortunes grew further when he moved in 1974 to Canada and the Zoology Department at the University of British Columbia to complete his Ph.D. degree under the superb tutelage of Dave Randall. In 2004, Tony returned to UBC when he accepted an endowed research chair in Sustainable Aquaculture. In between these positions at UBC, Tony was employed at the University of Southern California (PDF), the University of New Brunswick (sessional lecturer), Mount Allison University (first real job) and Simon Fraser University (moving through the ranks to a full professor). In addition to highly controlled laboratory experiments on fish cardiorespiratory physiology, Tony is committed to working on animals in their own environment. Therefore, his research on fish physiology has taken him on an Alpha Helix expedition to the Amazon, the University of Gothenburg and the Kristineberg Marine Research Station in Sweden, the Portobello Marine Biological Station in New Zealand, the University of Christchurch and Massey University in New Zealand, the Bamfield Marine Science Station and the Huntsman Marine Station in Canada, the University of Aarhus in Denmark, the University of Adelaide Charles and Darwin University in Australia, and to the Danish Arctic Marine Station on Disco Island in Greenland. These travels have allowed him to work and with many superb collaborators word-wide, as well as study the physiology of over 70 different species of fish. Tony has received a number of awards for his scientific contributions: an honorary degree from the University of Gothenburg in Sweden; Awards of Excellence from the American Fisheries Society for Fish Physiology, Conservation and Management; the Fry Medal from the Canadian Society of Zoologists; and the Beverton Medal from the Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Affiliations and Expertise

Dept of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

View additional works by Anthony P. Farrell

Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology, 1st Edition

Editor-in-Chief

Associate Editors

Editors Biographies

Section Editors

Preface

Permission Acknowledgments

Article Titles

AIR-BREATHING FISHES | Circulatory Adaptations for Air-Breathing Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Defining the Problem

Patterns of ABO Circulation: Lungs and Respiratory Gas Bladders

Circulation Patterns for Other ABOs

Coronary Circulation and Air Breathing

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

AIR-BREATHING FISHES | Respiratory Adaptations for Air-Breathing Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Types

The Lung and Respiratory Gas Bladder

Other ABOs

Head Region

Digestive Tube

Gills

Skin

ABO Ventilation

See also

Further Reading

AIR-BREATHING FISHES | The Biology, Diversity, and Natural History of Air-Breathing Fishes: An Introduction

Glossary

Introduction

The Diversity of Fish Air Breathing

The Types of Air-Breathing Fishes

The Evolution of Air Breathing

Air Breathing and Natural History

Summary

See also

Further Reading

AQUACULTURE | Physiology of Fish in Culture Environments

Glossary

Introduction

Bioenergetics

Temperature

Oxygen and Oxygen Demand

Carbon Dioxide and Acid–Base Balance

Osmoregulation, Salinity Tolerance, and Smoltification in Cultured Fishes

Exercise and Cultured Fishes

See also

Further Reading

BEHAVIOR AND PHYSIOLOGY | Linking Fish Behavior and Physiology: An Introduction

Glossary

Sensory Systems, Perception, and Learning

Interactions with the Environment

Social and Reproductive Behaviors

See also

Further Reading

BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT | A Survival Guide for Fishes: How to Obtain Food While Avoiding Being Food

Glossary

The Need for Food and Demands Placed upon Its Acquisition

Foraging Models–What Should You Try to be Doing?

What Should You Eat?

Where Should You Go to Get Food?

How Should You Capture and Consume Your Food?

Dealing with Competition

The Role of Predation Risk and How It Changes the Rules

Tactics for Avoiding Predators

Are There Overall Consequences?

See also

Further Reading

BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT | Anthropogenic Influences on Fish Behavior

Glossary

Interactions between Physiology and Behavior

Disruption of Sensory Information

Neurotoxins and Interference with Brain Function

Toxicants that Interfere with Respiration

Reproductive Impairment

Future Studies

See also

Further Reading

BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT | Behavioral Responses to Hypoxia

Glossary

Overview

Altered Activity Patterns

Hypoxia as a Refuge

Surfacing Behaviors

Trade-Off with Predation Risk

Surfacing Behaviors and Parental Care

Terrestrial Behaviors

Future Studies

See also

Further Reading

BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT | Effects of Compensatory Growth on Fish Behavior

Glossary

Introduction

Behavioral Changes during Compensation

Deferred Costs of Compensatory Growth

Summary

See also

Further Reading

BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT | Manipulation of Fish Phenotype by Parasites

Glossary

The Parasitic Way of Life

Trophic Transmission and Host Manipulation

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT | Sleep in Fish

Glossary

What Is Sleep?

Sleeping Fish

See also

Further Reading

BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO THE ENVIRONMENT | Temperature Preference: Behavioral Responses to Temperature in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Species Preferences

Environmental Observations

See also

Further Reading

BLOOD | Cellular Composition of the Blood

Glossary

Introduction

Separating Blood Cells

Red Blood Cells

White Blood Cells

See also

Further Reading

BLOOD | Erythropoiesis in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

See also

Further Reading

BONY FISHES | Blind Cavefish

Glossary

Introduction

Astyanax Cavefish

Troglomorphism

Eye Degeneration

Feeding Apparatus Amplification

Inheritance of Troglomorphic Traits

Evolution of Troglomorphism

See also

Further Reading

BONY FISHES | Crucian Carp

Glossary

Introduction

Occurrence and Habitat

Avoiding Anoxic Energy Deficiency

Ethanol Production

Neural Depression

Heart Activity in Anoxia

Mechanisms of Metabolic Depression

Strategies to Avoid Tissue Anoxia

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

BONY FISHES | Life in Hot Water: The Desert Pupfish

Glossary

Introduction

Habitats

Physiological Studies of Desert Pupfish

Conservation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

BONY FISHES | Zebrafish

Glossary

Introduction

Appearance

Taxonomy

Distribution and Natural History

Lifecycle and Reproduction

Zebrafish as a Model Organism for Scientific Research

See also

Further Reading

BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Autonomic Nervous System of Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

The ANS and Chromaffin Tissue

The ANS of Different Fish Groups

Functional Aspects of the Fish ANS

See also

Further Reading

BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Cranial and Spinal Nerves of Fishes: Evolution of the Craniate Pattern

Glossary

Introduction

The Acorn Worm CNS and the Molecular Basis for Its Development

Inducing a CNS and Suppressing Neuronal Capacity in General Ectoderm: A Common Theme Shared among Chordates but Not With All Hemichordates?

Motor Neuron(s), The Ancient Efferent Communication of All Nerves to Induce Muscle Movements for Locomotion

Summary and Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Functional Morphology of the Brains of Agnathans

Glossary

Introduction

Hindbrain

Midbrain

Forebrain

See also

Further Reading

BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Functional Morphology of the Brains of Cartilaginous Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Hindbrain

Midbrain

Forebrain

See also

Further Reading

BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Functional Morphology of the Brains of Ray-Finned Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Hindbrain

Midbrain

Forebrain

See also

Further Reading

BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Functional Morphology of the Brains of Sarcopterygian Fishes: Lungfishes and Latimeria

Glossary

Introduction

Macroscopical Anatomy of the Brain in Lungfishes and Latimeria

Histological Features of the Brain in Lungfishes

The Brain of the Coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae

See also

Further Reading

BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Functional Morphology of the Nervous System: An Introduction

Glossary

Overview of Brain Organization

Historical Perspective

Variation in Brain Structure across the Taxa

See also

Further Reading

BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Motor Control Systems of Fish

Glossary

Goal-Directed Locomotion–Overview of Neural Control System

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Opioids and Opioid Receptors in Fishes

Glossary

Endogenous Opioid Peptides

Opioid Receptors

See also

Further Reading

BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Physiology of the Mauthner Cell: Discovery and Properties

Glossary

Introduction

The Mauthner Cell

The Mauthner Cell As Model Vertebrate Neuron

Summary

See also

Further Reading

BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM | Physiology of the Mauthner Cell: Function

Glossary

Introduction

Functions of the Mauthner Cell

Cellular Properties as Functional Specializations

Summary

See also

Further Reading

BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Biomimetics: Robotics Based on Fish Swimming

Glossary

Fish and Robotic Fish

Biomimetics as an Approach to Fish Robotics

Classification of Fish Robots

Design of Fish Robots

Robotic Fish: The Next Generation

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Buoyancy in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Densities of Fishes

Density and Lifestyle

Buoyancy Strategies

See also

Further Reading

BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Buoyancy, Locomotion, and Movement in Fishes: An Introduction

Glossary

A Short Historical Perspective on Buoyancy and Locomotion

Buoyancy and Locomotion Today

See also

Further Reading

BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Experimental Hydrodynamics

Glossary

Introduction

Basic Fluid Dynamic Principles

Measuring Fluid Velocities

Interpreting Flow Fields

Future Developments

See also

Further Reading

BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Fast Start

Glossary

Introduction

Neural Control

Muscle Activity

Hydrodynamics

Performance and Kinematics

Body Design

Environmental Factors

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Feeding Mechanics

Glossary

How Do Fishes Capture Prey?

Feeding in Jawless Fishes

The Evolution of Suction Feeding

What Is Suction-Feeding Performance?

Hydrodynamics of Suction Feeding

Ecomorphology of Feeding

Jaw Protrusion

The Integration of Locomotion and Feeding

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Functional Properties of Skeletal Muscle: Work Loops

Glossary

Work, Swimming, and Muscles

Measuring Work

What We Have Learned Using Work-Loop Analysis

See also

Further Reading

BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Maneuverability

Glossary

Introduction

Definitions of Maneuvers and Agility

Methodology

Effectors

Types of Maneuvers

Fish Size

Body Form

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Paired Fin Swimming

Glossary

Diversity of Paired fins

Anatomy of Paired Fins

Fin Motion

Maneuvering

Fin Control

Hydrodynamics

See also

Further Reading

BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Stability and Turbulence

Glossary

Introduction

Instabilities

The Nature of Turbulent Flows

The Importance of Scale

Response Latency

Fish–Eddy Interactions

Control Systems

Using Eddies

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Swimbladder Function and Buoyancy Control in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Morphology

Metabolic Activity and the Single Concentrating Effect

The Single Concentrating Effect

Countercurrent Concentration

Resorption of Gas

Failure of Swimbladder Inflation

Control of Swimbladder Inflation

See also

Further Reading

BUOYANCY, LOCOMOTION, AND MOVEMENT IN FISHES | Undulatory Swimming

Glossary

Introduction

Undulatory Swimming Modes

Myotomal Muscle Anatomy

Muscle Length Change and Activity

Muscle Mechanical Performance

Force and Power Transmission

Roles of Myotomal Muscle in Addition to Power Production

See also

Further Reading

CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Culture of Fish Cell Lines

Glossary

Introduction

Sources

Equipment

Culture Vessels

Growth Media

Growth Temperature

Passaging

Cryopreservation

Applications

See also

Further Reading

CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Evolution of Fish Genomes

Glossary

Genome Size and Chromosome Number in Fish

Ancestral Teleost-Specific Genome Duplication and Biodiversity

Diversity of Transposable Elements

Rapid Evolutionary Turnover of Sex Chromosomes

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Fish as Model Organisms for Medical Research

Glossary

Introduction

Forward Genetic Screens

Reverse Genetics

Morpholino Gene Knockdown

Transgenesis

Transplantation

Chemical Biology

In Vivo Imaging

Blood

Heart

Kidney

Neuroscience

Muscle

Skin

Behavior

Future

See also

Further Reading

CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Germ Cell Migration and Trans Sex

Glossary

What Is a Germ Cell?

How Specified Are PGCs?

Specific Markers for PGCs

When Is a PGC Specified?

PGC Migration

Why Do PGCs Migrate?

High Plasticity in Sex Determination of Fish

What Is a Trans Sex Phenomenon?

When Do Fish Change Sex?

Plasma Steroids Play a Critical Role in Sex Change

See also

Further Reading

CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Global Gene Expression Profiling in Fish

Glossary

Introduction

Why Is Global Gene Expression Measured?

How Is Global Gene Expression Measured?

