Insect Molecular Genetics, 3rd Edition

An Introduction to Principles and Applications

 
Insect Molecular Genetics, 3rd Edition,Marjorie Hoy,ISBN9780124158740
 
 
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Key Features

  • Up-to-date references to important review articles, websites, and seminal citations in the disciplines
  • Well crafted and instructive illustrations integral to explaining the techniques of molecular genetics
  • Glossary of terms to help beginners learn the vocabulary of molecular biology

Description

Insect Molecular Genetics, Third Edition, summarizes and synthesizes two rather disparate disciplines—entomology and molecular genetics. This volume provides an introduction to the techniques and literature of molecular genetics; defines terminology; and reviews concepts, principles, and applications of these powerful tools. The world of insect molecular genetics, once dominated by Drosophila, has become much more diverse, especially with the sequencing of multiple arthropod genomes (from spider mites to mosquitoes). This introduction includes discussion of honey bees, mosquitoes, flour beetles, silk moths, fruit flies, aphids, house flies, kissing bugs, cicadas, butterflies, tsetse flies and armyworms.

This book serves as both a foundational text and a review of a rapidly growing literature. With fully revised and updated chapters, the third edition will be a valuable addition to the personal libraries of entomologists, geneticists, and molecular biologists.

Readership

Advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, faculty and researchers that need a primer of molecular genetics as it relates to entomology. Libraries at institutions with strong programs in entomology, pest control, biological control, insect pathology, and molecular genetics

Marjorie Hoy

Affiliations and Expertise

Insitute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, U.S.A.

Insect Molecular Genetics, 3rd Edition

Preface to the Third Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition

Goals

Organization

Acknowledgments

Part I: Genes and Genome Organization in Eukaryotes

Chapter 1. DNA, Gene Structure, and DNA Replication

1.1 Overview

1.2 DNA is the Hereditary Material: A Brief History

1.3 The Central Dogma

1.4 The “RNA World” Came First?

1.5 The Molecular Structure of DNA

1.6 The Molecular Structure of RNA

1.7 The Double Helix

1.8 Complementary Base Pairing is Fundamental

1.9 DNA Exists in Several Forms

1.10 Genes

1.11 The Genetic Code for Protein-Coding Genes is a Triplet and is Degenerate

1.12 Gene Organization

1.13 Efficient DNA Replication is Essential

1.14 DNA Replication is Semiconservative

1.15 Replication Begins at Replication Origins

1.16 DNA Replication Occurs Only in the 5′ to 3′ Direction

1.17 Replication of DNA Requires an RNA Primer

1.18 Ligation of Replicated DNA Fragments

1.19 DNA Replication during Mitosis in Eukaryotes

1.20 Telomeres at the End: A Solution to the Loss of DNA during Replication

1.21 DNA Replication Fidelity and DNA Repair

1.22 Mutations in the Genome

1.23 Common Genetic Terminology

1.24 Independent Assortment and Recombination during Sexual Reproduction

General References

References Cited

Chapter 2. Transcription, Translation, and Regulation of Eukaryotic DNA

2.1 Overview

2.2 Introduction

2.3 RNA Synthesis is Gene Transcription

2.4 Transcription Involves Binding, Initiation, Elongation, and Termination

2.5 RNA Transcripts of Protein-Coding Genes

2.6 RNA of Protein-Coding Genes Must Be Modified and Processed in Eukaryotes

2.7 Splicing Out the Introns

2.8 Translation Involves Protein Synthesis

2.9 RNA Surveillance: Damage Control

2.10 Import and Export from the Nucleus

2.11 Transport of Proteins within the Cytoplasm

2.12 mRNA Stability

2.13 Chaperones and the Proteosome

2.14 RNA Silencing or Interference and miRNAs

2.15 Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes

2.16 Insulators and Boundaries

2.17 Chromosome or Gene Imprinting in Insects

2.18 Eukaryotic Genomes and Evolution

References Cited

Chapter 3. Nuclear and Extranuclear DNA in Insects

3.1 Overview

3.2 Introduction

3.3 C-Value Paradox: Is it Real?

3.4 Repetitive DNA is Common in Insects

3.5 Composition of Insect DNA

3.6 Chromosomes are DNA Plus Proteins

3.7 Packaging Long, Thin DNA Molecules into Tiny Spaces

3.8 Structure of the Nucleus

3.9 Euchromatin and Heterochromatin

3.10 Centromeres

3.11 Telomeres

3.12 Chromosomes during Mitosis and Meiosis

3.13 Chromosome Damage

3.14 Polyteny

3.15 Chromosomal Puffing

3.16 B Chromosomes

3.17 Sex Chromosomes

3.18 Extranuclear Inheritance in Mitochondrial Genes

3.19 Transposable Elements are Ubiquitous Agents that Alter Genomes

References Cited

Chapter 4. Genetic Systems, Genome Evolution, and Genetic Control of Embryonic Development in Insects

