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Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides
 
 

Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides, 2nd Edition

 
Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides, 2nd Edition,Abba Kastin,ISBN9780123850959
 
 
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A Kastin   

Academic Press

9780123850959

9780123850966

2032

The go-to reference for researchers in biologically active peptides now updated with recent advances in peptide drug discovery and synthetic peptides.

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Key Features

  • Presents all aspects of biologically active peptides in one resource
  • Features more than 20 sections spanning plant, bacterial, fungal, venom, and invertebrate peptides to general peptides
  • Includes immunological, inflammatory, cancer, vaccine, and neurotrophic peptides
  • Discusses peptide precursors, mRNA distribution, processing, and receptors, not just pathophysiological implications

Description

Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides, Second Edition, is the definitive, indispensable reference for peptide researchers, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, neuroscientists, pharmacologists, and endocrinologists. Its chapters are designed to be a source for workers in the field and enable researchers working in a specific area to examine related areas outside their expertise.

Peptides play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including actions as neurotransmitters, hormones, and antibiotics. Research has shown their importance in such fields as neuroscience, immunology, pharmacology, and cell biology. The second edition of Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides presents this tremendous body of knowledge in the field of biologically active peptides in one single reference. The section editors and contributors represent some of the most sophisticated and distinguished scientists working in basic sciences and clinical medicine.

Readership

Peptide researchers, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, neuroscientists, pharmacologists, and endocrinologists

Abba Kastin

Affiliations and Expertise

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA

Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides, 2nd Edition

Contributors

Preface to the 1st Edition

Preface to the 2nd Edition

Section I: Plant Peptides

Chapter 1. CLAVATA3

Discovery

Structure of the peptide

Distribution of the mRNA and peptide

Biological functions

Receptors and signaling cascades

References

Chapter 2. Defense Signal Peptides

Discovery

Systemin

HYPSYS

Plant Elicitor Peptides (Peps)

GMSUBPEP

GMPEP914/890

Inceptins

Conclusions

References

Chapter 3. DVL/RTFL

Discovery

Structure of the peptide

Distribution of the mRNA/peptide

Biological function

Receptors and signaling cascades

References

Chapter 4. EPF

Discovery

Structure of the Peptide

Distribution of the mRNA/PEPTIDE

References

Chapter 5. IDA/IDL

Discovery

Structure of the IDA and IDL Peptides

Distribution of the mRNA and Biological Function of the IDA and IDL Peptides

Receptors and Signaling Cascade of IDA

References

Chapter 6. LUREs

Discovery

Structure of the Peptide

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Biological functions

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

References

Chapter 7. Phytosulfokine

Discovery and Structure of PSK

Biological Function of PSK In Vitro

Expression Pattern and In Vivo Function of PSK

Receptor for PSK and In Planta Function of PSK

PSY1, A Sulfated Glycopeptide Functionally Similar to PSK

References

Chapter 8. POLARIS

Discovery

Structure of the Precursor mRNA/Gene

Distribution of the mRNA

Processing

Biological Actions

References

Chapter 9. RALF Peptides

Discovery

Structure of RALF

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Biological Functions

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

References

Chapter 10. Root Meristem Growth Factor

Discovery of RGF

Structure, Expression, and Biological Functions of RGF

Molecular Target of RGF Signaling

References

Chapter 11. ROTUNDIFOLIA4

Discovery

Structure of the Peptide

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Biological Functions

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

References

Chapter 12. SCR

Discovery of SCR

Structure of the precursor mRNA gene

Distribution of the SCR mRNA and the basis of allelic dominance in heterozygotes

Processing of the SCR protein

The SCR receptor: the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK)

Structure of SCR

Biological actions of SCR and SI signaling

The SCR-like (SCRL) gene family in plants

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 13. Stomagen/EPFL9

Discovery

Structure of the Peptide

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Biological Functions

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

References

Chapter 14. TDIF

Discovery

Structure of the peptide

Distribution of the mRNA/peptide

Biological functions

Receptors and signaling cascades

Acknowledgments

References

Section II: Bacterial/Antibiotic Peptides

Chapter 15. Cathelicidins

Discovery

Structure of the Precursor mRNA/Structural Gene

Distribution of Cathelicidins

Processing

Receptors

Information on Active and/or Solution Conformation

Biological Functions

Therapeutic Potential

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 16. Class II Non-Lantibiotic Bacteriocins

Background

Non-Lantibiotic Bacteriocins: Properties and Structural Features

Other Non-Lantibiotics but Modified Bacteriocins

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 17. Colicins

Discovery and Classification

Colicin, Immunity, and Lysis Proteins

The Domain Concept

Crystal Structures of Colicins (Fig. 1B–E)

Crystal structures of Colicin–Receptor complexes (Fig. 2)

Mechanism of import across the outer membrane (Fig. 3)

Areas of research encompassed by colicin studies

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 18. Defensins

Discovery

Structure of Precursor mRNA and Gene

Distribution and Expression of the mRNA

Processing

Receptors

Active Conformation

Biological Actions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 19. Lantibiotics

Discovery

Structural lanA genes

Biosynthetic gene clusters

Biosynthesis of the ring structures

Processing

Receptors

Producer self-protection

Information on active and/or solution conformation

Biological activities

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 20. Microcins

Discovery and Classification

Genetic Systems and Biosynthesis

Immunity of Producing Bacteria to Microcins

Receptors and Biological Activities

Structure/Activity Relationships

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 21. Nonribosomal Peptide Synthesis

Introduction

Monomer Diversity

Initiation of NRP Assembly

Elongation during NRP Assembly

Termination of NRP Assembly

References

Chapter 22. Peptaibols

Introduction

Characteristic Features of the Peptaibols

Biological Origins and Biosynthesis of Peptaibols

Peptaibol Structures

Functions and Activities of Peptaibols

Acknowledgments

References

Section III: Fungal Peptides

Chapter 23. Antifungal and Antibacterial Peptides of Fungal Origin

Introduction

References

Chapter 24. Fungal Peptides with Ribonuclease and Ribosome Inactivating Activities

Mushroom Ubiquitin-Like Peptides

Mushroom RNases

Fungal Ribonucleolytic Toxins

Mushroom Ribosome Inactivating Proteins (RIPs)

References

Chapter 25. Fungal Toxins

Introduction

Structural Features of the Peptidic Fungal Toxins

Biosynthesis of Peptidic Fungal Toxins

Proposed Usage of Fungal Toxins

Antidotes to Fungal Toxins

References

Chapter 26. Plant Antifungal Peptides

Discovery

Three-Dimensional Structures of Plant Antifungal Peptides

Proposed Mechanisms of Action of Plant Antifungal Peptides

Transgenic Plants Expressing Antifungal Peptides from Plants

Conclusions

References

Chapter 27. Polysaccaride Krestin (PSK) and Polysaccharopeptide PSP

Discovery

Strucutre and Chemical Compositions

Biological Acitvities

Other Biological Activities

Conclusions

References

Section IV: Invertebrate Peptides

Chapter 28. AKH/RPCH Peptides

Discovery

AKH Structure

AKH/RPCH Receptors and their Signaling

Biological Actions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 29. Allatostatins

Discovery

Structure of Allatostatin Precursors

Distribution of mRNA and Peptides

Peptide Processing

Allatostatin Receptors

Structure Activity and Active Conformations

Biological Actions

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 30. Allatotropin

Isolation and Structure of Allatotropin

The Allatotropin Gene and its Expression

Biological Activity of Allatotropin

The Allatotropin Receptor

References

Chapter 31. B-Type Allatostatins and Sex Peptides

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNAS and Peptides

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions

References

Chapter 32. Crustacean Bioactive Peptides

Introduction

Androgenic Gland Hormone (AGH)/Insulin-Related Peptides

Allatostatins (See Chapter 29)

CHH-Superfamily

Corazonin

Crustacean Cardioactive Peptide (CCAP)

Diuretic Hormone 31

Enkephalins (See Chapter 219)

FMRFamide-Related Peptides (FaRPs) (See Chapter 35)

GAHKNYLRFamide

Kinins (See the Kinin Chapters in this and Other Sections of the Book)

Myosuppressin

Neuropeptide F-related Peptides

Orcokinin and Orcomyotropin

Pigment-Dispersing Hormone (PDH)

Proctolin

Pyrokinin

Red Pigment Concentrating Hormone (RPCH)

Sifamide

Sulfakinins

Tachykinin-Related Peptides

Conclusions and Perspectives

References

Chapter 33. Developmental Peptides: ETH, Corazonin, and PTTH

Ecdysis-Triggering Hormones

Corazonin

Prothoracicotropic Hormone (PTTH)