Sources of Variation in Gene Expression Data

Physiological Insights Arising from Global Gene Expression Data

See also

Further Reading

CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Growth Hormone Overexpression in Transgenic Fish

Glossary

Brief History of Genetic Engineering in Fish

Physiology of GH Is Well Known

How GH Transgenic Fish Are Made

Growth Effects of GH Transgenes in Fish

Expression of Transgenes and Endocrine Effects

Phenotypic Effects–Morphology

General Viability and Immunology

Nutritional Requirements and Energy Use

Oxygen Uptake, Exercise, and Energy Use

Behavior

Application in Aquaculture, and Environmental Risk Assessments

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Molecular and Chromosomal Aspects of Sex Determination

Glossary

Introduction

Genetic Sex Determination

Molecular Control of Sex Differentiation

See also

Further Reading

CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Molecular Fish Pathology

Glossary

Introduction

Bacterial Fish Pathogens

Extracellular Products

Excretion Systems

Infection

Fish Viruses

Methods of Control

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Physiology of Triploid Fish

Glossary

Introduction

Reproductive Physiology

Hematology, Gas Transport, and Cardiovascular Physiology

Respiration and Metabolism

Stress Response and Environmental Tolerances

Immunology and Disease Resistance

Nutrition and Growth

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Pigment Genes and Cancer Genes

Glossary

Introduction

Pigment Cells in Fish

Genetic Control of Pigment Cell Development

Pigment Synthesis Genes

Color Change

Pigment Polymorphisms in the Wild

Pigment Cell Tumors

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, GENOMICS, AND BIOMEDICAL APPROACHES | Transgenesis and Chromosome Manipulation in Fish

Glossary

Introduction

Fish Transgenesis

See also

Further Reading

Relevant Websites

CHONDRICHTHYES | Physiology of Sharks, Skates, and Rays

Glossary

General Overview

Sensory Biology

Muscle Physiology and Swimming

Electric Organs

Buoyancy Regulation

Deep-Water Elasmobranchs

Freshwater Elasmobranchs

Respiration

Circulation

Reproduction

Osmo- and Ionoregulation/Osmoconformation

Digestion

Intermediary Metabolism

Excretion

Neurophysiology

Immune System and Disease Resistance

Endocrinology

Endothermy in Elasmobranchs

Acid–Base Physiology

Summary

See also

Further Reading

General Overview

Sensory Biology

CIRCULATION | Circulatory System Design: Roles and Principles

Glossary

Function of the Cardiovascular System

Operating Principles of the Cardiovascular System

Hemostatics and Hemodynamics

Building a Cardiovascular System

Functional Definitions of Blood Vessels

See also

Further Reading

CIRCULATION | The Circulatory System: An Introduction

Glossary

A Historical Perspective on Circulatory Systems

Circulatory Systems in Fishes Today

See also

Further Reading

CONTROL OF RESPIRATION | Generation of the Respiratory Rhythm in Fish

Glossary

Introduction

The Central Respiratory Rhythm Generator

Influences from the Midbrain

Mechanoreceptors

Episodic Breathing

Recruitment of Feeding Muscles

Air-Breathing Fishes

Summary

See also

Further Reading

CONTROL OF RESPIRATION | Oxygen Sensing in Fish

Glossary

Introduction

Reflex Responses to Hypoxia

Microscopic Observations of Gill O2 Chemoreceptors

Chemoreceptor Response to Hypoxia

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

CONTROL OF RESPIRATION | The Ventilatory Response to CO2/H+

Glossary

Introduction

Reflex Responses

Location of CO2 Chemoreceptors

Stimulus Specificity

See also

Further Reading

DEEP-SEA FISHES

Glossary

What Is the Deep Sea?

Feeding among the Deep-Sea Fishes

Effects of Pressure

Summary

See also

Further Reading

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ARTERIES AND VEINS | Anatomical Pathways and Patterns

Glossary

Fish Vascular Anatomy

Arterial System

Venous System

Hagfish

Elasmobranchs

See also

Further Reading

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ARTERIES AND VEINS | Branchial Anatomy

Glossary

Introduction

The Gill Arch

Gill Filament

Respiratory Lamellae

Epithelial Cells

Gill Vessels

Innervation of the Gill Arch

See also

Further Reading

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ARTERIES AND VEINS | Physiology of Capacitance Vessels

Glossary

Introduction to the Venous System

Functions of Veins

Anatomy

The Fahraeus Effect and the Physiology of Venules and Small Veins

Physiological Significance of Regulation of Venous Tone and Compliance

Physiological Factors That Affect the Capacitance Curve and Therefore Cardiac Output

Techniques for Measurement of Venous Compliance and Venous Tone

See also

Further Reading

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ARTERIES AND VEINS | Physiology of Resistance Vessels

Glossary

Introduction to the Arterial System

Anatomy of Resistance Vessels

Hemodynamics: The Importance of Vascular Resistance on Blood Pressure and Blood Flow

Remote Control of Vascular Resistance

Local Control of Vascular Resistance

Factors That Affect Vascular Resistance

Methods for Measuring Arterial Resistance in Fish

See also

Further Reading

Introduction to the Arterial System

Anatomy of Resistance Vessels

Hemodynamics: The Importance of Vascular Resistance on Blood Pressure and Blood Flow

Remote Control of Vascular Resistance

Local Control of Vascular Resistance

Factors That Affect Vascular Resistance

Methods for Measuring Arterial Resistance in Fish

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ARTERIES AND VEINS | The Gastrointestinal Circulation

Glossary

Introduction

Definition of the GI Tract

Vascularization of the GI Tract

The Liver

The Pancreas

Control of the GBF under Routine Conditions

Factors Influencing the GBF in the Unfed Animal

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Definition of the GI Tract

Vascularization of the GI Tract

The Liver

The Pancreas

Control of the GBF under Routine Conditions

Factors Influencing the GBF in the Unfed Animal

Concluding Remarks

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Definition of the GI Tract

Vascularization of the GI Tract

The Liver

The Pancreas

Control of the GBF under Routine Conditions

Factors Influencing the GBF in the Unfed Animal

Concluding Remarks

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ARTERIES AND VEINS | The Retia

Glossary

What Is a Rete and How Does It Work?

Factors That Affect the Amountof Exchange

Countercurrent Heat Exchangers in Fishes

Countercurrent Multipliers That Serve the Swimbladder and the Retina in Fishes

Evolution of Retia in Fishes

See also

Further Reading

What Is a Rete and How Does It Work?

Factors That Affect the Amountof Exchange

Countercurrent Heat Exchangers in Fishes

Countercurrent Multipliers That Serve the Swimbladder and the Retina in Fishes

Evolution of Retia in Fishes

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CAPILLARIES AND SECONDARY CIRCULATION | Capillaries, Capillarity, and Angiogenesis

Glossary

Introduction

Matching Angiogenesis and Microvascular Function

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Matching Angiogenesis and Microvascular Function

Concluding Remarks

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CAPILLARIES AND SECONDARY CIRCULATION | Circulatory Fluid Balance and Transcapillary Exchange

Glossary

Introduction

The Basic Fluid Compartments

The Important Relationship between Interstitial and Intravascular Compartments

Starling’s Forces and Transcapillary Fluid Balance in Fish

Fluid Movement between Intravascular and Interstitial Compartments

Physiological Significance of Transcapillary Fluid Movement

Comparisons of Transcapillary Fluid Flux, Vascular Permeability, and Interstitial and Intravascular Compliance in Fish and Mammals

Where Are the Leaky and Tight Capillaries?

Do Factors other than Starling’s Forces Play a Role in Transcapillary Fluid Exchange?

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

The Basic Fluid Compartments

The Important Relationship between Interstitial and Intravascular Compartments

Starling’s Forces and Transcapillary Fluid Balance in Fish

Fluid Movement between Intravascular and Interstitial Compartments

Physiological Significance of Transcapillary Fluid Movement

Comparisons of Transcapillary Fluid Flux, Vascular Permeability, and Interstitial and Intravascular Compliance in Fish and Mammals

Where Are the Leaky and Tight Capillaries?

Do Factors other than Starling’s Forces Play a Role in Transcapillary Fluid Exchange?

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CAPILLARIES AND SECONDARY CIRCULATION | Secondary Circulation and Lymphatic Anatomy

Glossary

Lymph Vessels and the Lymphatic System

History of the Secondary Circulation

Anatomy of the Secondary Circulation

Other Features of the Secondary Circulation

See also

Further Reading

Lymph Vessels and the Lymphatic System

History of the Secondary Circulation

Anatomy of the Secondary Circulation

Other Features of the Secondary Circulation

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Accessory Hearts in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Portal Heart of Hagfishes

The Branchial Pumps

Caudal Pumps

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Portal Heart of Hagfishes

The Branchial Pumps

Caudal Pumps

Summary

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Action Potential of the Fish Heart

Glossary

What Is the Cardiac Action Potential?

Different Phases of the AP

Species-Specific Differences in AP

See also

Further Reading

What Is the Cardiac Action Potential?

Different Phases of the AP

Species-Specific Differences in AP

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Cardiac Anatomy in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

The General Anatomical Structure of a Fish Heart

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

The General Anatomical Structure of a Fish Heart

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Cardiac Cellular Length–Tension Relationship

Glossary

Introduction

The Frank–Starling Relationship

The SL–Tension Relationship

Myofilament Ca Sensitivity

The SL–Tension Relationship in the Fish Heart

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

The Frank–Starling Relationship

The SL–Tension Relationship

Myofilament Ca Sensitivity

The SL–Tension Relationship in the Fish Heart

Conclusions

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Cardiac Excitation–Contraction Coupling: Calcium and the Contractile Element

Glossary

Cardiomyocyte Contraction: An Overview

The Activation of a Cardiomyocyte Contraction by Ca2+

The Influence of Temperature on Ca2+ Binding by the Contractile Element

Adaptation of the Trout Contractile Element to Low Temperature

Phylogenetic Analysis of cTnC from a Variety of Vertebrate Species

Cardiac Contractility in Changing Environmental Temperatures

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Cardiomyocyte Contraction: An Overview

The Activation of a Cardiomyocyte Contraction by Ca2+

The Influence of Temperature on Ca2+ Binding by the Contractile Element

Adaptation of the Trout Contractile Element to Low Temperature

Phylogenetic Analysis of cTnC from a Variety of Vertebrate Species

Cardiac Contractility in Changing Environmental Temperatures

Future Directions

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Cardiac Excitation–Contraction Coupling: Routes of Cellular Calcium Flux

Glossary

Introduction

The Ca Transient

Excitation–Contraction Coupling

The Rising Phase of the Ca Transient

The Falling Phase of the Ca Transient

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

The Ca Transient

Excitation–Contraction Coupling

The Rising Phase of the Ca Transient

The Falling Phase of the Ca Transient

Summary

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Cellular Ultrastructure of Cardiac Cells in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Fish Cardiomyocyte Ultrastructure

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Fish Cardiomyocyte Ultrastructure

Summary

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Intracardiac Neurons and Neurotransmitters in Fish

Glossary

Introduction

The Gross Morphology and Anatomy of the Heart

Extrinsic Innervation and Chemical Codes of Autonomic Neurons

Postganglionic Neurons and Neurotransmitter Localization

The Cardiac Pacemaker and Conducting System

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

The Gross Morphology and Anatomy of the Heart

Extrinsic Innervation and Chemical Codes of Autonomic Neurons

Postganglionic Neurons and Neurotransmitter Localization

The Cardiac Pacemaker and Conducting System

Conclusions

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | Physiology of Cardiac Pumping

Glossary

Introduction

The Cardiac Cycle

Pumping Assistance

Cardiac Output

Cardiac Stroke Volume

Heart Rate

Central Arterial Blood Pressure

Cardiac Work

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

The Cardiac Cycle

Pumping Assistance

Cardiac Output

Cardiac Stroke Volume

Heart Rate

Central Arterial Blood Pressure

Cardiac Work

Summary

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | The Coronary Circulation

Glossary

Introduction

Anatomy

Physiology

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Anatomy

Physiology

See also

DESIGN AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART | The Outflow Tract from the Heart

Glossary

Introduction

Terminology, Phylogeny, and Development

Form and Function of the Bulbus Arteriosus

Form and Function of the Conus Arteriosus

Acknowledgment

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Terminology, Phylogeny, and Development

Form and Function of the Bulbus Arteriosus

Form and Function of the Conus Arteriosus

Acknowledgment

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Terminology, Phylogeny, and Development

Form and Function of the Bulbus Arteriosus

Form and Function of the Conus Arteriosus

Acknowledgment

See also

DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Active Electrolocation

Glossary

Introduction

EOD Carrier Modulation as a Source of Environmental Information

Prereceptor Mechanisms

Behavioral Performance during Object Detection and Analysis

Foveation in Electrolocation

Electroreceptors for Active Electrolocation

Central Processes

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

EOD Carrier Modulation as a Source of Environmental Information

Prereceptor Mechanisms

Behavioral Performance during Object Detection and Analysis

Foveation in Electrolocation

Electroreceptors for Active Electrolocation

Central Processes

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

EOD Carrier Modulation as a Source of Environmental Information

Prereceptor Mechanisms

Behavioral Performance during Object Detection and Analysis

Foveation in Electrolocation

Electroreceptors for Active Electrolocation

Central Processes

See also

DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Detection and Generation of Electric Signals in Fishes: An Introduction

Glossary

See also

Further Reading

See also

Relevant Websites

See also

DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Development of Electroreceptors and Electric Organs

Glossary

Introduction

Electroreceptor Development

Development of EOs

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Electroreceptor Development

Development of EOs

See also

DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Electric Organs

Glossary

Diversity of Electric Organs and Bioelectrogenesis

Morphological Organization of Electrogenic Systems and Its Role in Electrogenesis

See also

Further Reading

Diversity of Electric Organs and Bioelectrogenesis

Morphological Organization of Electrogenic Systems and Its Role in Electrogenesis

See also

DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Generation of Electric Signals

Glossary

Introduction

Physiological Mechanisms of Electric Organ Discharges

Central Control of EOD Time Patterns

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Physiological Mechanisms of Electric Organ Discharges

Central Control of EOD Time Patterns

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Physiological Mechanisms of Electric Organ Discharges

Central Control of EOD Time Patterns

See also

DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Morphology of Electroreceptive Sensory Organs

Glossary

Introduction

Lampreys: Electroreceptive End Buds

Ampullary Organs

Tuberous Electroreceptive Organs

Monotreme Electroreceptive Organs

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Lampreys: Electroreceptive End Buds

Ampullary Organs

Tuberous Electroreceptive Organs

Monotreme Electroreceptive Organs

See also

DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Physiology of Ampullary Electrosensory Systems

