Food Process Engineering and Technology

Food Process Engineering and Technology, 2nd Edition

Food Process Engineering and Technology, 2nd Edition,Zeki Berk,ISBN9780124159235


Academic Press




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Comprehensive coverage of food science engineering and technology

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Key Features

  • Strong emphasis on the relationship between engineering and product quality/safety
  • Links theory and practice
  • Considers topics in light of factors such as cost and environmental issues


The past 30 years have seen the establishment of food engineering both as an academic discipline and as a profession. Combining scientific depth with practical usefulness, this book serves as a tool for graduate students as well as practicing food engineers, technologists and researchers looking for the latest information on transformation and preservation processes as well as process control and plant hygiene topics.


Students and professionals in food engineering and food science and technology

Zeki Berk

Dr. Berk is a chemical engineer and food scientist with a long history of work in food engineering, including appointments as a professor at Technion IIT, MIT, and Agro-Paris and as a consultant at UNIDO, FAO, the Industries Development Corporation, and Nestle. He is the recipient of the International Association of Food and Engineering Life Achievement Award (2011), and has written 6 books (3 with Elsevier) and numerous papers and reviews. His main research interests include heat and mass transfer and kinetics of deterioration.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa

View additional works by Zeki Berk

Food Process Engineering and Technology, 2nd Edition

Food Science and Technology International Series



“Food is life”

The food process

Batch and continuous processes

Process flow diagrams


Chapter 1. Physical Properties of Food Materials

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Mass, volume, density

1.3 Mechanical properties

1.4 Thermal properties

1.5 Electrical properties

1.6 Structure

1.7 Water activity

1.8 Phase transition phenomena in foods

1.9 Optical properties

1.10 Surface properties

1.11 Acoustic properties


Chapter 2. Fluid Flow

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Elements of fluid mechanics

2.3 Flow properties of fluids

2.4 Transportation of fluids

2.5 Flow of particulate solids (powder flow)


Chapter 3. Heat and Mass Transfer: Basic Principles

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Basic relations in transport phenomena

3.3 Conductive heat and mass transfer

3.4 Convective heat and mass transfer

3.5 Unsteady state heat and mass transfer

3.6 Heat transfer by radiation

3.7 Heat exchangers

3.8 Microwave and radio frequency (RF) heating

3.9 Ohmic heating


Chapter 4. Reaction Kinetics

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Basic concepts

4.3 Kinetics of biological processes

4.4 Residence time and residence time distribution


Chapter 5. Elements of Process Control

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Basic concepts

5.3 Basic control structures

5.4 The block diagram

5.5 Input, output and process dynamics

5.6 Control modes (control algorithms)

5.7 Physical elements of the control system


Chapter 6. Size Reduction

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Particle size and particle size distribution

6.3 Size reduction of solids: basic principles

6.4 Size reduction of solids: equipment and methods


Chapter 7. Mixing

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Mixing of fluids (blending)

7.3 Kneading

7.4 In-flow mixing

7.5 Mixing of particulate solids

7.6 Homogenization

7.7 Foaming


Chapter 8. Filtration and Expression

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Depth filtration

8.3 Surface (barrier) filtration

8.4 Filtration equipment

8.5 Expression


Chapter 9. Centrifugation

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Basic principles

9.3 Centrifuges

9.4 Cyclones


Chapter 10. Membrane Processes

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Tangential filtration

10.3 Mass transfer through MF and UF membranes

10.4 Mass transfer in reverse osmosis

10.5 Membrane systems

10.6 Membrane processes in the food industry

10.7 Electrodialysis


Chapter 11. Extraction

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Solid–liquid extraction (leaching)

11.3 Supercritical fluid extraction

11.4 Liquid–liquid extraction


Chapter 12. Adsorption and Ion Exchange

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Equilibrium conditions

12.3 Batch adsorption

12.4 Adsorption in columns

12.5 Ion exchange


Chapter 13. Distillation

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLA)

13.3 Continuous flash distillation

13.4 Batch (differential) distillation

13.5 Fractional distillation

13.6 Steam distillation

13.7 Distillation of wines and spirits

13.8 Pervaporation


Chapter 14. Crystallization and Dissolution

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Kinetics of crystallization from solutions

14.3 Polymorphism in lipid crystals

14.4 Crystallization in the food industry

14.5 Dissolution


Chapter 15. Extrusion

15.1 Introduction

15.2 The single-screw extruder

15.3 Twin-screw extruders

15.4 Effect on foods

15.5 Food applications of extrusion


Chapter 16. Spoilage and Preservation of Foods

16.1 Mechanisms of food spoilage

16.2 Food preservation processes

16.3 Combined processes (the “hurdle effect”)

16.4 Packaging

Additional Reading

Chapter 17. Thermal Processing

17.1 Introduction

17.2 The kinetics of thermal inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes

17.3 Optimization of thermal processes with respect to quality

17.4 Heat transfer considerations in thermal processing


Chapter 18. Thermal Processes, Methods and Equipment

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Thermal processing in hermetically closed containers

18.3 Thermal processing in bulk, before packaging


Chapter 19. Refrigeration: Chilling and Freezing

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Effect of temperature on food spoilage

19.3 Freezing

19.4 Superchilling


Chapter 20. Refrigeration: Equipment and Methods

20.1 Sources of refrigeration

20.2 Cold storage and refrigerated transport

20.3 Chillers and freezers


Chapter 21. Evaporation

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Material and energy balance

21.3 Heat transfer

21.4 Energy management

21.5 Condensers

21.6 Evaporators in the food industry

21.7 Effect of evaporation on food quality


Chapter 22. Dehydration

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Thermodynamics of moist air (psychrometry)

22.3 Convective drying (air drying)

22.4 Drying under varying external conditions

22.5 Conductive (boiling) drying

22.6 Dryers in the food processing industry

22.7 Issues in food drying technology

22.8 Energy consumption in drying

22.9 Osmotic dehydration


Chapter 23. Freeze Drying (Lyophilization) and Freeze Concentration

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Sublimation of water

23.3 Heat and mass transfer in freeze drying

23.4 Freeze drying in practice

23.5 Freeze concentration


Chapter 24. Frying, Baking, Roasting

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Frying

24.3 Baking and roasting


Chapter 25. Chemical Preservation

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Chemical control of microbial spoilage

25.3 Antioxidants


Chapter 26. Ionizing Irradiation and Other Non-Thermal Preservation Processes

26.1 Preservation by ionizing radiations

26.2 High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) preservation

26.3 Pulsed electric fields (PEF)

26.4 Pulsed intense light


Chapter 27. Food Packaging

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Packaging materials

27.3 The atmosphere in the package

27.4 Environmental issues


Chapter 28. Cleaning, Disinfection, Sanitation

28.1 Introduction

28.2 Cleaning kinetics and mechanisms

28.3 Kinetics of disinfection

28.4 Cleaning of raw materials

28.5 Cleaning of plants and equipment

28.6 Cleaning of packages

28.7 Odor abatement



Food Science and Technology: International Series List


Quotes and reviews

"Berk (biotechnology & food engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Israel) presents this detailed textbook on the science and engineering of food processing. The first several chapters cover physical and thermal properties of food materials and kinetics of especially enzymatic transformations…Cost and materials efficiency is emphasized throughout, and appendices offer additional technical data." --ProtoView.com, February 2014

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