References

Chapter 34. Diuretic/Antidiuretic

Discovery

Structure of Precursor mRNAs and Genes

Distribution of mRNA and Peptides

Peptide Processing

Receptors

Structure–Activity and Active Conformation

Biological Actions

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 35. FMRFamide-Like Peptides (FLPs)

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascade

Biological Actions

References

Chapter 36. Free-Living Nematodes

Introduction

FMRFamide-Like Peptides (FLPS)

Neuropeptide-Like Peptides (NLPs)

Insulins (INSs)

Antimicrobial Peptides

Summary

References

Chapter 37. FXPRLamide (Pyrokinin/PBAN) Family

Introduction

Discovery of the PK/PBAN Family of Peptides: Historical Perspective

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the Peptide/mRNA

Receptors and Signaling Cascade

Signaling Cascade

Biological Actions

The PK/PBAN Peptides Family as Potential Targets for Pest Management

Summary and Future Prospects

References

Chapter 38. Insulin-Like Peptides

Introduction

Characterization of Insect and Invertebrate ILPs

Expression, Processing and Secretion of ILPs

Insulin Signaling

Regulatory Roles of Insulin-Like Peptides

Growth and Development

Ecdysteroid Hormone Production

Metabolism

Reproduction

Diapause

Behavior

Immunity

Aging

Conclusions

References

Chapter 39. Molluscan Bioactive Peptides

Introduction

FMRFAMIDE, FMRFAMIDE-Related Peptides (FARPs)

Insulin-Related Peptides and NPY

Peptides and Feeding Behavior

Peptides and Renal Function

Tachykinin

Peptides and Reproduction

APGWAMIDE

GnRH and Related Peptides

VP/OP

References

Chapter 40. Parasitic Nematode Peptides

Introduction

FMRFAMIDE-like Peptides (FLPS)

Biological Actions of FLPs

Neuropeptide-Like Peptides (NLPS)

Insulin-Like Peptides (INSS)

References

Chapter 41. Pigment Dispersing Factor

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 42. Proctolin

Discovery

Structure of the MRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of MRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascade

Biological Actions

References

Chapter 43. Sulfakinins

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing

Tissue Distribution

Receptors

Biological Actions

References

Chapter 44. Tachykinin Peptides

Discovery

Structure of Precursor mRNAS and Genes

Distribution of mRNA and Peptides

Peptide Processing

Receptors of TKRPs

Structure Activity and Active Conformation

Biological Actions

Concluding Remarks

References

Section V: Amphibian/Skin Peptides

Chapter 45. Bradykinin Peptides

Discovery and Distribution

Biosynthesis of Bradykinin and Related Peptides

Molecular Variants of BK

Biological Activities

References

Chapter 46. Bombesin Peptides

Introduction

Amphibian Bombesins

Amphibian Phyllolitorins

Ranatensin-Like Peptides

Gastrin-Releasing Peptide

Phylogenetic Considerations and Implications for Additional Mammalian Bombesin-Like Peptides

References

Chapter 47. Bombinins

Bombinins: General Features

Solution Structure

The Gene Structure of BLPs and Bombinins H

Biological Properties (Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, and Cytolytic Activities)

Bombinins H: Mechanism of Action of Antimicrobial Activity

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 48. Caeruleins

Introduction

The Caerulein Peptides

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 49. Chromogranins/Secretogranins

Discovery

Structure and Processing of the Precursors

Distribution and Regulation of the mRNAs

Biological Actions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 50. Dermaseptins

The Dermaseptin Superfamily: A Library of Structurally and Functionally Disparate Peptides Originating from a Single Gene Family

The Dermaseptin Superfamily: Gene Duplication, Focal Hypermutation, and Diversifying Selection

Antimicrobial Activities of the Preprodermaseptin-Derived Peptides from South American Hylidae Frogs

Mechanisms of Microbicidal Activity

The Dermaseptins: Multifunctional Host Defense Peptides

References

Chapter 51. Insulin-Releasing Peptides

Introduction

Insulinotropic Peptides from Ranidae

Insulinotropic Peptides from Hylidae

Insulinotropic Peptides from Bombinatoridae

Insulinotropic Peptides from Leptodactylidae

Insulinotropic Peptides from Dicroglossidae

Insulinotropic Peptides from Pipidae

Analogs with Increased Insulin-Releasing Activity

Conclusions

References

Chapter 52. Neurohypophysial Peptides

Discovery

Distribution of AVT and MT

Receptor Structure and Distribution

Major Biological Actions of AVT and MT

Structure and Function of Hydrins

References

Chapter 53. Opioid and Bv8 Peptides

Opioid Peptides

Bv8/Prokineticin Family (Swiss-Prot: Q9PW66)

References

Chapter 54. Sodefrin and Related Pheromones

Discovery

Structure of the Precursor mRNA/Gene

Distribution of the mRNA

Processing of the Precursors

Receptors

Structure–Activity Relationships

Biological Actions

Physiological Implications

References

Chapter 55. Tachykinins

Discovery

Structure of the Precursor mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Actions in Amphibians

Actions of Amphibian TKs in their Species of Origin

Actions in Mammals

Pathological Implications

References

Chapter 56. Temporins

Discovery and Distribution

Biosynthesis

Molecular Heterogeneity

Biophysical Properties and Interaction with Membranes

Biological Activities

Potential Clinical and Commercial Applications

Conclusions

References

Section VI: Venom Peptides

Chapter 57. Animal Toxins

Animal Toxins as Candidate Drugs

Animal Toxins in Biotechnological Applications

Maurocalcine, an Animal Toxin that Targets an Intracellular Receptor

Maurocalcine is a Competitive Cell-Penetrating Peptide

The Pharmacological Activity of Maurocalcine is Easy to Neutralize

Maurocalcine Produces Cell Delivery into the Cytoplasm

Maurocalcine has an Excellent Cell Entry/Toxicity Ratio

Maurocalcine is a Stable CPP Vector in Vivo

Maurocalcine Preferentially Targets Some Cell Types and Organs in Vivo

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 58. Hymenoptera Insect Peptides

Introduction

Peptides from the Venoms of Social Hymenoptera

Peptide Toxins from Honey Bee Venom

Peptide Toxins from Bumblebee Venoms

Peptide Toxins from Social Wasp Venoms

Peptides from Ant Venoms

Pathophysiology of Hymenopteran Peptide Toxins

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 59. Scorpion Peptides

Introduction

Mining on Scorpion Venoms

Documented Molecular Diversity

Structural and Functional Types

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 60. Sea Anemone Peptides

Introduction

Sea Anemone Genome

Other Genomics Analyses

New Peptides from Anemones

Structures

Therapeutic Applications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 61. Snail Peptides

Biodiversity of Venomous Molluscs and Discovery of Their Venom Peptides

Discovery of Conotoxins

Precursor Structure, Expression, and Processing: Conotoxin Superfamilies

Definition of Conotoxin Families, Receptor Targets, and Structures

Biological Mechanisms: Therapeutic Applications

Overview of Peptides from Other Venomous Marine Snails

Perspectives

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 62. Snake Peptides

Introduction

Three-Finger Toxins

Protease Inhibitor Homologs

Crotamine-Like Myotoxins

Sarafotoxins

CRISP Family Toxins

Natriuretic Peptides

Disintegrins

C-Type Lectins and Lectin-Like Proteins

Waglerins

Bradykinin-potentiating peptides

AVIT peptides

Cystatins

Cathelicidins

Waprins

Miscellaneous Peptides

References

Chapter 63. Spider Peptides

Introduction

Methodological Approaches in the Isolation of Spider Venom Peptides

Structure of the Precursor Spider Venom Peptide and PostTranslational Processing

Linear Peptides

Disulfide-Rich Peptides

Conclusions and Future Directions

References

Chapter 64. Targets and Therapeutic Properties

Cardiovascular Diseases

Infection, Immunity, and Oncology

Nervous System

Metabolic and Other Diseases

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 65. Worm Peptides

Introduction

Nemertine Neurotoxins

Nemertine Peptide Cytolysins

Annelid (Glycera) Neurotoxin

Annelid Antibacterial Peptide Toxins

Nematode and Platyhelminth Peptide Cytolysins

Concluding Comments

References

Section VII: Cancer/Anticancer Peptides

Chapter 66. Adrenomedullin

Introduction

Anatomical Sources of AM

Regulatory Pathway that Stimulate AM Expression

AM Induced Cell Growth

AM-Mediated Antiapoptosis

AM-Regulated Cell Migration/Invasion

AM Effects on the Immune Response

AM Stimulates Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis

AM-Targeted Therapies for Cancer

AM, Obesity, Diabetes, and Cancer— Axial Link

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 67. Angiotensin II/Angiotensin-(1–7)