Glossary

Introduction

Sources of Electric Fields

Morphology of the Ampullary Organs

Physiology of the Receptors

Information Processing in the Hindbrain

Higher Electrosensory Areas

Electrosensory-Guided Behavior

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Sources of Electric Fields

Morphology of the Ampullary Organs

Physiology of the Receptors

Information Processing in the Hindbrain

Higher Electrosensory Areas

Electrosensory-Guided Behavior

See also

DETECTION AND GENERATION OF ELECTRIC SIGNALS | Physiology of Tuberous Electrosensory Systems

Glossary

Introduction

Amplitude Coding

Time Coding

Physiology of ELL Neurons Receiving Input from Amplitude-Sensitive Electroreceptors

Physiology of Midbrain Neurons: Integration of Sensory Information

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Amplitude Coding

Time Coding

Physiology of ELL Neurons Receiving Input from Amplitude-Sensitive Electroreceptors

Physiology of Midbrain Neurons: Integration of Sensory Information

Conclusion

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Amplitude Coding

Time Coding

Physiology of ELL Neurons Receiving Input from Amplitude-Sensitive Electroreceptors

Physiology of Midbrain Neurons: Integration of Sensory Information

Conclusion

See also

ENERGETIC MODELS | Bioenergetics in Aquaculture Settings

Glossary

Animal Bioenergetics

Defining Bioenergetics: Energy Flow and Partitioning

A Simple Model of Energy Partitioning

Units of Measurement

Chemical Analyses and Energy Determination

Energy Budgets: Growth Trials and the Biological Evaluation of Compound Feeds

Monitoring Feed Intake

Assessment of Nutrient Bioavailability

Metabolic Rates: Energy Expenditure and Rates of Nitrogenous Excretion

Growth and Nutrient Retention Efficiency

Past and Future

See also

Further Reading

Animal Bioenergetics

Defining Bioenergetics: Energy Flow and Partitioning

A Simple Model of Energy Partitioning

Units of Measurement

Chemical Analyses and Energy Determination

Energy Budgets: Growth Trials and the Biological Evaluation of Compound Feeds

Monitoring Feed Intake

Assessment of Nutrient Bioavailability

Metabolic Rates: Energy Expenditure and Rates of Nitrogenous Excretion

Growth and Nutrient Retention Efficiency

Past and Future

See also

ENERGETIC MODELS | Bioenergetics in Ecosystems1

Glossary

Fish Bioenergetics Modeling in Ecosystems: An Overview

A Simple Energy Budget for Fish

Wisconsin Bioenergetics Models for Fish

An Example of Fish Bioenergetics Modeling Guiding Fisheries Management

Estimating the Strength of the Predator–Prey Trophic Link: Other Examples

Use of Bioenergetics Modeling to Better Understand Fish Growth and Consumption

Role of Fish in Cycling Nutrients in Aquatic Ecosystems: Bioenergetics Model Applications

Contaminant Accumulation in Fish: Bioenergetics Model Applications

Limitations to Fish Bioenergetics Model Applications

See also

Further Reading

Fish Bioenergetics Modeling in Ecosystems: An Overview

A Simple Energy Budget for Fish

Wisconsin Bioenergetics Models for Fish

An Example of Fish Bioenergetics Modeling Guiding Fisheries Management

Estimating the Strength of the Predator–Prey Trophic Link: Other Examples

Use of Bioenergetics Modeling to Better Understand Fish Growth and Consumption

Role of Fish in Cycling Nutrients in Aquatic Ecosystems: Bioenergetics Model Applications

Contaminant Accumulation in Fish: Bioenergetics Model Applications

Limitations to Fish Bioenergetics Model Applications

See also

ENERGETICS | Energetics: An Introduction

Glossary

Energy Use by Fish

See also

ENERGETICS | General Energy Metabolism

Glossary

Metabolic Rates of Fish

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Metabolic Rates of Fish

Conclusions

See also

ENERGETICS | Physiological Functions that Scale to Body Mass in Fish

Glossary

Introduction

Scaling in Embryonic Fish

Ontogenetic Changes in Standard Metabolic Rate after Hatching

Interspecific Scaling

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Scaling in Embryonic Fish

Ontogenetic Changes in Standard Metabolic Rate after Hatching

Interspecific Scaling

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Scaling in Embryonic Fish

Ontogenetic Changes in Standard Metabolic Rate after Hatching

Interspecific Scaling

See also

ENERGY UTILIZATION IN GROWTH | Energetics of Growth

Glossary

Introduction

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Conclusion

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Conclusion

See also

ENERGY UTILIZATION IN GROWTH | Growth: Environmental Effects

Glossary

Introduction

Abiotic Factors

Biotic Factors

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Abiotic Factors

Biotic Factors

Conclusion

See also

FISH MIGRATIONS | Eel Migrations

Glossary

Introduction

Larval Migration: The Early Years

Migration from the Coastal Shelf: Life as a Glass Eel

Life in freshwater

The Downstream Migration: Back to the Sea

The Spawning Migration: Into the Big Blue

Concluding Thoughts

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Larval Migration: The Early Years

Migration from the Coastal Shelf: Life as a Glass Eel

Life in freshwater

The Downstream Migration: Back to the Sea

The Spawning Migration: Into the Big Blue

Concluding Thoughts

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Larval Migration: The Early Years

Migration from the Coastal Shelf: Life as a Glass Eel

Life in freshwater

The Downstream Migration: Back to the Sea

The Spawning Migration: Into the Big Blue

Concluding Thoughts

See also

FISH MIGRATIONS | Pacific Salmon Migration: Completing the Cycle

Glossary

Introduction

Larval Developmental Migration

Migration to Larval Feeding Grounds

Smolting and Migration to Sea

Migration to Ocean Feeding Grounds

Directed Migration to the Coast and Natal River

Adult Upriver Migration to Natal Stream

Anthropogenic Threats Involving Salmon Migrations

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Larval Developmental Migration

Migration to Larval Feeding Grounds

Smolting and Migration to Sea

Migration to Ocean Feeding Grounds

Directed Migration to the Coast and Natal River

Adult Upriver Migration to Natal Stream

Anthropogenic Threats Involving Salmon Migrations

Conclusions

See also

FISH MIGRATIONS | The Biology of Fish Migration

Glossary

What is Migration?

Classifying Migrations

Orientation and Navigation

Energetics of Migration

Environmental Factors That Influence Migration

Anthropogenic Impacts on Migration

See also

Further Reading

What is Migration?

Classifying Migrations

Orientation and Navigation

Energetics of Migration

Environmental Factors That Influence Migration

Anthropogenic Impacts on Migration

See also

FISH MIGRATIONS | Tracking Oceanic Fish

Glossary

Introduction

Acoustic Tags

Early Satellite Transmitters

Further Reading

Introduction

Acoustic Tags

Early Satellite Transmitters

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Acoustic Tags

Early Satellite Transmitters

FOOD ACQUISITION AND DIGESTION | Cost of Digestion and Assimilation

Glossary

Introduction

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Future Directions

See also

FOOD ACQUISITION AND DIGESTION | Dietary Requirements of Fish Under Culture Conditions

Glossary

Introduction

Nutrient Functions and Their Requirements

AAs/Protein

Fatty Acids

Minerals and Vitamins

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Nutrient Functions and Their Requirements

AAs/Protein

Fatty Acids

Minerals and Vitamins

See also

FOOD ACQUISITION AND DIGESTION | Digestive Efficiency

Glossary

Concepts in Digestive Efficiency

Dietary Effects on Digestive Efficiency

Fish Digestive Strategies

See also

Further Reading

Concepts in Digestive Efficiency

Dietary Effects on Digestive Efficiency

Fish Digestive Strategies

See also

FOOD ACQUISITION AND DIGESTION | Energetics of Foraging Decisions and Prey Handling

Glossary

Introduction

The Motivation to Feed–When to Forage?

Habitat Selection–Where to Forage?

Searching for Food–How to Forage?

Prey Selection–What to Forage?

More on Prey Handling

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

The Motivation to Feed–When to Forage?

Habitat Selection–Where to Forage?

Searching for Food–How to Forage?

Prey Selection–What to Forage?

More on Prey Handling

See also

FOOD ACQUISITION AND DIGESTION | Energetics of Prey Capture: From Foraging Theory to Functional Morphology

Glossary

Overview of Competition Theory and Relevance

The Ecomorphological Paradigm

Foraging and Prey Capture Behavior

Performance Consequences

See also

Further Reading

Overview of Competition Theory and Relevance

The Ecomorphological Paradigm

Foraging and Prey Capture Behavior

Performance Consequences

See also

GAS EXCHANGE | Respiration: An Introduction

Glossary

Introduction

The Environment: Water and Air as Respiratory Media

Ventilation and Gas-Exchange Organs

Gas Transport and Exchange

Tissue Respiration

Whole Animal and Techniques in Respiratory Physiology

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

The Environment: Water and Air as Respiratory Media

Ventilation and Gas-Exchange Organs

Gas Transport and Exchange

Tissue Respiration

Whole Animal and Techniques in Respiratory Physiology

See also

GUT ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY | Development of Fish Gut

Glossary

Introduction

Specification of Endoderm

Development of the Digestive Tract: Formation of the Pharynx, Esophagus, and Intestine

Determination of the Anterior-to-Posterior Position of the Liver and Pancreas

Differentiation of Digestive Organs

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Specification of Endoderm

Development of the Digestive Tract: Formation of the Pharynx, Esophagus, and Intestine

Determination of the Anterior-to-Posterior Position of the Liver and Pancreas

Differentiation of Digestive Organs

Concluding Remarks

See also

GUT ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY | Gut Anatomy

Glossary

Introduction

General Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Morphology

Species Differences

Other Factors That May Affect Gut Morphology

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

General Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Morphology

Species Differences

Other Factors That May Affect Gut Morphology

Concluding Remarks

See also

GUT ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY | Pancreas

Glossary

The Pancreas Has Many Functions

Structure of the Adult Pancreas

Embryological Development of the Pancreas

Evolution of the Pancreas

Hormones of the Pancreas

Enzymes of the Pancreas

Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

The Pancreas Has Many Functions

Structure of the Adult Pancreas

Embryological Development of the Pancreas

Evolution of the Pancreas

Hormones of the Pancreas

Enzymes of the Pancreas

Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion

Concluding Remarks

See also

HAGFISHES AND LAMPREY | Hagfishes

Glossary

The Fascination and a Few Misconceptions

Anaerobic Abilities

The Unique Physiology and Anatomy of Hagfishes

See also

Further Reading

The Fascination and a Few Misconceptions

Anaerobic Abilities

The Unique Physiology and Anatomy of Hagfishes

See also

HAGFISHES AND LAMPREY | Lampreys: Energetics and Development

Glossary

Background

Life History of Lampreys

Locomotion and the Skeletal-Muscle System

Metamorphosis

Upstream Migration and Reproduction

Feeding

Growth and Metabolism

The Great Lakes Invasion by Sea Lampreys

See also

Further Reading

Background

Life History of Lampreys

Locomotion and the Skeletal-Muscle System

Metamorphosis

Upstream Migration and Reproduction

Feeding

Growth and Metabolism

The Great Lakes Invasion by Sea Lampreys

See also

Relevant Websites

Background

Life History of Lampreys

Locomotion and the Skeletal-Muscle System

Metamorphosis

Upstream Migration and Reproduction

Feeding

Growth and Metabolism

The Great Lakes Invasion by Sea Lampreys

See also

HAGFISHES AND LAMPREY | Lampreys: Environmental Physiology

Glossary

Introduction

Gas Exchange and Cardiovascular System

Osmoregulation

Acid–Base Regulation

Nitrogenous Waste Production and Excretion

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Gas Exchange and Cardiovascular System

Osmoregulation

Acid–Base Regulation

Nitrogenous Waste Production and Excretion

Concluding Remarks

See also

HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Acoustic Behavior

Glossary

Introduction–Fish Behavior and Underwater Sound

What Species Make Sound?

Why Do Fishes Make Sound?

Sound Production and Ontogeny, Sex Differences

Sound Production as a Fishery Management Tool

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Introduction–Fish Behavior and Underwater Sound

What Species Make Sound?

Why Do Fishes Make Sound?

Sound Production and Ontogeny, Sex Differences

Sound Production as a Fishery Management Tool

Conclusion

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction–Fish Behavior and Underwater Sound

What Species Make Sound?

Why Do Fishes Make Sound?