Introduction

Detection of Ang II in Tumor Tissue and Cancer Cell Lines

Ang II Stimulates Cancer Cell Proliferation

Ang II Promotes Tumor Angiogenesis

Effects of Ang II on the Tumor Microenvironment

Ang II Stimulates Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

Ang II Induced Cancer Cell Signaling

Ang-(1–7) Attenuates Tumor Growth

Ang-(1–7) Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis

Effects of Ang-(1–7) on the Tumor Microenvironment

Ang-(1–7) Clinical Trials

Conclusions

References

Chapter 68. Apelin

Introduction

Role of Apelin in Cancer

Conclusions

References

Chapter 69. Bombesin Peptides

Introduction

Bn-Related Peptides (GRP, NMB)

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 70. Endothelin-1

Endothelin-1

ET-1 Associated Signal Transduction Pathways

ET-1 Expression in Cancer

Endothelin Receptor Expression in Cancer

ET-1 as a Mitogen

ET-1 and Apoptosis

ET-1 and Angiogenesis

ET-1 and Tumor Progression/Metastases

Endothelin Antagonism in vivo

Clinical Trials

References

Chapter 71. Gastrin

Introduction

Expression of Gastrins in Normal Tissue

The Gastrin Receptor(s)

Expression of Gastrin in Tumors

Gastrin as a Tumor Growth Factor

Conclusions

References

Chapter 72. Leptin/Adiponectin

Introduction

Leptin and Cancer

Clinical Evidence of Leptin Related to Cancer

In Vitro Results of Leptin as a Mitogenic Factor

Systemic Regulation of Leptin on Cancer

In Vivo Results of Leptin and Cancer

Adiponectin and Cancer

Clinical Evidence of Adiponectin Related to Cancer

Potential Mechanisms of Adiponectin as a Protective Factor of Cancer

In Vivo Results of Adiponectin and Cancer

Cancer-Related Polymorphisms of Adiponectin and AdipoR1 Genes

Interplay between Leptin and Adiponectin

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 73. LHRH Analogs

Introduction

Receptors for LHRH-I and LHRH-II

Signaling mechanisms from LHRH receptors

Development of Analogs of LHRH

Agonistic Analogs of LHRH-I

Mechanism of Biological Action of LHRH and its Agonists

Applications of Agonists of LHRH-I

Antagonists of LHRH

Targeted Cytotoxic Analogs of LHRH

Mechanism of Action of Cytotoxic LHRH Analogs

Receptors for LHRH on Human Tumors

Antitumor effects of Agonists and Antagonists of LHRH—Experimental and Clinical Findings

Applications of Cytotoxic LHRH Analogs

Clinical trials with AN-152 (AEZS-108) in Men with Prostate Cancer

Breast Cancer

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 74. Orexins (Hypocretins)

Introduction

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Gastrointestinal Tract and the Pancreas

Pathophysiological Implications

Conclusions and Perspectives

References

Chapter 75. Somatostatin/NPY

Introduction

Somatostatin

NPY

References

Chapter 76. VIP/PACAP Receptors

Introduction

VPAC1-R

PAC1-R

Second Messengers

Protein Phosphorylation

Proliferation

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Section VIII: Vaccine Peptides

Chapter 77. Antiadhesin Peptide-Based Vaccines for Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Significance and Background

Synthetic Consensus Sequence Peptide-Based Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Vaccines

Conclusions

References

Chapter 78. Lipo-Peptides/Saccharides for Peptide Vaccine Delivery

Introduction

Subunit Vaccines

Lipidation

Glycolipopeptides

Conclusions

References

Chapter 79. Novel Tumor Derived Peptides in Vaccines

Introduction

Antigen Processing and Its Role in Peptide-Based Vaccinology

Mass Spectrometry and the Identification of T-cell Epitopes

Synthetic Peptides as Vaccines

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 80. Peptide Vaccine for Alzheimer’s Disease

Introduction

In vitro modulation of β-amyloid formation

EFRH Phage Elicits Antibodies Against β-Amyloid Peptide

Peptides as Vaccines for the Prevention and/or Reduction of Amyloid Plaques in AD Transgenic Mice

Active Immunization of hAPP Transgenic Mice with EFRH Phage as Peptide Vaccine

Future Outlook

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 81. Peptide Vaccines for Myeloid Leukemias

Introduction

Leukemia-Associated Antigens (LAAs)

Vaccination

Why Peptides?

BCR-ABL Peptide Vaccine

WT1 Peptide Vaccine

PR1 Peptide Vaccine

Combined PR1 and WT1 Peptide Vaccines

RHAMM Peptide Vaccine

Implications and Future Perspectives

References

Chapter 82. Peptide Vaccines for Otitis Media

Disease Target

Background of Available Therapies

Why Peptides?

Our Contributions to the Area

Future Outlook

References

Chapter 83. Therapeutic Peptides Targeting HER-2/neu and VEGF Signaling Pathways in Breast Cancer

Peptides as Therapeutic Candidates

HER-2 Signaling Pathways, Cancer, and Strategy for the Design of HER-2 Peptide Mimic

VEGF, Cancer, and the Design of VEGF Peptide Inhibitor

Additive/Synergistic Effects of Targeting Both HER-2 and VEGF Pathways in Cancer

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 84. Use of Positional Scanning Libraries to Identify Immunologically Relevant Peptides

Definition of Mixture-Based Libraries

Use of Positional Scanning Libraries to Determine Antibody Specificity

Use of Positional Scanning Libraries for T Cell Epitope Mapping

Use of Positional Scanning Libraries to Identify MHC-Binding Motifs

Conclusions

References

Section IX: Immune/Inflammatory Peptides

Chapter 85. Anaphylatoxins

Historical Perspective and Scope

Precursor mRNA/Gene Structure, Expression, and Regulation of Anaphylatoxins

Generation of C3A and C5A Anaphylatoxins

Structure of Anaphylatoxins

Receptors for Anaphylatoxins

Biological Actions of Anaphylatoxins

Pathophysiological Implications of Anaphylatoxins

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 86. Annexin-A1 Peptide Ac2–26

Discovery

Scope of this Chapter

Discovery of Importance of the N-Terminal Peptide

The Structure of Anx-A1 and Acetyl 2–26

Receptors for Anx-A1 and N-Acetyl 2–26

Biological Properties of the Acetyl-26 Peptide

Structure–Activity Relationships

Summary

References

Chapter 87. Immunoregulatory Neuropeptides

Introduction

Anti-inflammatory Neuropeptides that Regulate the Autoimmune Response

Induction of Immune Tolerance by Generating Regulatory T-Cells

Redundant and Pleiotropic Effects on Immune Homeostasis: A Matter of Receptor Specificity and Signaling

A healthy Immune System Requires a Physiologically Functional Neuropeptide System

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 88. Chemerin

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions

Pathophysiological Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 89. Chemokines

Organization of Chemokines

Structure of Chemokines

Chemokine Receptors

Biology of Chemokines

Chemokines in Host Defense

Chemokines in Inflammatory Diseases

Chemokines as Antimicrobial Peptides

References

Chapter 90. DP IV/CD26 Effector Peptides

Introduction

DP IV/CD26 in the Immune System

DP IV Effector Peptides

Primary DP IV Effector Peptides

Secondary Immunorelevant DP IV peptide substrates

Peptide Inhibitors of DP IV

References

Chapter 91. FPR Ligands

Introduction

Formyl Peptide Receptors (FPRs)

FPR Agonists

Nonpeptides

FPR Antagonists

Perspectives

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 92. Neuroimmune Peptides

Introduction

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 93. Peptide Loading of MHC

Introduction

The MHC Locus

MHC-Class I

MHC-Class II

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 94. Peptide Recognition by T Cells

Introduction

Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and Class II Molecules

Characteristics of Peptides Presented by MHC-Class I

Characteristics of Peptides Presented by MHC-Class II

Biological Roles of MHC-Bound Peptides

Autoimmune Diseases

Therapeutic Use of Peptides

Conclusions

References

Chapter 95. RGD Peptides

Discovery of The Antiadhesive RGD Peptides

RGD Peptides in Platelet Aggregation

Biologically Active Conformation of RGD Peptides

RGD Peptides in Immunological Phenomena

RGD Peptides and Pathogen Invasions

RGD Peptides in Other Pathological Phenomena

Perspectives

References

Section X: Brain Peptides

Chapter 96. Apelin

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions Within the Brain and Pituitary Gland

Peripheral Cardiovascular Actions

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 97. BNP/CNP

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions Within the Brain and Pituitary

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 98. CART

Discovery

Structure of the CART Precursor mRNA and CART Gene

Processing of CART Peptides

Distribution of CART mRNA and Peptides

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions of CART Peptides within the Brain and Pituitary

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 99. CCK

Structure of the Precursor mRNA/Gene

Distribution of CCK

Processing of the Precursor (see Peptide Biosynthesis/Processing section of this book)

References

Chapter 100. CGRP/Adrenomedullin

Discovery

Structure of the Precursor mRNA/Gene

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Processing of the Precursor

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Peptide Conformation

Biological Actions within the Brain

Pathophysiological Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 101. CRH Family

Discovery

Precursor Gene and cDNA Structure

Distribution and Expression of mRNA

Processing of Preprohormone

Receptors and Binding Proteins

Biological Actions in the Central Nervous System

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 102. Endozepines

Discovery

Structure of DBI mRNA/Gene

Processing of the DBI Precursor

Distribution of DBI mRNA and Endozepine Immunoreactivity

Control of Biosynthesis and Release of Endozepines

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Information on Solution Conformation of Endozepines

Biological Actions of Endozepines within the Brain

Pathophysiological Implications of Endozepines

References

Chapter 103. Galanin and GALP

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Peptide Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Brain and Pituitary

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 104. Ghrelin

Discovery

Structure of the Ghrelin Gene, mRNA, and Precursor Protein

Distribution of Ghrelin in the Central Nervous System

Processing of the Ghrelin Precursor

Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain

Biological Actions of Ghrelin Within the Brain

References

Chapter 105. GHRH

Discovery

Structure of the GHRH mRNA/GENE

Processing of the GHRH Precursor

Distribution of the GHRH mRNA/Peptide

GHRH Receptor and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions of GHRH within the Pituitary and The Brain

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 106. GnRH (LHRH)

Discovery And Background

Structure of GnRHs and Their Precursors

GnRH Distribution

Processing of The GnRH Precursor

GnRH Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Physical Structure of GnRH

Biological Actions

Therapeutic Application of GnRH Analogs

Future Perspectives

References

Chapter 107. Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/GENE

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/PEPTIDE

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions on the Pituitary and within the Brain

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 108. Hypocretins (Orexins)

Discovery

Structure of the Precursor mRNA/Gene

Distribution of the mRNA

Processing of the Precursor

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Information on Active and/or Solution Conformation

Biological Actions Within the Brain

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 109. Kisspeptins

Discovery of the Kiss1 System

Pathophysiological Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 110. MCH

Discovery

Structure of the Precursor mRNA/Gene

Processing of the MCH Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptides

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

MCH-R1 Structure and Signaling

MCH-R2 Structure and Signaling

Active Structure of the MCH Peptide and Receptor Conformation

Biological Actions within the Brain (and Pituitary)

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 111. Melanocortins

Discovery

References

Chapter 112. MIF-1/Tyr-MIF-1

Conformation

References

Chapter 113. Nesfatin-1

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/GENE

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Brain (and Pituitary)

Pathophysiological Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 114. Neuromedin U

Discovery

Structure of NMU mRNA

NMU Distribution and Processing

NMU Receptors

NMU1R

Biological Actions of NMU in the Brain

Comparison of the Biological Actions of NMU and NMS

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 115. Neuropeptide B/W

Introduction

Identification of NPB/W

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 116. Neuropeptide S

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Brain

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 117. Neurotensin/Neuromedin N

Discovery of Neurotensin

Structure of the Neurotensin/Neuromedin N Precursor mRNA/gene

NT/NMN mRNA Expression in Brain

Processing of the Precursor

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Conformation

Brain Functions

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 118. NPY

Discovery of NPY and Homologs

Structure of the Precursor mRNA/Gene

Processing of the NPY Precursor

Distribution of NPY mRNA and Protein

Structure of NPY-Like Peptides

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions

Pathophysiological Implications

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 119. PACAP

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Brain

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 120. Prolactin-Releasing Peptide

Discovery

Structure of the PrRP mRNA/Gene

Processing of the PrRP Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

PrRP Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions of PrRP within the Brain (and Pituitary)

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 121. Relaxins

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Peptide Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Distribution of mRNA/Protein

Biological Actions within the Brain

Pathophysiological Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 122. 26RFa

Discovery

Structure of the 26RFa Precursor

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of 26RFa mRNA

Distribution of GPR103 mRNA and Signaling Cascades

Solution Conformation

Structure–Activity Relationships

Biological Actions within the Brain (and Pituitary)

Pathophysiological Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 123. Secretin

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

The Secretin Receptor and its Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Brain (and Pituitary)

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 124. Somatostatin/Cortistatin

Discovery

Structure of the Precursor mRNA/Genes

Distribution of the mRNAS and Peptides

Processing of the Precursors and Degradation of the Peptides

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Information on Active and/or Solution Conformation

Biological Actions within the Brain and Pituitary

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 125. Tachykinins

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Brain

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 126. TRH

Discovery of TRH

Structure of the Precursor mRNA/Gene

Distribution of PreproTRH mRNA and PreproTRH-Derived Peptides

Processing of the TRH Precursor

Distribution of TRH Receptors and the TRH Degrading Enzyme

TRH Receptor Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions of TRH within the Brain and Pituitary

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 127. Urotensin II Peptides

Discovery

Structure

Localization

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within The Central Nervous System

Physiological and Pathophysiological Significance

References

Chapter 128. VIP

Introduction

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Action within the Brain (and Pituitary) and Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 129. VP/OT

Discovery and History

Structure and Regulation of the Precursor mRNAs/Genes (Fig. 1)

Processing of the Precursors (Fig. 2),

Distribution of VP and OT Producing Cells; Sites of Release (Figs. 3 and 4)

Receptors for VP and OT; Signaling Cascades (Fig. 5)

Biological Actions

Physiological and Pathological Implications (See Chapters in Cardiovascular and Renal Peptides Section of the Book)

References

Section XI: Endocrine Peptides

Chapter 130. Adiponectin

Discovery

The Adiponectin Gene and Protein Structure

Production of Adiponectin

Adiponectin Receptors

Adiponectin Signaling

Adiponectin and Energy Homeostasis

Adiponectin and Obesity

Conclusions

References

Chapter 131. Adrenomedullin Peptides

Introduction

Pituitary

Adrenals

Endocrine Pancreas

Diffuse Endocrine System of the Gut

Other Endocrine Organs

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 132. Ghrelin

Introduction

Ghrelin System in the Pituitary

Ghrelin System and Thyroid Gland

Ghrelin System in the Parathyroid Gland

Ghrelin System in the Testis and Ovary

Ghrelin System in the Pancreatic Islets

Ghrelin System in the Adrenal Gland

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 133. Leptin

Introduction

Regulation of Pancreatic B-cell Functions by Leptin

Role of Leptin in Regulating Thyroid Functions

Leptin and the Reproductive System

Regulation of Adrenal Glands by Leptin

Conclusions

References

Chapter 134. ANP

Discovery

Structure of the Precursor mRNA Gene

Processing

Release of NPs

Receptors and Signaling Cascade

Biological Activities of NPs

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 135. Neuromedins U/S

Introduction

Hypothalamus

Pituitary Gland

Thyroid Gland

Pancreatic Islets

Adrenal Gland

Testis

Ovary

Conclusions

References

Chapter 136. Neuropeptide B/W

Introduction

Neuroendocrine Function of NPB/NPW

Endocrine Function of NPB/W

Regulation of Feeding and Energy Metabolism by NPW

Antihyperalgesic Effect of NPB/W

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 137. Orexins

Overview of the Structure of Orexins and its Receptors

Adipose Tissue

Gastrointestinal Tract

Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis

Adrenal Glands

Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Thyroid Axis

Testes and Ovaries

PANCREATIC ISLETS

Energy Expenditure

Physiological Implications

Conclusions

References

Chapter 138. PACAP

Introduction

Effects on the Pituitary Gland

Effects on the Thyroid Gland

Effects of PACAP on the Endocrine Testis and Ovary

Effects of PACAP on the ADRENAL GLAND

Effects of PACAP on Pancreatic Islets

References

Section XII: Ingestive Peptides

Chapter 139. Adiponectin/Resistin

Adiponectin and Energy Homeostasis

Rodent versus Human Resistin

Resistin and Energy Homeostasis

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 140. Amylin/CGRP

Introduction

Receptors for Amylin and CGRP Action

Characterization of the Effects of Amylin and CGRP on Eating as Satiating Hormone