Sound Production and Ontogeny, Sex Differences

Sound Production as a Fishery Management Tool

Conclusion

See also

HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Auditory System Morphology

Glossary

Vertebrate Ears

Fish Ears

Getting Sound to the Ear

Hair Cell Number and Fish Growth

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Vertebrate Ears

Fish Ears

Getting Sound to the Ear

Hair Cell Number and Fish Growth

Summary

See also

Relevant Websites

Vertebrate Ears

Fish Ears

Getting Sound to the Ear

Hair Cell Number and Fish Growth

Summary

See also

HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Auditory/Lateral Line CNS: Anatomy

Glossary

Evolutionary Overview

Central Anatomy of the Auditory and Mechanosensory Lateral Line Systems

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Evolutionary Overview

Central Anatomy of the Auditory and Mechanosensory Lateral Line Systems

Summary

See also

HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Biomechanics of the Inner Ear in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Propagation of Sound Underwater

Interaction of Sound with Fishes

Mechanics of the Hearing Process

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Propagation of Sound Underwater

Interaction of Sound with Fishes

Mechanics of the Hearing Process

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Propagation of Sound Underwater

Interaction of Sound with Fishes

Mechanics of the Hearing Process

Summary and Conclusions

See also

HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Fish

Glossary

Introduction

Sound Sources

Impacts on Fish

Regulation and Mitigation

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Sound Sources

Impacts on Fish

Regulation and Mitigation

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Sound Sources

Impacts on Fish

Regulation and Mitigation

See also

HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Fish Bioacoustics: An Introduction

Glossary

Origin of the Ear and Hearing

Origin of Knowledge of Fish Hearing

Perspectives on Fish Bioacoustics

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Origin of the Ear and Hearing

Origin of Knowledge of Fish Hearing

Perspectives on Fish Bioacoustics

Conclusions

See also

Relevant Websites

Origin of the Ear and Hearing

Origin of Knowledge of Fish Hearing

Perspectives on Fish Bioacoustics

Conclusions

See also

HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Lateral Line Neuroethology

Glossary

Introduction

Movement and the Response Characteristics of Lateral Line Submodalities

Feeding

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Movement and the Response Characteristics of Lateral Line Submodalities

Feeding

Conclusion

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Movement and the Response Characteristics of Lateral Line Submodalities

Feeding

Conclusion

See also

HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Lateral Line Structure

Glossary

What Is the Mechanosensory Lateral Line System?

Structure and Function of Neuromast Receptor Organs in Bony Fishes

Structural Variation in the Lateral Line System among Bony Fishes

Development of the Lateral Line System in Bony Fishes

The Lateral Line System of Chondrichthyan Fishes

The Lateral Line System of Jawless Fishes

See also

Further Reading

What Is the Mechanosensory Lateral Line System?

Structure and Function of Neuromast Receptor Organs in Bony Fishes

Structural Variation in the Lateral Line System among Bony Fishes

Development of the Lateral Line System in Bony Fishes

The Lateral Line System of Chondrichthyan Fishes

The Lateral Line System of Jawless Fishes

See also

HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Physiology of the Ear and Brain: How Fish Hear

Glossary

Introduction

Auditory Transduction

Afferent Coding of Sounds

Central Representation of Sounds

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Auditory Transduction

Afferent Coding of Sounds

Central Representation of Sounds

Summary

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Auditory Transduction

Afferent Coding of Sounds

Central Representation of Sounds

Summary

See also

HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Psychoacoustics: What Fish Hear

Glossary

Fish Can Hear!

How Is Hearing Measured?

Classical Conditioning

Instrumental Avoidance Conditioning

Auditory Evoked Potentials

Species Variation in Hearing Ability

The Determinants of Sensitivity

Frequency Discrimination

Auditory Scene Analysis

What Do Fishes Listen to?

See also

Further Reading

Fish Can Hear!

How Is Hearing Measured?

Classical Conditioning

Instrumental Avoidance Conditioning

Auditory Evoked Potentials

Species Variation in Hearing Ability

The Determinants of Sensitivity

Frequency Discrimination

Auditory Scene Analysis

What Do Fishes Listen to?

See also

HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Sound Source Localization and Directional Hearing in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Behavioral Evidence for Directional Hearing and Sound Source Localization

Theories of Directional Hearing and Sound Source Localization

Brain Mechanisms Underlying Sound Source Localization

Summary and Unresolved Issues

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Behavioral Evidence for Directional Hearing and Sound Source Localization

Theories of Directional Hearing and Sound Source Localization

Brain Mechanisms Underlying Sound Source Localization

Summary and Unresolved Issues

See also

HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | The Ear and Hearing in Sharks, Skates, and Rays

Glossary

Anatomy

Auditory Sensitivity

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Anatomy

Auditory Sensitivity

Summary

 

See also

HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Vestibular System Anatomy and Physiology

Glossary

Introduction

Organization of the Vestibular Sensory Periphery

Central Location of Vestibular-Related Octavolateral Nuclei

Origin of the Octavolateral Vestibular Subgroups

Central Terminations of Semicircular Canal and Utricular Afferents

Hindbrain Vestibuloocular Origins and Projections to Extraocular Motor Nuclei

Horizontal Vestibuloocular Subgroups

Vestibulospinal Projections for Locomotor Control and Posture Stabilization

Auxiliary Vestibular Connections for Gaze and Posture Control

Conservation of Fish Vestibular Organization in Other Vertebrates

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Organization of the Vestibular Sensory Periphery

Central Location of Vestibular-Related Octavolateral Nuclei

Origin of the Octavolateral Vestibular Subgroups

Central Terminations of Semicircular Canal and Utricular Afferents

Hindbrain Vestibuloocular Origins and Projections to Extraocular Motor Nuclei

Horizontal Vestibuloocular Subgroups

Vestibulospinal Projections for Locomotor Control and Posture Stabilization

Auxiliary Vestibular Connections for Gaze and Posture Control

Conservation of Fish Vestibular Organization in Other Vertebrates

See also

HEARING AND LATERAL LINE | Vocal Behavior of Fishes: Anatomy and Physiology

Glossary

Introduction

Vocalizations

Vocal Organs

Sexual Dimorphisms in Sound-Producing Muscles

Vocal Neuron Control

Concluding Comments

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Vocalizations

Vocal Organs

Sexual Dimorphisms in Sound-Producing Muscles

Vocal Neuron Control

Concluding Comments

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Vocalizations

Vocal Organs

Sexual Dimorphisms in Sound-Producing Muscles

Vocal Neuron Control

Concluding Comments

See also

HORMONAL CONTROL OF METABOLISM AND IONIC REGULATION | Corticosteroids

Glossary

Introduction

Corticosteroid Synthesis

Central Regulation of Cortisol Release

Corticosteroid Plasma Levels

Molecular Biology of Corticosteroid Receptors

11ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2

Molecular Mechanisms of CorticosteroidSignaling

Corticosteroid Target Tissue: Expression of Teleost Corticosteroid Receptors

Regulation of the Corticosteroid Signaling System by Stress Exposure

Evolution of the Teleost Corticosteroid Signaling System: What Is the Role of the Mineralocorticoid-Like Axis?

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Corticosteroid Synthesis

Central Regulation of Cortisol Release

Corticosteroid Plasma Levels

Molecular Biology of Corticosteroid Receptors

11ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2

Molecular Mechanisms of CorticosteroidSignaling

Corticosteroid Target Tissue: Expression of Teleost Corticosteroid Receptors

Regulation of the Corticosteroid Signaling System by Stress Exposure

Evolution of the Teleost Corticosteroid Signaling System: What Is the Role of the Mineralocorticoid-Like Axis?

See also

HORMONAL CONTROL OF METABOLISM AND IONIC REGULATION | The Hormonal Control of Osmoregulation in Teleost Fish

Glossary

Introduction: Salt and Water Balance in Fish

Cortisol

Prolactin

Growth Hormone and IGF-I

Thyroid Hormones

The Special Case of Anadromy

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction: Salt and Water Balance in Fish

Cortisol

Prolactin

Growth Hormone and IGF-I

Thyroid Hormones

The Special Case of Anadromy

Summary

See also

HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH | Control of Appetite in Fish

Glossary

How Is Appetite Regulated in Vertebrates?

Fish as a Model to Study the Mechanisms Regulating Appetite

Studying Appetite in Fish: Methodsand Approaches

Hormones and Appetite in Fish

Influence of Feeding Status and Circulating Metabolite Levels on Appetite

Influence of Gender, Reproductive Status, and Genetics on Appetite

Environmental Control of Appetite

See also

Further Reading

How Is Appetite Regulated in Vertebrates?

Fish as a Model to Study the Mechanisms Regulating Appetite

Studying Appetite in Fish: Methodsand Approaches

Hormones and Appetite in Fish

Influence of Feeding Status and Circulating Metabolite Levels on Appetite

Influence of Gender, Reproductive Status, and Genetics on Appetite

Environmental Control of Appetite

See also

HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH | Endocrine Control of Sex Differentiation in Fish

Glossary

Introduction

Morphological Aspects

Endocrine Control of Sex Differentiation

Environmental Influences

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Morphological Aspects

Endocrine Control of Sex Differentiation

Environmental Influences

Concluding Remarks

See also

HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH | Endocrine Regulation of Fish Reproduction

Glossary

Introduction–Overview of the Brain–Hypophyseal–Gonadal Axis

Oogenesis

Spermatogenesis

Gonadal Steroids

Gonadotropins and Their Regulation

See also

Further Reading

Introduction–Overview of the Brain–Hypophyseal–Gonadal Axis

Oogenesis

Spermatogenesis

Gonadal Steroids

Gonadotropins and Their Regulation

See also

HORMONAL CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH | Endocrinology of Fish Growth

Glossary

Food Intake and Growth Are Coordinated

General Features of Appetite Regulation

Appetite Stimulation

Appetite Suppression

Environmental Influences on Food Intake

Patterns of Growth in Fish

The GH–Insulin-Like Growth Factor System

Other Growth-Regulating Hormones

Control of Growth Hormone Production and Release

Peripheral Control of Growth

Environmental Influences on Growth

See also

Further Reading

Food Intake and Growth Are Coordinated

General Features of Appetite Regulation

Appetite Stimulation

Appetite Suppression

Environmental Influences on Food Intake

Patterns of Growth in Fish

The GH–Insulin-Like Growth Factor System

Other Growth-Regulating Hormones

Control of Growth Hormone Production and Release

Peripheral Control of Growth

Environmental Influences on Growth

See also

HORMONAL RESPONSES TO STRESS | Catecholamines

Glossary

Biosynthesis of Catecholamines

Sites of Catecholamine Synthesis and Storage

Situations Eliciting the Release of Catecholamines into the Circulation

Mechanisms of Catecholamine Secretion

Effects of Plasma Catecholamines and Mechanisms of Action

See also

Further Reading

Biosynthesis of Catecholamines

Sites of Catecholamine Synthesis and Storage

Situations Eliciting the Release of Catecholamines into the Circulation

Mechanisms of Catecholamine Secretion

Effects of Plasma Catecholamines and Mechanisms of Action

See also

HORMONAL RESPONSES TO STRESS | Hormone Response to Stress

Glossary

Hormones, Stress and Stressors

Factors Modifying the Stress Response

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Hormones, Stress and Stressors

Factors Modifying the Stress Response

Concluding Remarks

See also

HORMONAL RESPONSES TO STRESS | Impact of Stress in Health and Reproduction

Glossary

Impact of Stress on Reproduction

Impact of Stress on Health

See also

Further Reading

Impact of Stress on Reproduction

Impact of Stress on Health

See also

HORMONAL RESPONSES TO STRESS | Stress Effect on Growth and Metabolism

Glossary

Introduction

Catecholamines

Glucocorticoids

Other Related Hormones

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Catecholamines

Glucocorticoids

Other Related Hormones

See also

HORMONES IN COMMUNICATION | Hormonal Pheromones

Glossary

Introduction

Goldfish and Related Carps

Female Preovulatory Steroid Pheromone

Female Postovulatory Prostaglandin Pheromone

Mechanisms of Pheromone Action

Male-Derived Hormonal Pheromones

A Goldfish Chemical Network?

Hormonal Pheromones and Species Specificity

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Goldfish and Related Carps

Female Preovulatory Steroid Pheromone

Female Postovulatory Prostaglandin Pheromone

Mechanisms of Pheromone Action

Male-Derived Hormonal Pheromones

A Goldfish Chemical Network?

Hormonal Pheromones and Species Specificity

See also

HYPOXIA | Anaerobic Metabolism in Fish

Glossary

Introduction

General Overview of the ATP-GeneratingPathways in Fish

The Fate of Pyruvate

Lactate and Acid

Why Use Anaerobic Metabolism?

Anaerobic Metabolism and Hypoxia Exposure in Fish

Anaerobic Metabolism and Exhaustive Exercise

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

General Overview of the ATP-GeneratingPathways in Fish

The Fate of Pyruvate

Lactate and Acid

Why Use Anaerobic Metabolism?

Anaerobic Metabolism and Hypoxia Exposure in Fish

Anaerobic Metabolism and Exhaustive Exercise

See also

HYPOXIA | Metabolic Rate Suppression as a Mechanism for Surviving Hypoxia

Glossary

Introduction

Defining Metabolic Rate and Metabolic Scope

Measuring Metabolic Rate

Hypoxia Exposure Imposes a Metabolic Stress in Animals

Metabolic Scope for Survival: Suppression of Metabolic Rate Saves Precious Energy

Changes in Behavior Contribute to Metabolic Rate Suppression

Changes in Physiology Contribute to Metabolic Rate Suppression

Changes in Biochemistry Contribute to Metabolic Rate Suppression

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Defining Metabolic Rate and Metabolic Scope

Measuring Metabolic Rate

Hypoxia Exposure Imposes a Metabolic Stress in Animals

Metabolic Scope for Survival: Suppression of Metabolic Rate Saves Precious Energy

Changes in Behavior Contribute to Metabolic Rate Suppression

Changes in Physiology Contribute to Metabolic Rate Suppression

Changes in Biochemistry Contribute to Metabolic Rate Suppression

Summary

See also

HYPOXIA | Respiratory Responses to Hypoxia in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

What Is the Hypoxic Hyperventilatory Response?

What Is the Benefit of the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response?

What Are the Pathways Mediating the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response?

Ontogeny and Plasticity of the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

What Is the Hypoxic Hyperventilatory Response?

What Is the Benefit of the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response?

What Are the Pathways Mediating the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response?