Amylin as an Adiposity Signal

Eating in Knockout Animals

Eating in Animals Overexpressing Amylin

Eating in Animals Deficient of CGRP or Overexpressing CGRP

Energy Expenditure as Affected by Amylin and CGRP

Energy Metabolism in Animals with Increased Amylin or CGRP Signaling Propensity

Regulation of Amylin and CGRP Synthesis and Secretion in Lean and Obese Individuals

Central Pathways Mediating the Anorectic Effects of Amylin and CGRP

Phenotype of Amylin Responsive Neurons in The AP

Intracellular Signaling Pathways in AP Neurons Activated by Amylin

Projections of AP neurons implicated in amylin’s and CGRP’s effects and hypothalamic involvement in the anorectic action of peripheral amylin.,

Site of CGRP Action

Forebrain Effects of Amylin

Forebrain Effects of CGRP

Interaction Between Amylin and Estradiol

Short-term Interaction with Other Hormones Controlling Ingestive Behavior

Interaction Between Amylin and Leptin

Role of the VMH in the Leptin and Amylin Interaction

Interaction between Amylin and Metabolites

Physiological and Pathophysiological Implications

Summary

References

Chapter 141. Apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV/apoE

Introduction

Regulation of apo A-IV and apoE Production

Peripheral and Neural Networks and Signaling Pathways Affected

References

Chapter 142. Bombesin

Background

Peripheral Effects of BN-like Peptides on Food Intake

Central Effects of BN-like Peptides on Food Intake

Neural Pathways Mediating the Effects of BN-like Peptides

Contribution of BN Receptor Subtypes to Food Intake Using Genetically Modified Mice

BN-like Peptides/Receptors and Energy Homeostasis

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

References

Chapter 143. CART

Introduction

Effects on Feeding Behavior

Studies from Genetically Modified Organisms

Functional Responses in Different Metabolic States

Neural Networks Involved

Receptors and Signaling Pathways

Interactions with Other Systems

Pathophysiological Implications

Physiological Overview

References

Chapter 144. CCK

Introduction

CCK as a Gut Peptide

Feeding Inhibitory Actions of Peripheral CCK

Feeding Inhibitory Actions of Endogenous CCK

Sites of Action for Peripheral CCK in Satiety

CCK-Induced Control of Vagal Afferent Gene Expression

Functional Responses to Peripheral CCK in Differing Metabolic States

Summary

References

Chapter 145. CRH

Introduction

Brain Distribution of CRH, Urocortins, and CRH Receptor

CRH, Urocortins, and Energy Balance Regulation

CRH and Stress-Induced Anorexia

CRH and Stress-Induced Obesity

Conclusions

References

Chapter 146. Enterostatin

The Discovery of Enterostatin

Chemistry of Enterostatin and Tissue Distribution

The Receptor for Enterostatin

Mechanism of Enterostatin in the Regulation of Food Intake and Body Weight Regulation

Effects of Enterostatin Other than Feeding Effects

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 147. Galanin

Introduction

Effects of Galanin Injection on Ingestive Behavior

Genetic Manipulation of Galanin

Effects of Ingestive Behavior on Galanin

Role of Galanin Receptors

Effects of Hormones on Galanin

Interactions Between Galanin and Other Orexigenic Transmitters

Close Relationship Between Galanin and Circulating Lipids

Role of Inflammation in Increased Galanin

Clinical Support

Summary and Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 148. Ghrelin

Ghrelin Regulates Feeding Behavior Across Species

The Growth Hormone SECRETAGOG Receptor GHSR-1a Mediates Ghrelin-Induced Food Intake

Ghrelin Targets the Hypothalamus to Regulate Feeding

Ghrelin Targets Intracellular Fuel-Sensing Pathways in Hypothalamic Neurons to Control Feeding

Ghrelin Targets Extra-Hypothalamic Areas to Regulate Feeding

Ghrelin Targets Visceral Afferents to Regulate Feeding

Peripheral Ghrelin Levels are Regulated by Feeding and Nutritional Status

References

Chapter 149. GLP-1

General

Peripheral GLP-1

Endogenous Peripheral GLP-1

Central Nervous System GLP-1

GLP-1 in Obesity Therapy

Conclusions and Perspectives

References

Chapter 150. Glucagon

Introduction

Glucagon and the Glucagon Receptor

Glucagon Secretion

Physiological Effects

Pathophysiology

Therapeutic Use

References

Chapter 151. Insulin

Introduction

Glucoregulatory Actions of Insulin

Insulin Actions

Insulin Secretion

Insulin and the Brain

Insulin and the ARC

Interaction of Brain Insulin with Gut Hormones

Pathophysiologic Implications of Brain Insulin Dysfunction

Conclusions

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

References

Chapter 152. Leptin

Leptin and Feeding Behavior

The Absence of Leptin Action

Leptin production and the Control of Circulating Leptin

Leptin Receptors

Sites of Leptin Action

LEPR-B Signaling Pathways and the Control of Energy Balance

“Leptin Resistance” and Cellular Mechanisms That Impair LEPR-B Signaling

References

Chapter 153. Melanocortins

The Melanocortin System

Ingestive Behavior in Humans with Mutations in the MC System

Ingestive Behavior in Rodent Models with Disruption of MC4R Function

Ingestive Behavior in Rodent Models with Disruption of MC3R Function

Ingestive Behavior in Rodent Models with Disruption of AGRP Function

Ingestive Behavior in Rodent Models with Disruption of POMC Function

Pharmacological Studies with MCR Ligands Modulating Ingestive Behavior

Brain Sites where MC Receptor Signaling Affects Ingestive Behavior

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 154. NPY

NPY and the Central Regulation of Food Intake

Neuropeptide Y and Feeding

NPY in the ARC Nucleus

Peripheral Signaling Involved in the Regulation of Food Intake in the ARC

NPY Receptors in the ARC

The Role of NPY in the DMN

NPY Action in the PVN

NPY actions in VMN

NPY action in the LHA

NPY and Feeding Behavior

Insight from Genetic ModelS

Regulation of NPY Receptors in Feeding Behavior

Conclusions

References

Chapter 155. Opioids

Effects of Opioids on Feeding Behavior

Studies from Genetic Manipulations or Mutations

Functional Response of Opioids to Metabolic and Feeding States

Opioid Ligands and Receptors: Sites of Action and Neural Networks Affected

Interactions with Other Neurochemical Systems

Physiological and Pathophysiological Implications

Conclusions

References

Chapter 156. Orexin

Introduction

Orexin

Lateral Hypothalamus

Mesolimbic System

Orexin and Mesolimbic System

Orexin Targets

Orexin and the Paraventricular Thalamic Nucleus

OREXIN AND Metabolic Status

Orexin Regulation by Feeding Peptides

References

Chapter 157. PYY

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Receptors

Regulation of PYY Secretion

Biological Actions of PYY

Pathophysiological Implications

PYY Levels after Gastric Bypass surgery

Acknowledgments

References

Section XIII: Gastrointestinal Peptides

Chapter 158. Adrenomedullin

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions Within the Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathological Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 159. Angiogenic Growth Factors

Introduction

Angiogenesis in Chronic GI Ulcer Development and Healing

Angiogenic Growth Factors and GI Ulcer Healing

Summary

References

Chapter 160. Apelin

Discovery

Structure of the Apelin mRNA/Gene, Precursor Processing

Apelin Distribution

Signaling Cascades

GI and Pancreatic Actions of Apelin

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 161. Bombesin-Related Peptides

Discovery (Bn Peptides and Their Receptors)

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the RNA/Peptide

Receptors and Their Signal Cascades

Biological Actions of Bn Peptides within the Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract

Pathophysiological Implications of Bn Peptides within the Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract

Pathophysiological Implications of Bn Peptides in Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers

Possible Treatments Directed at Bn Peptides and/or Their Receptors Growth Effects on Tumors

Possible Use of Bn Receptor Overexpression/Ectopic Expression by Tumors for Imaging/Tumor Localization

Possible Use of Bn Receptor Overexpression/Ectopic Expression by Tumors for Molecular Targeting of Cytotoxic Agents

Serum Levels of Bn Peptides as Tumor Markers

Other Possible Bn Peptide Pathophysiological Implications in Nonneoplastic Diseases

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 162. CCK

History

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 163. CGRP

Discovery and Structure of mRNA Gene

Distribution of mRNA/Peptide and Receptors

Biological Actions within Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathophysiological Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 164. Galanin

Discovery

Structure of the Gene and Processing of the Precursor

Distributions of Galanin

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 165. Gastrin

Discovery

Structure of the Gene/mRNA

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathophysiological Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 166. GIP

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 167. Ghrelin

Discovery

Structure of the Gene/mRNA/Peptide

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathophysiological Implications