Ontogeny and Plasticity of the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response

See also

HYPOXIA | The Expanding Hypoxic Environment

Glossary

Importance of Oxygen and Hypoxia

Where Does Hypoxia Occur?

Rise of Anthropogenic Influence on Oxygen Budgets

Oxygen Budgets and Global Climate Change

See also

Further Reading

Importance of Oxygen and Hypoxia

Where Does Hypoxia Occur?

Rise of Anthropogenic Influence on Oxygen Budgets

Oxygen Budgets and Global Climate Change

See also

INTEGRATED CONTROL AND RESPONSE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM | Central Control of Cardiorespiratory Interactions in Fish

Glossary

Introduction

Elasmobranchs

Teleosts

Air-Breathing Fish

The Neural Basis of CRIs

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Elasmobranchs

Teleosts

Air-Breathing Fish

The Neural Basis of CRIs

Summary

See also

INTEGRATED CONTROL AND RESPONSE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM | Hormone Metabolism in the Circulation

Glossary

Hormones and the Endocrine System

Types of Hormones

Mechanisms of Hormone Inactivation in Mammals

Mechanisms of Hormone Inactivation in Fish

Methods for Measuring Hormone Inactivation

See also

Further Reading

Hormones and the Endocrine System

Types of Hormones

Mechanisms of Hormone Inactivation in Mammals

Mechanisms of Hormone Inactivation in Fish

Methods for Measuring Hormone Inactivation

See also

INTEGRATED CONTROL AND RESPONSE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM | Integrated Cardiovascular Responses of Fish to Swimming

Glossary

Introduction

Aerobic Swimming

Anaerobic Swimming

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Aerobic Swimming

Anaerobic Swimming

Summary

See also

INTEGRATED CONTROL AND RESPONSE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM | Integrated Control of the Circulatory System

Glossary

Introduction

Control Systems

Integrative Analysis of the Fish Cardiovascular System

Examples of Complex and Simple Cardiovascular Regulation Using Negative Feedback Loops

Examples of Cardiovascular Regulation Using Feedforward Mechanisms

Examples of Cardiovascular Regulation Using Rheostasis

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Control Systems

Integrative Analysis of the Fish Cardiovascular System

Examples of Complex and Simple Cardiovascular Regulation Using Negative Feedback Loops

Examples of Cardiovascular Regulation Using Feedforward Mechanisms

Examples of Cardiovascular Regulation Using Rheostasis

See also

INTEGRATED CONTROL AND RESPONSE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM | Integrated Responses of the Circulatory System to Digestion

Glossary

Introduction

Blood Supply of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Regulation of the Gastrointestinal Blood Flow during Digestion

Other Factors Influencing the Response of the Circulatory System after Feeding

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Blood Supply of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Regulation of the Gastrointestinal Blood Flow during Digestion

Other Factors Influencing the Response of the Circulatory System after Feeding

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Blood Supply of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Regulation of the Gastrointestinal Blood Flow during Digestion

Other Factors Influencing the Response of the Circulatory System after Feeding

See also

INTEGRATED CONTROL AND RESPONSE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM | Integrated Responses of the Circulatory System to Hypoxia

Glossary

Introduction

Acute Hypoxia

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Acute Hypoxia

Summary

See also

INTEGRATED CONTROL AND RESPONSE OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM | Integrated Responses of the Circulatory System to Temperature

Glossary

Introduction

Acute Temperature Effects on Resting Cardiac Function

Temperature Effects on Maximum Cardiac Function and Scope for Cardiac Output

Responses of the Cardiovascular System to Temperature Acclimation

Adaptations of the Cardiovascular System

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Acute Temperature Effects on Resting Cardiac Function

Temperature Effects on Maximum Cardiac Function and Scope for Cardiac Output

Responses of the Cardiovascular System to Temperature Acclimation

Adaptations of the Cardiovascular System

Summary

See also

INTEGRATED FUNCTION AND CONTROL OF THE GUT | Barrier Function of the Gut

Glossary

Introduction

The Epithelium

The Intestinal Barrier

The Barrier Function of Different Intestinal Regions

Translocation of Pathogens across the Barriers

The Barrier in Stress and Disease

Species Differences

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

The Epithelium

The Intestinal Barrier

The Barrier Function of Different Intestinal Regions

Translocation of Pathogens across the Barriers

The Barrier in Stress and Disease

Species Differences

Concluding Remarks

See also

INTEGRATED FUNCTION AND CONTROL OF THE GUT | Endocrine Systems of the Gut

Glossary

Introduction

Gastrin, Histamine, and Somatostatin Interact in the Control of Gastric Acid Secretion

CCK Affects Appetite and Digestion

Serotonin–Hormone or Transmitter?

Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Has a Deviant Effect in Fish

Ghrelin Influences Appetite and Growth-Hormone Secretion

Leptin’s Role in the Gut Is Not Yet Known in Fish

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Gastrin, Histamine, and Somatostatin Interact in the Control of Gastric Acid Secretion

CCK Affects Appetite and Digestion

Serotonin–Hormone or Transmitter?

Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Has a Deviant Effect in Fish

Ghrelin Influences Appetite and Growth-Hormone Secretion

Leptin’s Role in the Gut Is Not Yet Known in Fish

Concluding Remarks

See also

INTEGRATED FUNCTION AND CONTROL OF THE GUT | Gut Motility

Glossary

What Is Gut Motility?

Different Motility Patterns Are Present in the Gut

Cellular Mechanisms behind Motility

Gut Motility Is Tightly Controlled

Development of Gut Motility and Control

Integrated Effects on Gut Motility

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

What Is Gut Motility?

Different Motility Patterns Are Present in the Gut

Cellular Mechanisms behind Motility

Gut Motility Is Tightly Controlled

Development of Gut Motility and Control

Integrated Effects on Gut Motility

Concluding Remarks

See also

INTEGRATED FUNCTION AND CONTROL OF THE GUT | Gut Secretion and Digestion

Glossary

Introduction

Secretion

Digestion

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Secretion

Digestion

Concluding Remarks

See also

INTEGRATED FUNCTION AND CONTROL OF THE GUT | Intestinal Absorption

Glossary

Introduction

The Intestine as a Transporting Epithelium

Transepithelial Transport of Macronutrients

Protein Absorption

Lipid Absorption

Carbohydrate Absorption

Intestinal Ion and Water Transport

Micronutrient Absorption

Regionalization of Intestinal Absorption

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

The Intestine as a Transporting Epithelium

Transepithelial Transport of Macronutrients

Protein Absorption

Lipid Absorption

Carbohydrate Absorption

Intestinal Ion and Water Transport

Micronutrient Absorption

Regionalization of Intestinal Absorption

Concluding Remarks

See also

INTEGRATED FUNCTION AND CONTROL OF THE GUT | Nervous System of the Gut

Glossary

Autonomic Nerves Innervate the Gut

Anatomy of the Gut Nervous System

Neurotransmitters and Their Receptors

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Autonomic Nerves Innervate the Gut

Anatomy of the Gut Nervous System

Neurotransmitters and Their Receptors

Concluding Remarks

See also

INTERTIDAL FISHES | Intertidal Habitats

Glossary

Introduction

Tidal Cycles

Types of Intertidal Habitats

Adaptations to Changing Salinity

Adaptations to Changing Oxygenation

Adaptations to Changing Temperature

Other Environmental Factors

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Tidal Cycles

Types of Intertidal Habitats

Adaptations to Changing Salinity

Adaptations to Changing Oxygenation

Adaptations to Changing Temperature

Other Environmental Factors

See also

MUSCLES, SKELETON, SKIN, AND MOVEMENT | Functional Anatomy of Bones, Muscle, and Skin: An Introduction

Glossary

A Brief Historical Perspective on Functional Anatomy of Fishes

Functional Anatomy of Fishes Today

See also

Further Reading

A Brief Historical Perspective on Functional Anatomy of Fishes

Functional Anatomy of Fishes Today

See also

NITROGENOUS-WASTE BALANCE | Excretion of Ammonia

Glossary

Introduction

Ammonia Gas, Ammonium Ions, and pH

Ammonia Excretion and pH

Ammonia Transfer across Cell Membranes

Ammonia and Gill Ventilation

Ammonia Volatilization

Ammonia Toxicity

Ureogenesis

Feeding and Exercise

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Ammonia Gas, Ammonium Ions, and pH

Ammonia Excretion and pH

Ammonia Transfer across Cell Membranes

Ammonia and Gill Ventilation

Ammonia Volatilization

Ammonia Toxicity

Ureogenesis

Feeding and Exercise

See also

NITROGENOUS-WASTE BALANCE | Ureotelism

Glossary

Introduction

Synthesis of Urea

Retention of Urea in Elasmobranchs and Coelacanths

Urea Excretion

Environmental Impacts on Urea Excretion

Early Life Stages

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Synthesis of Urea

Retention of Urea in Elasmobranchs and Coelacanths

Urea Excretion

Environmental Impacts on Urea Excretion

Early Life Stages

See also

OSMOTIC, IONIC AND NITROGENOUS-WASTE BALANCE | Mechanisms of Gill Salt Secretion in Marine Teleosts

Glossary

Introduction

The Mitochondrion-Rich Cell

Mechanisms of NaCl Transport across the MRC

Molecular Evidence for Routes of NaCl Transport

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

The Mitochondrion-Rich Cell

Mechanisms of NaCl Transport across the MRC

Molecular Evidence for Routes of NaCl Transport

See also

OSMOTIC, IONIC AND NITROGENOUS-WASTE BALANCE | Mechanisms of Ion Transport in Freshwater Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Na+ Uptake/Acid Secretion

Cl- Uptake/Base Secretion

Ca2+ Uptake

Different Subtypes of Ionocytes

Functional Regulation to Cope with Fluctuating Environments

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Na+ Uptake/Acid Secretion

Cl- Uptake/Base Secretion

Ca2+ Uptake

Different Subtypes of Ionocytes

Functional Regulation to Cope with Fluctuating Environments

Summary

See also

OSMOTIC, IONIC AND NITROGENOUS-WASTE BALANCE | Osmoregulation in Fishes: An Introduction

Glossary

Introduction

Paleoecology of Fishes

Osmoregulation in Marine Fishes

Osmoregulation in Freshwater Fishes

The Origin of Ionic Uptake Systems in the Early Vertebrates

Why Aren’t All Fishes Euryhaline?

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Paleoecology of Fishes

Osmoregulation in Marine Fishes

Osmoregulation in Freshwater Fishes

The Origin of Ionic Uptake Systems in the Early Vertebrates

Why Aren’t All Fishes Euryhaline?

See also

OSMOTIC, IONIC AND NITROGENOUS-WASTE BALANCE | Osmosensing

Glossary

Why Do Fishes Need to Sense Environmental Salinity?

Basic Principles of Osmosensory Signal Transduction

Molecular Osmosensors

The Ion–Damage–Cytokine Model of Osmosensing

Cellular Osmosensing and Chloride Cell Differentiation

Role of Osmosensing for Fish Sperm Motility

See also

Further Reading

Why Do Fishes Need to Sense Environmental Salinity?

Basic Principles of Osmosensory Signal Transduction

Molecular Osmosensors

The Ion–Damage–Cytokine Model of Osmosensing

Cellular Osmosensing and Chloride Cell Differentiation

Role of Osmosensing for Fish Sperm Motility

See also

Relevant Websites

Why Do Fishes Need to Sense Environmental Salinity?

Basic Principles of Osmosensory Signal Transduction

Molecular Osmosensors

The Ion–Damage–Cytokine Model of Osmosensing

Cellular Osmosensing and Chloride Cell Differentiation

Role of Osmosensing for Fish Sperm Motility

See also

OSMOTIC, IONIC AND NITROGENOUS-WASTE BALANCE | Water Balance and Aquaporin

Glossary

Introduction

General Aspects of Osmosis

Gill Water Transport

Gastrointestinal Water Transport

Renal Water Flows

Urinary Bladder

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

General Aspects of Osmosis

Gill Water Transport

Gastrointestinal Water Transport

Renal Water Flows

Urinary Bladder

See also

PELAGIC FISHES | An Introduction to the Biology of Pelagic Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

General Adaptations for Life in the Pelagic Realm

Do Pelagic Fish Have a Depth Preference?

What May Limit the Vertical Movements of Pelagic Fishes?

Physiological and Morphological Adaptations That Allow Some Pelagic Fishes to Undergo Rapid and Repeated Vertical Movements in the Water Column

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

General Adaptations for Life in the Pelagic Realm

Do Pelagic Fish Have a Depth Preference?

What May Limit the Vertical Movements of Pelagic Fishes?

Physiological and Morphological Adaptations That Allow Some Pelagic Fishes to Undergo Rapid and Repeated Vertical Movements in the Water Column

See also

PELAGIC FISHES | Endothermy in Tunas, Billfishes, and Sharks

Glossary

Introduction

Systemic Endothermy

Cranial Endothermy

Heater Organ Tissue

How Fish Have Built a Furnace Out of Muscle

Telemetry of Brain Temperature

Why Be Warm?

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Systemic Endothermy

Cranial Endothermy

Heater Organ Tissue

How Fish Have Built a Furnace Out of Muscle

Telemetry of Brain Temperature

Why Be Warm?

See also

PELAGIC FISHES | Physiology of Tuna

Glossary

Introduction

Continuous Swimming

High Metabolic Rates and Aerobic Scopes

Specializations Associated with High Aerobic Capacity

Physiological Consequences of Regional Endothermy

Physiological Consequences of Diving in Tunas

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Continuous Swimming

High Metabolic Rates and Aerobic Scopes

Specializations Associated with High Aerobic Capacity

Physiological Consequences of Regional Endothermy

Physiological Consequences of Diving in Tunas

See also

REPRODUCTION | The Diversity of Fish Reproduction: An Introduction

Glossary

See also

Further Reading

See also

RESPONSES AND ADAPTATIONS TO THE ENVIRONMENT | General Principles of Biochemical Adaptations

Glossary

Introduction

Noncovalent Bonding as a Basis for Environmental Stress

Optimal Values for Biochemical Systems: The Conservative Side of Adaptation

Conservation of Protein Structure and Function

Conservation of an Appropriate Internal Milieu

Conservation of Membrane Function: Homeoviscous and Homeophasic Adaptation

Conservation of Gene Regulatory Ability

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Noncovalent Bonding as a Basis for Environmental Stress

Optimal Values for Biochemical Systems: The Conservative Side of Adaptation

Conservation of Protein Structure and Function

Conservation of an Appropriate Internal Milieu

Conservation of Membrane Function: Homeoviscous and Homeophasic Adaptation

Conservation of Gene Regulatory Ability

Summary

See also

ROLE OF THE GILLS | Morphology of Branchial Ionocytes

Glossary

Introduction

Pavement Cells

MRCs or Chloride Cells

MCR Identification

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Pavement Cells

MRCs or Chloride Cells

MCR Identification

See also

ROLE OF THE GILLS | The Osmorespiratory Compromise

Glossary

What Is the Osmorespiratory Compromise?

The Effect of Changes in Branchial Surface Area

The Effect of Changes in Branchial Diffusion Distance

Effect of Branchial Remodeling

See also

Further Reading

What Is the Osmorespiratory Compromise?

The Effect of Changes in Branchial Surface Area

The Effect of Changes in Branchial Diffusion Distance

Effect of Branchial Remodeling

See also

ROLE OF THE GUT | Dogfish Rectal Gland

Glossary

Introduction

Anatomy

Studying Rectal Gland Secretory Function

Mechanism of Salt Transport

Controls of Rectal Gland Function

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Anatomy

Studying Rectal Gland Secretory Function

Mechanism of Salt Transport

Controls of Rectal Gland Function

Conclusion

See also

ROLE OF THE GUT | Gut Ion, Osmotic and Acid-Base Regulation

Glossary

Introduction

Gut Anatomy

Ion and Osmotic Regulation Functions of the Gut in Nonfeeding Teleost Fish

Intestinal Cl- and Water Absorption Directly Linked to HCO3- Secretion

Intestinal Water Absorption Indirectly Linked to HCO3- Secretion via Alkaline CaCO3 Precipitation

Ion Regulation in the Gut of Freshwater Fish

Ion and Osmotic Regulation by the Gut of Feeding Freshwater Teleost Fish

Ion and Osmotic Regulation by the Gut of Feeding Marine Teleost Fish

The Role of the Gut in Acid–Base Regulation

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Gut Anatomy

Ion and Osmotic Regulation Functions of the Gut in Nonfeeding Teleost Fish

Intestinal Cl- and Water Absorption Directly Linked to HCO3- Secretion

Intestinal Water Absorption Indirectly Linked to HCO3- Secretion via Alkaline CaCO3 Precipitation

Ion Regulation in the Gut of Freshwater Fish

Ion and Osmotic Regulation by the Gut of Feeding Freshwater Teleost Fish

Ion and Osmotic Regulation by the Gut of Feeding Marine Teleost Fish

The Role of the Gut in Acid–Base Regulation

See also

ROLE OF THE KIDNEYS | Histology of the Kidney

Glossary

Introduction

Evolution of the Kidney

Pronephros or Head Kidney

Opisthonephros

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Evolution of the Kidney

Pronephros or Head Kidney

Opisthonephros

See also

ROLE OF THE KIDNEYS | The Kidney

Glossary

Introduction

Kidney Structure

Urine Formation

Acid–Base Balance by the Kidney

Nitrogen Excretion by the Kidney

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Kidney Structure

Urine Formation

Acid–Base Balance by the Kidney

Nitrogen Excretion by the Kidney

See also

SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | Circadian Rhythms in Fish

Glossary

Introduction

Expressions of Circadian Rhythmicity

Entrainment of the Circadian Clock

Diurnality and Nocturnality

Location of the Circadian Clock

Clock Genes

Circatidal Rhythms

Other Rhythms

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Expressions of Circadian Rhythmicity

Entrainment of the Circadian Clock

Diurnality and Nocturnality

Location of the Circadian Clock

Clock Genes

Circatidal Rhythms

Other Rhythms

See also

SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | Communication Behavior: Visual Signals

Glossary

Introduction

Bioluminescent Signaling

Signaling with Reflected Light

Evolution of Visual Signals

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Bioluminescent Signaling

Signaling with Reflected Light

Evolution of Visual Signals

See also

SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | Fish Learning and Memory

Glossary

Introduction

Different Forms of Learning and Memory

Areas of the Fish Brain Involved in Learning and Memory

Factors That Affect Learning and Memory

Sensitive Phases for Learning or Imprinting

Learning and Memory in Applied Contexts

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Different Forms of Learning and Memory

Areas of the Fish Brain Involved in Learning and Memory

Factors That Affect Learning and Memory

Sensitive Phases for Learning or Imprinting

Learning and Memory in Applied Contexts

Summary

See also

SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | How Fishes Use Sound: Quiet to Loud and Simple to Complex Signalling

Glossary

Introduction to Vocal Fishes: Quiet versus Loud Vocalizers

Discovery and Evolution of Vocal Fish Behavior

Fish Call Characteristics: Simple versus Complex

Chorusing Behavior: Schooling, Spawning, and Feeding

Reproductive Sound Signaling: Male Display and Female Mate Choice

Agonistic Sound Signaling within Species

Avoiding and Repelling Predators

Sound Signals Relative to Other Communication Modalities

Conclusions: What Fish Sounds Can and Cannot Do

See also

Further Reading

Introduction to Vocal Fishes: Quiet versus Loud Vocalizers

Discovery and Evolution of Vocal Fish Behavior

Fish Call Characteristics: Simple versus Complex

Chorusing Behavior: Schooling, Spawning, and Feeding

Reproductive Sound Signaling: Male Display and Female Mate Choice

Agonistic Sound Signaling within Species

Avoiding and Repelling Predators

Sound Signals Relative to Other Communication Modalities

Conclusions: What Fish Sounds Can and Cannot Do

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction to Vocal Fishes: Quiet versus Loud Vocalizers

Discovery and Evolution of Vocal Fish Behavior

Fish Call Characteristics: Simple versus Complex

Chorusing Behavior: Schooling, Spawning, and Feeding

Reproductive Sound Signaling: Male Display and Female Mate Choice

Agonistic Sound Signaling within Species

Avoiding and Repelling Predators

Sound Signals Relative to Other Communication Modalities

Conclusions: What Fish Sounds Can and Cannot Do

See also

SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | Magnetic Sense in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Magnetic Fields in Nature and the Laboratory

Behavioral Responses to Magnetic Fields

Neural Responses

Magnetite-Based Magnetoreceptor Cells?

Neuroanatomy

Do Fish Use the Earth’s Magnetic Field to Navigate?

Outlook

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Magnetic Fields in Nature and the Laboratory

Behavioral Responses to Magnetic Fields

Neural Responses

Magnetite-Based Magnetoreceptor Cells?

Neuroanatomy

Do Fish Use the Earth’s Magnetic Field to Navigate?

Outlook

See also

SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | Nociception or Pain in Fish

Glossary

What Are Nociception and Pain?

Why Is Fish Pain Controversial?

Learning to Avoid Noxious Stimuli

Behavioral Responses to Pain or Nociception in Fish

Species-Specific Responses

How Important Would Pain Be to a Fish?

Future Research Perspectives

See also

Further Reading

What Are Nociception and Pain?

Why Is Fish Pain Controversial?

Learning to Avoid Noxious Stimuli

Behavioral Responses to Pain or Nociception in Fish

Species-Specific Responses

How Important Would Pain Be to a Fish?

Future Research Perspectives

See also

Relevant Websites

What Are Nociception and Pain?

Why Is Fish Pain Controversial?

Learning to Avoid Noxious Stimuli

Behavioral Responses to Pain or Nociception in Fish

Species-Specific Responses

How Important Would Pain Be to a Fish?

Future Research Perspectives

See also

SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | Shocking Comments: Electrocommunication in Teleost Fish

Glossary

Introduction

Discovery of Electrocommunication

Generating Electrocommunication Signals in Two forms: Wave versus Pulse EODs

Communication through the Continuous EOD: Function in Species and Sexual Identification

Communication through EOD Modulations: Function in Aggression and Courtship

Hormonal Influences on Electrocommunication Systems

Evolution of Electrocommunication

Electrocommunication as a Model in Neuroethology

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Discovery of Electrocommunication

Generating Electrocommunication Signals in Two forms: Wave versus Pulse EODs

Communication through the Continuous EOD: Function in Species and Sexual Identification

Communication through EOD Modulations: Function in Aggression and Courtship

Hormonal Influences on Electrocommunication Systems

Evolution of Electrocommunication

Electrocommunication as a Model in Neuroethology

See also

SENSORY SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION, AND LEARNING | Spatial Orientation: How do Fish Find their Way Around?

Glossary

Introduction

Orientation Mechanisms

Sensory Systems Used to Obtain Spatial Information

Flexibility in Learning and Remembering Spatial Information

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Orientation Mechanisms

Sensory Systems Used to Obtain Spatial Information

Flexibility in Learning and Remembering Spatial Information

Conclusion

See also

SMELL, TASTE, AND CHEMICAL SENSING | Chemoreception (Smell and Taste): An Introduction

Glossary

See also

Further Reading

See also

SMELL, TASTE, AND CHEMICAL SENSING | Chemosensory Behavior

Glossary

Feeding Behavior

Reproductive Behavior

Alarm Substance and Fright Reaction

Homing of Salmon

See also

Further Reading

Feeding Behavior

Reproductive Behavior

Alarm Substance and Fright Reaction

Homing of Salmon

See also

SMELL, TASTE, AND CHEMICAL SENSING | Morphology of the Gustatory (Taste) System in Fishes

Glossary

Peripheral Gustatory System

Central Gustatory Pathways

Palatal Organs and Barbels

Alliance with the Trigeminal Nerve

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Peripheral Gustatory System

Central Gustatory Pathways

Palatal Organs and Barbels

Alliance with the Trigeminal Nerve

Concluding Remarks

See also

SMELL, TASTE, AND CHEMICAL SENSING | Morphology of the Olfactory (Smell) System in Fishes

Glossary

Peripheral Olfactory Organ

Olfactory Bulb and Central Projections

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Peripheral Olfactory Organ

Olfactory Bulb and Central Projections

Concluding Remarks

See also

SMELL, TASTE, AND CHEMICAL SENSING | Neurophysiology of Gustation

Glossary

Responses to Chemical Stimuli

Molecular Basis of Gustatory Receptors and Transduction

Responses to Mechanical/Tactile Stimuli

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Responses to Chemical Stimuli

Molecular Basis of Gustatory Receptors and Transduction

Responses to Mechanical/Tactile Stimuli

Concluding Remarks

See also

SMELL, TASTE, AND CHEMICAL SENSING | Neurophysiology of Olfaction

Glossary

Olfactory Signal Transduction

Potency and Specificity of Olfactory Stimuli

Ciliated, Microvillar, or Crypt Receptor Neurons–Functional Specialization?

Signal Processing in the Olfactory Bulb and Telencephalon

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Olfactory Signal Transduction

Potency and Specificity of Olfactory Stimuli

Ciliated, Microvillar, or Crypt Receptor Neurons–Functional Specialization?

Signal Processing in the Olfactory Bulb and Telencephalon

Concluding Remarks

See also

SOCIAL AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS | Dominance Behaviors

Glossary

Dominance Hierarchies

How Is Dominance Measured?

Causes of Dominance

Physiological Consequences of Social Status

Why Study Dominance?

See also

Further Reading

Dominance Hierarchies

How Is Dominance Measured?

Causes of Dominance

Physiological Consequences of Social Status

Why Study Dominance?

See also

SOCIAL AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS | Nutritional Provision During Parental Care

Glossary

Why Provide Nutrients?

Future Directions

See also

Further Reading

Why Provide Nutrients?