Therapeutic Potential

References

Chapter 168. GLP 1/2, Enteroglucagon, Glicentin, and Oxyntomodulin

Discovery, Structure of the Gene, and Processing of the Precursor

Expression of the Gene/Distribution of the Gene/Secretion

Active Conformation and Metabolism

Receptor Expression

Biological Actions

Actions of GLP-1

Actions of GLP-2

Actions of Oxyntomodulin and Glicentin

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 169. Leptin

Introduction

The Stomach Produces Leptin

Gastric Leptin is a Neuroendocrine Molecule for Satiety

Gastric Leptin Enters the Intestine

Leptin Regulates Intestinal Endocrine Secretions

Gut Leptin and Intestinal Absorption of Nutrients

Leptin and Gut Pathologies

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 170. Motilin

Discovery of Motilin

Structure of Motilin and Related Peptides

Gene structure and posttranslational processing

Distribution in the GI Tract

Receptor and Structure Activity

Biological Actions

Pathophysiological Implication

References

Chapter 171. Neurotensin

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions Within the Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathophysiological Implications

Summary

References

Chapter 172. Nesfatin-1

Discovery, Structure, and Processing

Central and Peripheral Satiety Action of Nesfatin-1

Distribution and Biological Action of Nesfatin-1 in the GI Tract

Pathophysiological Implication

Perspective

References

Chapter 173. Obestatin

Obestatin Discovery

Processing from the Ghrelin Gene to Obestatin

Obestatin Distribution

Obestatin and GPR39

Pathophysiological Implications

Conclusions

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 174. Opioids

Discovery of Opioid Peptides and Receptors

Structure of the mRNA/Gene and Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions Within the Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 175. PACAP

Introduction

Cloning and Characterization of PAC1

Receptor Binding and Intracellular Signaling Characteristics of PAC1

Role of PACAP in the Gastrointestinal Tract

Role of PACAP in Thermogenesis, Obesity, and Appetite

Role of PACAP in the Immune System

Conclusions

References

Chapter 176. Pancreatic Polypeptide

Discovery

Structure of the Gene and Protein

Processing of PreproPP and PP

Distribution and Secretion of PP

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 177. Paneth Cell α-Defensins

Discovery of Paneth Cell α-defensins

Defensin Gene and Precursor Structures

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 178. PYY

Discovery

Structure of Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution in the Gastrointestinal Tract

Regulation of Secretion

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 179. Secretin

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathophysiological Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 180. Somatostatin

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution and Release

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions Within the Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathophysiological Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 181. Tachykinins

Discovery of Tachykinins in the Gut

Distribution of Tachykinin mRNAs and Peptides in the GI Tract

Tachykinin Receptor Subtypes, Signaling, and Distribution in the GI Tract

Biological Actions of Tachykinins in the Gut

Pathophysiological Implications of Tachykinins in the GI Tract

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 182. TFF Peptides

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 183. Urocortins

Discovery of Urocortins

Urocortin Genes and Precursor Structures

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Distribution of Urocortins in the GI Tract

Biological Actions within the Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathophysiological Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 184. VIP

Discovery

Structure of the Gene and Processing of the Precursor

Distribution in the Gastrointestinal Tract

Receptors and their Signaling Pathways

Biological Action Within the Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathophysiological Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Section XIV: Cardiovascular Peptides

Chapter 185. Adrenomedullin Peptides

Discovery and the Peptide Sequence of AM and Related Peptides

Structure of the mRNA/Gene and Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide and AM Circulating in the Blood Stream

Receptor and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions Within the Cardiovascular System

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 186. Angiotensin II Peptides

Discovery

Structure of the Peptides and Component of RAS

Distribution of RAS, Processing, and Endogenous Form in the Cardiovascular System

Receptors and their Distribution in the Cardiovascular System

Biological Actions and Pathophysiological Implication in the Cardiovascular System

References

Chapter 187. Apelin

The Apelin–APJ System

Distribution within the Cardiovascular System

Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions in the Cardiovascular System

Pathophysiological Implications

Perspective

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 188. Bradykinin Peptides

Discovery

Structure of Kininogen mRNA and Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of Kininogen and Kallikrein mRNA, and Kinin Peptides

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions Within the Cardiovascular System

Pathophysiological Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 189. CGRP

Discovery

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide in the Cardiovascular System

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions Within the Cardiovascular System

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 190. Endothelins

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide in the Cardiovascular System

Receptors and Their Distribution

Biological Actions within the Cardiovascular System

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 191. Ghrelin

Introduction

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Regulation of Plasma Ghrelin Concentration

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide in the Cardiovascular System

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Cardiovascular System

Pathophysiological Implications

Conclusions

References

Chapter 192. Natriuretic Peptides

Discovery of Natriuretic Peptides (NPs)

Structure of the NP mRNAs/Genes

Processing of the NP Precursors

Distribution of the NP mRNA/Peptide in the Cardiovascular System

NP Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions of NPs in the Cardiovascular System

Pathophysiological Implications of NPs

References

Chapter 193. Salusins

Discovery

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide in the Cardiovascular System

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Cardiovascular System

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 194. Urocortins

Discovery

Structure of Urocortins mRNA/Gene

Processing of Precursor Peptides

Distribution of Urocortins mRNA and Peptide in the Cardiovascular System

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions Within the Cardiovascular System

Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Implications

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 195. Urotensin Peptides

Discovery

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide in the Cardiovascular System

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Biological Actions within the Cardiovascular System

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 196. VIP

Introduction

Discovery

Distribution

Processing

Receptors

Biological Actions

Pathophysiology

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 197. VP/OT

Discovery

Peptide Structure

Biological Activity

Receptors

Pathophysiological Implications in the Cardiovascular System

OT and AVP in Cardiomyogenesis

References

Section XV: Renal Peptides

Chapter 198. Adrenomedullin 2/Intermedin

Discovery

Structure of the Precursor mRNA and Gene

Distribution of mRNA

Processing of Precursor

Receptors and Signaling Cascade

Biological Actions

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 199. ANP

Discovery of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Actions in the Kidney

Effects of ANP on Tubular Transport Systems

References

Chapter 200. Endothelin

Basic Components of the Endothelin System

Localization of the ET-1 System in the Kidney

Renal Hemodynamic Effects of ET-1

ET-1 Control of Excretory Function

Renal ET-1 in Hypertension

ET and Kidney Disease

Conclusions

References

Chapter 201. Neurohypophyseal Peptides

Brief History and Overview of the Neurohypophyseal Peptides

Body Fluid Homeostasis

Vasopressin and Oxytocin Receptors

Localization of Vasopressin and Oxytocin Receptors in the Kidney

Renal Effects of Vasopressin

Renal Effects of Oxytocin

References

Chapter 202. Peptides, Sex, Diabetes, and the Kidney

Introduction

Etiology of Diabetic Nephropathy

Peptide Regulation of Renal Function in the Diabetic Kidney

Estrogen–Peptide Interactions in the Diabetic Kidney

Androgen–Peptide Interactions in the Diabetic Kidney

Summary and Perspectives

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 203. Prolactin

Classical production site and actions of prolactin

Prolactin Receptors

Prolactin and Osmoregulation

Prolactin Receptors in the Mammalian Kidney

Renal Production of Prolactin

Renal Actions of Prolactin

The Jury is Still Out on the Renal Actions of Prolactin

Have Transgene Methods Clarified the Issue?

References

Chapter 204. Renin–Angiotensin System

Introduction

Distribution of Angiotensinogen, Renin, (Pro)renin Receptors, Angiotensin Converting Enzymes, and Ang Type 1 Receptors in the Kidney

Intrarenal Levels of Angiotensin II

Biological Actions of Intrarenal Ang II

Concluding Comments and Perspective

Acknowledgments

References

Section XVI: Respiratory Peptides

Chapter 205. Adrenomedullin

Introduction

AM Expression and Clearance in the Lung

AM in Models of Acute Lung Inflammation

AM and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

AM and Chronic Lung Disease

AM—Mode of Action in the Lung

Conclusions

References

Chapter 206. Endothelin-1

Introduction

Endothelin Genes, Cellular Distribution, Synthesis, Receptors, and Regulation

Airway Diseases

Pulmonary Vascular Disease

Lung Transplantation and Rejection

Pulmonary Malignancies

Acute respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

Pulmonary Fibrosis

Conclusions

References

Chapter 207. Kinin Receptors

Introduction

Kinins

Kinin Receptors

Kinin Receptors Expression

Role of Kinin Receptors in Airways

Contribution of Immune Cells to Airway Inflammation Induced by Kinin Receptors

Kinin Receptors in Lung Fibrosis and Airway Tissue Remodeling

Kinin Receptors in Lung Inflammation Induced by Cigarette Smoke Exposure

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 208. PACAP

Discovery, Structure, and Synthesis of PACAP

PACAP Receptors and Signaling

Biological Actions and Pathological Implications

Conclusions

References

Chapter 209. VIP

How Was VIP Discovered?