Future Directions

See also

SOCIAL AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS | Parental Care in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Patterns and Diversity in Parental Care

Explaining the Patterns and Diversity of Fish Parental Care

Physiological Mechanisms Underlying Fish Parental Care

Future Research Directions and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Patterns and Diversity in Parental Care

Explaining the Patterns and Diversity of Fish Parental Care

Physiological Mechanisms Underlying Fish Parental Care

Future Research Directions and Conclusions

See also

SOCIAL AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS | Sexual Behavior in Fish

Glossary

Overview of Sexual Behaviors in Fish

Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Overview of Sexual Behaviors in Fish

Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior

Conclusions

See also

SOCIAL AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS | Socially Controlled Sex Change in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Sexual Patterns in Fishes

Steroid Hormone Patterns

Other Steroid Hormones and Sex Change

Neural Mechanisms of Sex Change

Neural Bases of Behavioral Sex Change

Summary

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Sexual Patterns in Fishes

Steroid Hormone Patterns

Other Steroid Hormones and Sex Change

Neural Mechanisms of Sex Change

Neural Bases of Behavioral Sex Change

Summary

See also

STURGEON | Physiology of Sturgeon

Glossary

Introduction

Reproduction

Endogenous and Environmental Regulation of Reproduction

Growth

Respiratory Metabolism

Blood-Oxygen Affinity

Acid–Base Balance

Gut Blood Flow

Osmoregulation

Swimming Performance

Stress Responses

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Reproduction

Endogenous and Environmental Regulation of Reproduction

Growth

Respiratory Metabolism

Blood-Oxygen Affinity

Acid–Base Balance

Gut Blood Flow

Osmoregulation

Swimming Performance

Stress Responses

See also

SWIMMING AND OTHER ACTIVITIES | Applied Aspects of Fish Swimming Performance

Glossary

Background

Swimming Performance Data–Where Does It Come from?

Limitations of Available Data

See also

Further Reading

Background

Swimming Performance Data–Where Does It Come from?

Limitations of Available Data

See also

SWIMMING AND OTHER ACTIVITIES | Cellular Energy Utilization: Environmental Influences on Metabolism

Glossary

Introduction

Aerobic Metabolic Pathways: Sustaining Functional Scope

Anaerobic Metabolic Pathways: Extending Limits to Function and Time

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Aerobic Metabolic Pathways: Sustaining Functional Scope

Anaerobic Metabolic Pathways: Extending Limits to Function and Time

See also

SWIMMING AND OTHER ACTIVITIES | Energetics of Fish Swimming

Glossary

Introduction

Why Swimming Requires Energy

Types of Fish Muscle and Swimming Activity

Environmental Influences and the Fry Paradigm

Estimating the Costs of Swimming in Wild Fish

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Why Swimming Requires Energy

Types of Fish Muscle and Swimming Activity

Environmental Influences and the Fry Paradigm

Estimating the Costs of Swimming in Wild Fish

Conclusions

See also

TEMPERATURE | Effects of Climate Change

Glossary

Introduction

Ecosystem Level Phenomena: Populations and Communities

Physiological Background of Climate-Change Impacts on Ecosystems

Performance Patterns and Energy Budget

Physiology-Based Projections of Impacts

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Ecosystem Level Phenomena: Populations and Communities

Physiological Background of Climate-Change Impacts on Ecosystems

Performance Patterns and Energy Budget

Physiology-Based Projections of Impacts

See also

TEMPERATURE | Effects of Temperature: An Introduction

Glossary

Introduction

Temperature and Its Measurement

Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat

Effects of Temperature on Rate Processes

Q10

Arrhenius Breakpoint Temperature

Effects of Temperature on Weak Bonds

Strategies of Thermal Adaptation and Acclimation

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Temperature and Its Measurement

Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat

Effects of Temperature on Rate Processes

Q10

Arrhenius Breakpoint Temperature

Effects of Temperature on Weak Bonds

Strategies of Thermal Adaptation and Acclimation

See also

TEMPERATURE | Heat Shock Proteins and Temperature

Glossary

Introduction

Heat Shock Proteins

HSPs and Fish

HSPs in the Cold

Plasticity of the Heat Shock Response

Thermal/Cross Tolerance

Triggers of the Heat Shock Response

Molecular Regulation of the Heat Shock Response

Physiological Regulation of the Heat Shock Response

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Heat Shock Proteins

HSPs and Fish

HSPs in the Cold

Plasticity of the Heat Shock Response

Thermal/Cross Tolerance

Triggers of the Heat Shock Response

Molecular Regulation of the Heat Shock Response

Physiological Regulation of the Heat Shock Response

Conclusion

See also

TEMPERATURE | Measures of Thermal Tolerance

Glossary

Temperature-Dependent Physiology: The Basis of Thermal Tolerance

Environmental Temperatures (Te’s) and Fishes

Thermal Tolerance of Fishes: A Brief History

Laboratory Measures of Thermal Tolerance

Influences on Thermal Tolerance

Ecophysiological Theory of Thermal Tolerance

Biological Applications of Thermal Tolerance

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Temperature-Dependent Physiology: The Basis of Thermal Tolerance

Environmental Temperatures (Te’s) and Fishes

Thermal Tolerance of Fishes: A Brief History

Laboratory Measures of Thermal Tolerance

Influences on Thermal Tolerance

Ecophysiological Theory of Thermal Tolerance

Biological Applications of Thermal Tolerance

Concluding Remarks

See also

TEMPERATURE | Membranes and Temperature: Homeoviscous Adaptation

Glossary

Introduction

Structure of Cellular Membranes

Environmental Effects on Fluidity

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Structure of Cellular Membranes

Environmental Effects on Fluidity

Conclusions

See also

TEMPERATURE | Mitochondria and Temperature

Glossary

Introduction

Fish Mitochondria and Thermal Change

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Fish Mitochondria and Thermal Change

See also

TEMPERATURE | Proteins and Temperature

Glossary

Introduction

Effects of Temperature on Enzyme Function

Structural Modifications in Proteins Important for Temperature Adaptation

Location of Amino Acid Substitutions Is Important in Enzymic Temperature Adaptation

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Effects of Temperature on Enzyme Function

Structural Modifications in Proteins Important for Temperature Adaptation

Location of Amino Acid Substitutions Is Important in Enzymic Temperature Adaptation

See also

TEMPERATURE | Temperature and Excitable Membranes

Glossary

What Is an Excitable Membrane or Cell?

Ion Channels Are Necessary for Excitability

How Does Temperature Affect Excitability?

Significance of Membrane Lipids in Thermal Responses of Excitable Cells

Evolutionary Thermal Adaptation of Excitability

See also

Further Reading

What Is an Excitable Membrane or Cell?

Ion Channels Are Necessary for Excitability

How Does Temperature Affect Excitability?

Significance of Membrane Lipids in Thermal Responses of Excitable Cells

Evolutionary Thermal Adaptation of Excitability

See also

THE GUT | The Gastrointestinal Tract: An Introduction

Glossary

See also

Further Reading

See also

THE MUSCLES | Bony Fish Cranial Muscles

Glossary

Overview

Buccal Pumping

Suction Feeding

Premaxillary Protrusion

Biting/Tearing

Pharyngeal Jaw Processing

See also

Further Reading

Overview

Buccal Pumping

Suction Feeding

Premaxillary Protrusion

Biting/Tearing

Pharyngeal Jaw Processing

See also

THE MUSCLES | Cartilaginous Fishes Cranial Muscles

Glossary

Introduction

Shark Musculature

Batoid Musculature

Holocephalan Musculature

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Shark Musculature

Batoid Musculature

Holocephalan Musculature

See also

THE PITUITARY | Development of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal Axis

Glossary

Introduction

Components of the HPI Axis

Ontogeny of the HPI Axis

HPI Axis Development in Zebrafish

Stress Axis Development in Other Teleosts

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Components of the HPI Axis

Ontogeny of the HPI Axis

HPI Axis Development in Zebrafish

Stress Axis Development in Other Teleosts

Conclusion

See also

THE PITUITARY | Pituitary Gland or Hypophysis

Glossary

Anatomy

Hormones of the Adenohypophysis

Hormones of the Neurohypophysis

Histological Structure of the Adenohypophysis

Further Reading

Anatomy

Hormones of the Adenohypophysis

Hormones of the Neurohypophysis

Histological Structure of the Adenohypophysis

THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS AND PROCESSES | Anatomy and Histology of Fish Testis

Glossary

Introduction

General Structure of the Teleost Testis

Anatomy of the Testis, Efferent Duct, and Seminal Vesicles

Germ-Cell Clones, Sertoli Cells, and Cystic Spermatogenesis

Distribution of Spermatogenic Cysts

Spermatogenesis–An Overview

Morphological Characteristics of Germ Cells during Spermatogenesis

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

General Structure of the Teleost Testis

Anatomy of the Testis, Efferent Duct, and Seminal Vesicles

Germ-Cell Clones, Sertoli Cells, and Cystic Spermatogenesis

Distribution of Spermatogenic Cysts

Spermatogenesis–An Overview

Morphological Characteristics of Germ Cells during Spermatogenesis

See also

THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS AND PROCESSES | Regulation of Spermatogenesis

Glossary

Introduction

Regulation of Testis Functions by Pituitary Gonadotropins

Sertoli Cells

Steroid Hormone Blood Levels

Estrogens

Androgens

Progesterones

Final Maturation of Male Gametes

Germ Cell Autonomous Regulation of Spermatogenesis

Synopsis and Outlook

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Regulation of Testis Functions by Pituitary Gonadotropins

Sertoli Cells

Steroid Hormone Blood Levels

Estrogens

Androgens

Progesterones

Final Maturation of Male Gametes

Germ Cell Autonomous Regulation of Spermatogenesis

Synopsis and Outlook

See also

THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS AND PROCESSES | Vitellogenesis in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Chemistry of Vitellogenins and Egg Yolk

Vitellogenin Structure and Product YPs

Nomenclature and Classification of Vitellogenins

Endocrine Control of Vitellogenesis

Vitellogenin Synthesis and Secretion

Vitellogenin Uptake and Processing into YPs

Vitellogenin Receptors

Maturational Proteolysis of YPs

Phosvitinless Vitellogenin: The Oddities of VtgC

Vitellogenesis in Livebearing Fishes

Alternative Functions of Vitellogenins

Applications and Perspectives of Vitellogenesis

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Chemistry of Vitellogenins and Egg Yolk

Vitellogenin Structure and Product YPs

Nomenclature and Classification of Vitellogenins

Endocrine Control of Vitellogenesis

Vitellogenin Synthesis and Secretion

Vitellogenin Uptake and Processing into YPs

Vitellogenin Receptors

Maturational Proteolysis of YPs

Phosvitinless Vitellogenin: The Oddities of VtgC

Vitellogenesis in Livebearing Fishes

Alternative Functions of Vitellogenins

Applications and Perspectives of Vitellogenesis

See also

THE SKELETON | Bony Fish Skeleton

Glossary

A Hierarchical Approach to the Study of the Skeleton

Cranial Axial Skeleton

Postcranial Axial Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

A Hierarchical Approach to the Study of the Skeleton

Cranial Axial Skeleton

Postcranial Axial Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton

Conclusion

See also

THE SKELETON | Cartilaginous Fish Skeletal Anatomy

Glossary

Introduction

General Anatomy

Sharks

Batoids

Chimaeroids

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

General Anatomy

Sharks

Batoids

Chimaeroids

See also

THE SKELETON | Cartilaginous Fish Skeletal Tissues

Glossary

Introduction

Tissues: No Bones about It…

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Tissues: No Bones about It…

See also

THE SKIN | Bioluminescence in Fishes

Glossary

Light Organs

Light Environment

Luminescence Observation

Flash Kinetics

Counter-illumination

Bioluminescent Fish

The Future

See also

Further Reading

Light Organs

Light Environment

Luminescence Observation

Flash Kinetics

Counter-illumination

Bioluminescent Fish

The Future

See also

Relevant Websites

Light Organs

Light Environment

Luminescence Observation

Flash Kinetics

Counter-illumination

Bioluminescent Fish

The Future

See also

THE SKIN | Coloration and Chromatophores in Fishes

Glossary

Color: An Important Characteristic in Fish Integumentary Function

Pigmentary and Structural Coloration

Chromatophores

How Do Fish Change Color?

Physiological and Morphological Color Changes

The Regulation of Color Changes

Integumentary Patterns in Fish

See also

Further Reading

Color: An Important Characteristic in Fish Integumentary Function

Pigmentary and Structural Coloration

Chromatophores

How Do Fish Change Color?

Physiological and Morphological Color Changes

The Regulation of Color Changes

Integumentary Patterns in Fish

See also

THE SKIN | Functional Morphology of the Integumentary System in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

General Morphology

Microscopic Features

Integumentary Extensions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

General Morphology

Microscopic Features

Integumentary Extensions

See also

THE SKIN | Hagfish Slime

Glossary

Introduction

The Hagfish Slime Gland

GMCs and Mucin Vesicles

Gland Thread Cells

Volume and Concentration

Mechanics and Function

Slime Deployment and Maturation

Structure and Function

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

The Hagfish Slime Gland

GMCs and Mucin Vesicles

Gland Thread Cells

Volume and Concentration

Mechanics and Function

Slime Deployment and Maturation

Structure and Function

See also

THE SKIN | The Many Functions of Fish Integument

Glossary

Introduction

Protection

Communication and Sensory Perception

Locomotion

Respiration, Ion Regulation, and Excretion

Other Functions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Protection

Communication and Sensory Perception

Locomotion

Respiration, Ion Regulation, and Excretion

Other Functions

See also

TISSUE RESPIRATION | Cellular Respiration

Glossary

Cellular Metabolism

Fuel and O2 Delivery to Tissues

Cell Membrane Transport

Cytosolic Transport

Mitochondrial Transport

Cellular Respiration in Fish

Environmental and Energetic Stress

Limits to Cellular Respiration

Novel Species

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Cellular Metabolism

Fuel and O2 Delivery to Tissues

Cell Membrane Transport

Cytosolic Transport

Mitochondrial Transport

Cellular Respiration in Fish

Environmental and Energetic Stress

Limits to Cellular Respiration

Novel Species

Conclusions

See also

Relevant Websites

Cellular Metabolism

Fuel and O2 Delivery to Tissues

Cell Membrane Transport

Cytosolic Transport

Mitochondrial Transport

Cellular Respiration in Fish

Environmental and Energetic Stress

Limits to Cellular Respiration

Novel Species

Conclusions

See also

TISSUE RESPIRATION | Mitochondrial Respiration

Glossary

Introduction

Importance of the Endosymbiotic Origin of Mitochondria

Mitochondrial Structure

Basic Features of OXPHOS

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Importance of the Endosymbiotic Origin of Mitochondria

Mitochondrial Structure

Basic Features of OXPHOS

Conclusions

See also

TISSUE RESPIRATION | Specializations in Mitochondrial Respiration of Fish

Glossary

Introduction

Genetic and Genomic Variation

Mitochondrial Structure and Function

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Genetic and Genomic Variation

Mitochondrial Structure and Function

Conclusions

See also

TOXICOLOGY | The Effects of Toxicants on Olfaction in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Odorants, Contaminants, and Their Relevance to Physiological and Behavioral Response

Olfactory–Toxicity Interactions

Future Studies

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Odorants, Contaminants, and Their Relevance to Physiological and Behavioral Response

Olfactory–Toxicity Interactions

Future Studies

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Odorants, Contaminants, and Their Relevance to Physiological and Behavioral Response

Olfactory–Toxicity Interactions

Future Studies

See also

TOXICOLOGY | The Toxicology of Metals in Fishes

Glossary

How Do We Classify Metals?

Environmental Fate and Bioavailability of Metals

Biological Fate and Toxicokinetics

Biological Effects and Toxicodynamics

See also

Further Reading

How Do We Classify Metals?

Environmental Fate and Bioavailability of Metals

Biological Fate and Toxicokinetics

Biological Effects and Toxicodynamics

See also

Relevant Websites

How Do We Classify Metals?

Environmental Fate and Bioavailability of Metals

Biological Fate and Toxicokinetics

Biological Effects and Toxicodynamics

See also

TOXICOLOGY | The Toxicology of Organics in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Biological Fate

Specific Organic Contaminants

Chemicals of Emerging Concern

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Biological Fate

Specific Organic Contaminants

Chemicals of Emerging Concern

See also

Relevant Websites

Introduction

Biological Fate

Specific Organic Contaminants

Chemicals of Emerging Concern

See also

TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Carbon Dioxide Transport and Excretion

Glossary

Introduction

Transfer of Gases to and from the Blood

Regulation of RBC pH

Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Excretion

The Effect of Temperature and Variations in Environmental CO2 Levels

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Transfer of Gases to and from the Blood

Regulation of RBC pH

Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Excretion

The Effect of Temperature and Variations in Environmental CO2 Levels

See also

TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Carbonic Anhydrase in Gas Transport and Exchange

Glossary

Introduction

Carbonic Anhydrase–The Enzyme

CA Isoforms

Methodological Approaches for Discerning CA Function

Physiological Functions of CA in Gas Transport and Exchange

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Carbonic Anhydrase–The Enzyme

CA Isoforms

Methodological Approaches for Discerning CA Function

Physiological Functions of CA in Gas Transport and Exchange

Summary and Conclusions

See also

TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Evolution of the Bohr Effect

Glossary

Discovery and Definition of the Bohr Effect

Distinction between a Bohr Effect and a Root Effect

Factors Modulating the Magnitude of the Bohr Effect in Vertebrates

Occurrence of the Bohr Effect in Animals

Molecular Mechanism(s) of the Bohr Effect in Vertebrate Hbs

Benefits and Evolution of the Bohr Effect

See also

Further Reading

Discovery and Definition of the Bohr Effect

Distinction between a Bohr Effect and a Root Effect

Factors Modulating the Magnitude of the Bohr Effect in Vertebrates

Occurrence of the Bohr Effect in Animals

Molecular Mechanism(s) of the Bohr Effect in Vertebrate Hbs

Benefits and Evolution of the Bohr Effect

See also

TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Gas Transport and Exchange: Interaction Between O2 and CO2 Exchange

Glossary

Introduction

Basis for the Interaction between O2 and CO2: Bohr–Haldane Effect

Theoretical Bohr–Haldane Coefficient Optimal for Oxygen Delivery

Nonlinear Bohr–Haldane Effect within the OEC

Implications of Non-Steady-State Conditions for the Interaction between O2 and CO2 Exchange

Concluding Remarks

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Basis for the Interaction between O2 and CO2: Bohr–Haldane Effect

Theoretical Bohr–Haldane Coefficient Optimal for Oxygen Delivery

Nonlinear Bohr–Haldane Effect within the OEC

Implications of Non-Steady-State Conditions for the Interaction between O2 and CO2 Exchange

Concluding Remarks

See also

TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Hemoglobin

Glossary

Hemoglobin Structure

Binding of Oxygen by Hemoglobin

Factors Affecting the Oxygen-Binding Properties of Hemoglobin

Temperature Effects

Hemoglobin Oxidation

See also

Further Reading

Hemoglobin Structure

Binding of Oxygen by Hemoglobin

Factors Affecting the Oxygen-Binding Properties of Hemoglobin

Temperature Effects

Hemoglobin Oxidation

See also

TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Hemoglobin Differentiation in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Fish Hemoglobin Functional Differentiation

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Fish Hemoglobin Functional Differentiation

See also

TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | O2 Uptake and Transport: The Optimal P50

Glossary

Introduction

Conclusions

Appendix

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Conclusions

Appendix

See also

TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Red Blood Cell Function

Glossary

Introduction

Membrane Transport, Erythrocyte pH, and Volume

Control of Erythrocytic NTP Concentration

Role of Erythrocytes in Regulating Capillary Function

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Membrane Transport, Erythrocyte pH, and Volume

Control of Erythrocytic NTP Concentration

Role of Erythrocytes in Regulating Capillary Function

See also

TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Root Effect: Molecular Basis, Evolution of the Root Effect and Rete Systems

Glossary

Discovery of the Root Effect

The Root Effect is Only Loosely Defined

Variations in the Magnitude of the Root Effect

Mechanism of the Root Effect

Physiological Roles of the Root Effect

Evolution of the Root Effect and Rete Systems

See also

Further Reading

Discovery of the Root Effect

The Root Effect is Only Loosely Defined

Variations in the Magnitude of the Root Effect

Mechanism of the Root Effect

Physiological Roles of the Root Effect

Evolution of the Root Effect and Rete Systems

See also

TRANSPORT AND EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN THE BLOOD | Root Effect: Root Effect Definition, Functional Role in Oxygen Delivery to the Eye and Swimbladder

Glossary

Definition of the Root Effect

Functional Role of the Root Effect

Physiological Significance–Eye and Swimbladder

Ocular Blood Supply and Pseudobranch

See also

Further Reading

Definition of the Root Effect

Functional Role of the Root Effect

Physiological Significance–Eye and Swimbladder

Ocular Blood Supply and Pseudobranch

See also

VENTILATION AND ANIMAL RESPIRATION | Efficiency of Gas Exchange Organs

Glossary

Gas Exchangers

Water versus Air as Respiratory Media

The Efficiencies of Gas Exchange

See also

Further Reading

Gas Exchangers

Water versus Air as Respiratory Media

The Efficiencies of Gas Exchange

See also

VENTILATION AND ANIMAL RESPIRATION | Gill Respiratory Morphometrics

Glossary

Introduction

Gill Morphology

Total Gill Surface Area

Diffusion Distances

Theories on Gill Dimensions

Gill Morphometrics, Fish Habitat, and Metabolic Requirements

Scaling: Fish Gill Morphometrics in Relation to Fish Growth

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Gill Morphology

Total Gill Surface Area

Diffusion Distances

Theories on Gill Dimensions

Gill Morphometrics, Fish Habitat, and Metabolic Requirements

Scaling: Fish Gill Morphometrics in Relation to Fish Growth

See also

VENTILATION AND ANIMAL RESPIRATION | Plasticity in Gill Morphology

Glossary

Introduction

Mechanisms of Gill Remodeling

Why Remodel the Gills

Gill Remodeling in Other Species

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Mechanisms of Gill Remodeling

Why Remodel the Gills

Gill Remodeling in Other Species

See also

VENTILATION AND ANIMAL RESPIRATION | Respiratory Gas Exchange During Development: Models and Mechanisms

Glossary

Respiratory Gases

Properties of Respiratory Gases in Aqueous Solutions

The Respiratory Cascade

Diffusion

Convection

Resistance

See also

Further Reading

Respiratory Gases

Properties of Respiratory Gases in Aqueous Solutions

The Respiratory Cascade

Diffusion

Convection

Resistance

See also

VENTILATION AND ANIMAL RESPIRATION | Respiratory Gas Exchange During Development: Respiratory Transitions

Glossary

Introduction

Resistance to Respiratory Gas Exchange

Diffusive Boundary Layer

Egg Capsule and PVF

Skin

Gills

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Resistance to Respiratory Gas Exchange

Diffusive Boundary Layer

Egg Capsule and PVF

Skin

Gills

See also

VENTILATION AND ANIMAL RESPIRATION | Techniques in Whole Animal Respiratory Physiology

Glossary

Introduction

Apparatus and Techniques

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Apparatus and Techniques

See also

VENTILATION AND ANIMAL RESPIRATION | The Effect of Exercise on Respiration

Glossary

Metabolic Rate and the Cost of Activity

The O2 Cascade and Transport of Respiratory Gases

Cardiovascular Gas Transport

Cardiac Output

Blood O2/CO2 Content

Blood-Flow Distribution

Limitations to Maximum Oxygen Consumption

See also

Further Reading

Metabolic Rate and the Cost of Activity

The O2 Cascade and Transport of Respiratory Gases

Cardiovascular Gas Transport

Cardiac Output

Blood O2/CO2 Content

Blood-Flow Distribution

Limitations to Maximum Oxygen Consumption

See also

VISION | Adaptations of Photoreceptors and Visual Pigments

Glossary

Adaptations to the Photic Environment

See also

Further Reading

Adaptations to the Photic Environment

See also

VISION | Behavioral Assessment of the Visual Capabilities of Fish

Glossary

Introduction

Recognizing Objects

Detecting Color

Spatial Vision

Detecting and Analyzing Movement

Detecting Polarized Light

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Recognizing Objects

Detecting Color

Spatial Vision

Detecting and Analyzing Movement

Detecting Polarized Light

Conclusion

See also

VISION | Color Vision and Color Communication in Reef Fish

Glossary

Introduction

Camouflage and Communication on the Reef

Communication and Deception

Deception and the Use of Your Neighbors Color Message

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Camouflage and Communication on the Reef

Communication and Deception

Deception and the Use of Your Neighbors Color Message

Conclusion

See also

VISION | Extraretinal Photoreception

Glossary

Introduction

Deep-Brain Photosensitivity

The Pineal Complex

Conclusion

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Deep-Brain Photosensitivity

The Pineal Complex

Conclusion

See also

VISION | Inner Retina and Ganglion Cells

Glossary

Introduction

The Major Cells of the Inner Retina

Feedback

Ganglion Cells

Summary and Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

The Major Cells of the Inner Retina

Feedback

Ganglion Cells

Summary and Conclusions

See also

VISION | Optic Tectum

Glossary

Introduction

Anatomical Overview

The Retinotectal Projection and Visual Processing

Tectum–TL Subsystem

Tectum–NI Subsystem

Multimodal Processing and Torus Semicircularis

Ascending Connections–via PTP

Descending Connections and Motor Control

Conclusions

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Anatomical Overview

The Retinotectal Projection and Visual Processing

Tectum–TL Subsystem

Tectum–NI Subsystem

Multimodal Processing and Torus Semicircularis

Ascending Connections–via PTP

Descending Connections and Motor Control

Conclusions

See also

VISION | Photoreceptors and Visual Pigments

Glossary

Visual Pigment Structure

Evolution of Visual Pigments

Cone Types and Retinal Mosaics

See also

Further Reading

Visual Pigment Structure

Evolution of Visual Pigments

Cone Types and Retinal Mosaics

See also

VISION | Physiological Optics in Fishes

Glossary

Introduction

Optical Elements of Fish Eyes

Some Special Optical Adaptations

See also

Further Reading

Introduction

Optical Elements of Fish Eyes

Some Special Optical Adaptations

See also

VISION | Vision in Fishes: An Introduction

Glossary

See also

Further Reading

See also

Relevant Websites

See also

VISION | Visual Adaptations to the Deep Sea

Glossary

The Deep-Sea Light Environment

Deep-Sea Eyes Are Adapted to a Photon-Limited Environment

Ocular Anatomy of Deep-Sea Fish

Visual Pigments

See also

Further Reading

The Deep-Sea Light Environment

Deep-Sea Eyes Are Adapted to a Photon-Limited Environment

Ocular Anatomy of Deep-Sea Fish

Visual Pigments

See also

Subject Index

Authors

Quotes and reviews

"2011 PROSE Award Winner for Multivolume Reference/Science"

Academic Press/Elsevier Science and Technology

Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology, Anthony P. Farrell

"The individual articles in each volume are concise, authoritative, and beautifully illustrated with color photographs and drawings. A practical advantage of this encyclopedia is that it brings everything together into three volumes, providing a comprehensive reference work. Readers should note that this set is arranged thematically rather than alphabetically… This encyclopedia will be most suitable for graduate students and professionals. Summing Up: Recommended. Graduate students and above."--CHOICE

 
 
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