VIP Is a Member of a Family of Peptides

Tissue Distribution and Cellular Localization

Colocalization with Other Peptides and Neurotransmitters

Biological Actions in the Lung

Receptors and Signal Transduction Pathways

Physiological Roles

VIP in the Pathogenesis and Modulation of Pulmonary Disease

Cystic Fibrosis (CF)

References

Section XVII: Opiate Peptides

Chapter 210. Antiopioid Peptides

Introduction

Regulation of Opioid Analgesia by CCK

CCK Gene Expression in Response to Opioid Analgesia

The Role of CCK in the Development and Maintenance of Chronic Pain

CCK Release in Response to Opioid Analgesia

CCK–Opioid Interactions in Physiological Functions Other than Pain

Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms for CCK–Opioid Interactions

CCK as Mediator of Other Peptides with ANTIOPIOID Effect

Regulation of Opioid Analgesia by NPFF

Regulation of Opioid Analgesia by Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ

Regulation of µ-Opioid Systems by MIF-1, TYR-MIF-1, and TYR-W-MIF-1

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 211. Casomorphins/Hemorphins

Introduction

Discovery of the β-Casomorphins and the Hemorphins

The Formation of β-Casomorphins and Hemorphins

Receptor Selectivity and Its Modulation

Biological Actions and Functional Relevance of the β-Casomorphins and Hemorphins

Implication of β-Casomorphins and Hemorphins in Pathophysiolgy

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 212. Endomorphins

Discovery of Endomorphins

Distribution of the Endomorphins in the Central Nervous System

Receptor Selectivity and Its Modulation

Biological Actions of Endomorphins

Pathophysiological Implications of Endomorphins

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 213. Evolution of the Opioid System

Peptide Family

Receptors

Evolution Of The Opioid System

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 214. Exorphins

Opioid Peptides Derived from Plant Proteins

Opioid Peptides Derived from Animal Proteins (see the Hemorphins/Casomorphins Chapter in This Section of the Book)

Intraprotein Opioid Sequence

Classification of Exorphins According to Their Structure

Opioid Antagonist and Antiopioid Peptide Derived from Proteins

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 215. Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ

The Discovery of Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ

The N/OFQ Peptide

The NOP Receptor

Pharmacological and Genetic Tools

Biological Actions

Therapeutic Potential of NOP Receptor Ligands

References

Chapter 216. Opioid-Substance P Chimeric Peptides

Introduction

CrossInteraction of Tachykinin and Opioid Systems

Tachykinin Antagonist–Opioid Agonist Chimeric Compounds

Tachykinin Agonist–Opioid Agonist Chimeric Compounds

Conclusions

References

Chapter 217. POMC-Derived Opioid Peptides

History

Structure of β-Endorphin

Location and Mechanism of Action

Function

β-Endorphin and Mu Receptor Functions

β-Endorphin and Obesity

β-Endorphin as a Neuromodulator of the Cardiovascular System

β-Endorphin and the Immune System

Miscellaneous Roles of β-Endorphin

Summary

References

Chapter 218. Prodynorphin-Derived Peptides

Discovery

Structure of the Precursor mrna/Gene

Processing

Receptors

Conformational Analysis of Dyn A(1–17)

Dynorphin Expression in the Central Nervous System and Possible Biological Actions

Pathophysiological Implications

Drug Abuse and Dynorphins

Dynorphin Expression in Peripheral Tissues

Perspective

References

Chapter 219. Proenkephalin-Derived Peptides

Discovery of the Enkephalins

Structure of the Precursor Gene

Distribution of Enkephalin mrna and Peptide

Processing

Receptors

Biological Activity of Enkephalins

Pathophysiological Implications

Clinical Studies With Ogf

References

Section XVIII: Neurotrophic Peptides

Chapter 220. Activity-Dependent Neuroprotective Protein (ADNP) and Davunetide (NAP)

Discovery and Structure of ADNP and Davunetide (NAP)

The ADNP Gene

ADNP Expression

ADNP Interacting Proteins

ADNP Biological Actions

The ADNP-Derived Neuroprotective Peptide NAP: Biological Actions and Microtubule Connection

Cytoskeleton Protection, In Vitro

Cytoskeleton Protection, In Vivo

Broad Neuroprotective Scope

General Consideration for Microtubule Protection

Clinical Progress

Working Hypothesis and Future Perspectives

Conflict of Interest

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 221. Erythropoietin

Discovery and Structure of Epo

The Epo Gene

Distribution of Epo and Epo mRNA

Processing of Epo

The Epo Receptor

Epo Biological Actions

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 222. Insulin-like Growth Factor-1

Discovery

Structure of Precursor mrna/Gene

Distribution of the mrna

Processing

Receptors

Active and/or Solution Conformation

Biological Actions

Pathophysiological Implications

Conclusions and Future Directions

References

Chapter 223. Neuregulins

Discovery and Structure

Distribution and Processing

Receptors

Biological Actions

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

References

Chapter 224. Neurotrophins

Discovery of Nerve Growth Factor

Structure of the mRNA/Gene

Distribution of the mRNA

Conformation

Receptors—Binding Sites

TrkA and p75 Receptors—Structure

Trk Receptor Signaling

p75 Receptor Signaling

Neurotrophins—Retrograde Transport

Neurotrophins—Physiological Role and Roles in Pathology

Clinical Prospects

References

Chapter 225. TGF-β

Discovery

Structure of the RNA/Gene

Processing of the Precursor

Receptors and Signaling Cascades

Distribution of the mRNA/Peptide

Biological Actions

Pathophysiological Implications of TGF-β

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Section XIX: Blood–Brain Peptides

Chapter 226. Augurin and Ecrg4-derived Neuropeptides

Introduction

Discovery of Preponderant Expression of Augurin in Choroid Plexus

Exploring Physiologic Roles for Augurin

CSF as a Circulatory Link between CP and Brain

Peptide Traffic through the Blood–CSF Barrier vs. Blood–Brain Barrier

CSF-Peptide-mediated Homeostatic Responses in CNS Pathophysiology

Elements of an Injury Response Feedback Loop

Level of Augurin Peptide Expression and Degree of NPC Mitosis in TBI

Titrating SVZ Proliferation by Altering Augurin in the CP–CSF–Ependymal Nexus

Augurin Release: Relation to Autocrine vs. Endocrine Homeostatic Mechanisms

Conclusions

References

Chapter 227. Diseases Mediated by the BBB: Alzheimer’s, Obesity, and Beyond

Introduction

Leptin and Obesity

Amyloid β Protein Efflux and Alzheimer’s Disease

Methionine Enkephalin and Alcohol Withdrawal

GLUT-1 Deficiency Syndrome

Insulin Resistance in Sepsis

Summary

References

Chapter 228. Hypothalamic Neuropeptides

Introduction

TRH

GnRH

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH)

Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone)

Oxytocin

Somatostatin

PACAP

References

Chapter 229. Ingestive Peptides

Introduction

Insulin

Leptin

Ghrelin

Other Ingestive Peptides and Proteins: Special Interactions with the BBB

Actions Other than Feeding

Summary

References

Chapter 230. Neurotrophic Peptides

Introduction

Resolution of Myths about Peptides and their CNS Effects: In Vivo and In Vitro Methodologies

Binding Proteins that Affect the Stability and Permeation Kinetics: Intravenous Delivery vs In Situ Brain Perfusion

Presence of Receptors at the Apical or Basolateral Surface of the BBB: Useful or Not for Peptide Transport?

Adsorptive Endocytosis and Chemical Modifications that Enhance Delivery across the BBB

The Intracellular Trafficking of Peptides that Leads to Exocytosis

Specific Examples of the Pharmacokinetics of BBB Permeation

The Situation of the Partially Disrupted BBB and Selective Regulation of the Transport System in Pathophysiology

Enhanced Delivery of Neurotrophic Peptides: How it Affects Neuroregeneration

Summary

References

Chapter 231. Oligopeptide and Peptide-Like Drug Transport

Introduction

Blood–Brain Barriers: General Properties

Oligopeptide Transport at the BBB

Peptidases at the BBB

Oligopeptide Transporters at the Choroid Plexus

Peptidases at the Choroid Plexus

Peptide and Peptide-Like Drug Transport at the BCSFB

Regulation of Peptide Transport

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 232. Opioid Peptides

Introduction

Stability

Transport

BBB and Disease, Will It Change Opioid Peptide Delivery?

Conclusions

References

Chapter 233. Peptide Delivery

Introduction

Models to Study Brain Delivery of Peptides

Methods to Improve Paracellular Peptide Delivery Through the BBB

Formation of Cyclic Peptides to Improve Transcellular Delivery Through the BBB

Improving Enzymatic Stability

Targeting Saturable Transport Systems in the BBB to Improve Delivery into the CNS

Use of Receptor-Mediated Drug Transport to Improve Peptide Delivery into the Brain

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Section XX: Peptide Biosynthesis/Processing

Chapter 234. Acetylation

Acetylation of Bioactive Peptides

Acetyl Transferases

Distribution and Localization of Peptide Acetyl Transferase Activity

Pathophysiology of Acetylated and Nonacetylated α-MSH and β-Endorphin

Conclusions

References

Chapter 235. Carboxypeptidases E and D

Name and History

Function in Peptide Biosynthesis

General Properties

Substrate Specificity and Regulation of Activity

Distribution/Localization

Pathophysiological Implications

Later Findings

References

Chapter 236. Disulfide Bond Formation

Introduction

The Concept of Secretory Pathway Catalysis of Disulfide Bond Formation

Transfer of Reducing Equivalents from the ER Lumen to the Cytosol

Proper Disulfide Bond Formation in the Secretory Pathway may also Include Disulfide Reduction and Isomerization

The Family of PDI-like ER Oxidoreductases

Selective Activities of Oxidoreductases within the ER Environment

Oxidation of Specific Bioactive Peptide Substrates within the ER: the Case of Proinsulin

Conclusions

References

Chapter 237. Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase (GOAT)

Introduction

Name and History of GOAT

Functions of GOAT in Ghrelin Processing

Properties

Stimulation of GOAT

Substrate Specificity of GOAT

Regulation of Activity

Pathophysiological Implications

References

Chapter 238. Glutaminyl Cyclases

N-Terminal pGlu-Modification of Peptides and Proteins

Glutaminyl Cyclases

References

Chapter 239. In Silico Search for Biologically Active Peptides

Background of GPCR Deorphanization

Prediction of Bioactive Peptides: Biosynthetic Pathway of Bioactive Peptides and the Empirical Cleavage Rules

Prediction of Bioactive Peptide Candidates

Perspectives

References

Chapter 240. New Mass Spectrometric Approaches for Uncovering Neuropeptides

Introduction

MS-Based Neuropeptide Discovery

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 241. Peptide Degradation (Neprilysin and Other Regulatory Peptidases)

Introduction

Neutral Endopeptidase (Neprilysin) Family

The ACE Family (ACE and ACE-2)

Insulin-Degrading Enzyme (Insulysin, IDE)

Proline-Directed Peptidases

Conclusions

References

Chapter 242. Peptidomics of Mice Lacking Peptide Processing Enzymes

Introduction

Quantitative Peptidomic Techniques

CPE-deficient Mice

PC Knockout Mice

Conclusions

References

Chapter 243. Peptidomics Strategy for Discovering Endogenous Biologically Active Peptides

Mass Spectrometry in Endogenous Peptide Research

Peptidomic Identification and Biological Validation of Novel C-Terminally Amidated Peptides: Neuroendocrine Regulatory Peptides (NERPs)

Elucidating Precursor Cleavage Sites by Secretopeptidome Analysis

A Universal Peptidomics Strategy for Discovering Endogenous Biologically Active Peptides

Focused Secretopeptidome Mining: Discovery of Antimicrobial Peptide AMP-IBP5

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 244. Peptidylglycine Amidating Monoxygenase (PAM)

Name and History

Function of PAM in Peptide Biosynthesis

Properties of the PHM Domain of PAM

Properties of the PAL Domain of PAM

The PAM Gene

Regulation of PAM Activity

Distribution/Localization: Biosynthetic and Endocytic Trafficking of PAM

Inhibitors of Amidation

Pathophysiological Implications

Later Findings

References

Chapter 245. Prohormone Convertase 1/3

Discovery and General Features of PC1/3

Peptide Biosynthesis and Processing: PC1/3 Function

Properties of PC1/3

Distribution/Localization

Pathophysiological Implications of PC1/3 Variants

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 246. Prohormone Convertase 2

Discovery and General Features Of PC2

PC2 Function in Peptide Biosynthesis and Processing

Properties Of PC2

Distribution/Localization Of PC2

Pathophysiological Implications of PC2 and 7B2 Variants and Null Animals

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 247. Proprotein Convertase Furin and Proprotein Convertase PC5/6

Discovery and Nomenclature

Functions in Peptide Biosynthesis/Processing

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 248. Proprotein Convertases PC4, PACE4, and PC7

Discovery and Nomenclature

Functions in Polypeptide Biosynthesis/Processing

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 249. Proprotein Convertases SKI-1/S1P and PCSK9

Discovery and Nomenclature

Functions in Polypeptide Biosynthesis/Processing

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 250. Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases

Function in Cellular Synthesis and Processing of Peptides

Enzyme Properties

Distribution

Patophysiological Implications

Immunochemical and Diagnostic Implications

Additional Findings

References

Section XXI: General Peptide Topics

Chapter 251. Classical Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides

Some Historical Notes on Neurotransmitters

Neuropeptide Research—The Beginnings

Neuropeptides at Karolinska

Neurotransmitter Storage—Synaptic Versus Dense Core Vesicles

Neurotransmitter Coexistence

Plasticity in Neuropeptide Expression

Neuropeptide Receptors

Neuropeptide Receptors and Drug Development

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 252. Evolution in Action: Skin Peptides

Introduction

Agnatha

Elasmobranchii

Teleostei

Amphibia

Conclusions

References

Chapter 253. Peptide Chronomics

Preamble

Introduction

Avoiding Blunders

Chronomics Spawned by Chronobiology Maps Dynamics

Endpoints

Susceptibility Rhythms

Atlas

Beginnings of Opportunistic Mapping along the Scale of Years

Chronomics in Men

Chronomics in Women

Discussion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 254. Peptides and Behavior

Introduction

General Features of Peptide Modulation of Behavior

Peptide Modulation of Specific Behaviors

Consummatory Behavior

Peptide Therapeutics

Conclusion

References

Chapter 255. Peptides and Sleep

Introduction

Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Somatotropic (HPS) System

Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenocortical System

Corticotropin

Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Thyroid System

Other Peptides

Orexins/Hypocretins

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 256. Peptides and Stress

Introduction

The “Stress” Concept

CRH

Neuropeptide Y

Evidence for Interactions between CRH and NPY Systems

Urocortins

Substance P

Neuropeptide S

Arginine Vasopressin

Concluding Remarks

Chapter 257. Peptides and Temperature

Introduction

Body Temperature and Its Regulation

Participants of Energy Balance Regulation

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 258. Pheromone Peptides

Introduction

Bacterial Pheromone Peptides

Fungal Pheromone Peptides

Ciliates

Mollusk Pheromone Peptides

Annelid Pheromone Peptides

Arthropod Pheromone Peptides

Vertebrate Pheromone Peptides

Summary

References

Chapter 259. Prebiotic Peptides

Introduction

The Primitive Earth Scenario

The Formation of Amino Acids

The Formation of Peptides

A ‘Peptide World’ as the Origin of Life?

References

Chapter 260. Viral Fusion Peptides

Introduction

Methods to Analyze Fusion Peptide Structure and Function

Fusion Peptides in Retroviruses

Fusion Peptides in Paramyxoviruses

Conclusions and Prospects

Acknowledgments

References

Index

Color Plates

Quotes and reviews

"This extensive volume, containing 260 contributions divided into twenty-one sections, is presented by editor Kastin… Most chapters discuss families of proteins, although some target individual peptides. The first several sections cover peptides important to plants, bacteria, fungi, invertebrates, amphibians, and animal venom. The remainder addresses peptides in systems relevant to human physiology,…"--ProtoView.com, February 2014
"This edition has been updated to present recent advances in the field and edited to enforce uniformity in style…No other currently available book thoroughly covers such a wide array of areas related to peptide research in a single, all-encompassing volume. This should be regarded as an essential and invaluable reference for all with an interest in biologically active peptides, from novice researchers to accomplished scientists." Rating: 5 Stars--Doody.com, January 17, 2014
"This extensive volume, containing 260 contributions divided into twenty-one sections, is presented by editor Kastin… Most chapters discuss families of proteins, although some target individual peptides. The first several sections cover peptides important to plants, bacteria, fungi, invertebrates, amphibians, and animal venom…The last two sections touch on peptide synthesis, processing, and newer research in the field."--Reference & Research Book News, December 2013

 
 
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