4.1 Overview

4.2 Introduction

4.3 Genetic Systems in Insects

4.4 Endopolyploidy is Common in Somatic Tissues of Arthropods

4.5 Genetics of Insects Other than D. melanogaster

4.6 Dynamic Insect Genomes

4.7 B Chromosomes

4.8 Unique-Sequence DNA in the Nucleus

4.9 Middle-Repetitive DNA in the Nucleus

4.10 Highly Repetitive DNA

4.11 Producing Large Amounts of Protein in a Short Time: Gene Amplification and Gene Duplication

4.12 Multiple Genomes in or on Insects: What is the “Biological Individual”?

4.13 Insect Development

4.14 Dissecting Development with D. melanogaster Mutants

4.15 Interactions During Development

4.16 Similarities and Differences in Development in Other Insects

4.17 Evo-Devo and the Revolution in Developmental Studies

References Cited

Part II: Molecular Genetic Techniques

Chapter 5. Some Basic Tools: How to Cut, Paste, Copy, Measure, Visualize, and Clone DNA

5.1 Overview

5.2 Introduction to a Basic Molecular Biology Experiment

5.3 Extracting DNA from Insects

5.4 Precipitating Nucleic Acids

5.5 Shearing DNA

5.6 Cutting DNA with Restriction Endonucleases

5.7 Joining DNA Molecules

5.8 Growth, Maintenance, and Storage of E. coli

5.9 Plasmids for Cloning in E. coli

5.10 Transforming E. coli with Plasmids

5.11 Purifying Plasmid DNA from E. coli

5.12 Electrophoresis in Agarose or Acrylamide Gels

5.13 Detecting, Viewing, and Photographing Nucleic Acids in Gels

5.14 Identifying Specific DNA by Southern Blot Analysis

5.15 Labeling DNA or RNA Probes

5.16 Removing DNA from Agarose Gels after Electrophoresis

5.17 Restriction-Site Mapping

General References

References Cited

Chapter 6. Some Additional Tools for the Molecular Biologist

6.1 Overview

6.2 Introduction

6.3 The Perfect Genomic Library

6.4 cDNA Cloning

6.5 Enzymes Used in Molecular Biology Experiments

6.6 Isolating a Specific Gene from a Library if Whole-Genome Sequencing is Not Done

6.7 Labeling Probes by a Variety of Methods

6.8 Baculovirus Vectors Express Foreign Polypeptides in Insect Cells

6.9 Expression Microarray Analysis

General References

References Cited

Chapter 7. DNA Sequencing and the Evolution of the “-Omics”

7.1 Overview

7.2 Introduction

7.3 The Dideoxy or Chain-Termination (Sanger) Method

7.4 The Maxam and Gilbert Sequencing Method

7.5 Shotgun Strategies for Genomes

7.6 Sequencing DNA by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

7.7 Automated Sanger Sequencers

7.8 Analyzing DNA Sequence Data

7.9 DNA-Sequence Data Banks

7.10 A Brief History of the Drosophila Genome Project

7.11 Next-Generation Sequencing Methods and Beyond

7.12 Bioinformatics

7.13 Genome Analyses of Other Arthropods

7.14 Transposable Elements (TEs) as Agents of Genome Evolution

7.15 Transcriptomics

7.16 Metagenomics

7.17 Proteomics: Another “-Omic”

7.18 Functional Genomics

7.19 Structural Genomics—Another New Horizon?

7.20 Comparative Genomics

7.21 Interactomes or Reactomes

7.22 The Post-Genomic Era: Systems Genetics

General References

References Cited

Chapter 8. DNA Amplification by the Polymerase Chain Reaction: Molecular Biology Made Accessible

8.1 Overview

8.2 Introduction

8.3 The Basic Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

8.4 Some Modifications of the PCR

8.5 Some Research Applications

8.6 Multiple Displacement Amplification: Another Method to Amplify DNA

8.7 Concluding Remarks

References Cited

Chapter 9. Transposable-Element Vectors and Other Methods to Genetically Modify Drosophila and Other Insects

9.1 Overview

9.2 Introduction

9.3 P Elements and Hybrid Dysgenesis

9.4 P-Element Structure Varies

9.5 Transposition Method of P Elements

9.6 Origin of P Elements in D. melanogaster

9.7 P Vectors and Germ-Line Transformation

9.8 Using P-Element Vectors

9.9 Transformation of Other Insects with P Vectors

9.10 Evolution of Resistance to P Elements

9.11 Using P to Drive Genes into Populations

9.12 Relationship of P to Other Transposable Elements (TEs)

9.13 Other TEs Can Transform D. melanogaster

9.14 Improved Transformation Tools for Drosophila

9.15 TE Vectors to Transform Insects other than Drosophila

9.16 Cross Mobilization of TE Vectors

9.17 Conversion of Inactive TE Vectors to Activity

9.18 Suppression of Transgene Expression

9.19 Other Transformation Methods

9.20 Conclusions

General References

References Cited

Part III: Applications in Entomology

Chapter 10. Sex Determination in Insects

10.1 Overview

10.2 Introduction

10.3 Costs and Benefits of Sexual Reproduction

10.4 Sex Determination Involves Soma and Germ-Line Tissues

10.5 Sex Determination in Drosophila melanogaster

10.6 Are Sex-Determination Mechanisms Diverse?

10.7 A Single Model?

10.8 Meiotic Drive Can Distort Sex Ratios

10.9 Hybrid Sterility

10.10 Medea in Tribolium

10.11 Cytoplasmic Agents Distort Normal Sex Ratios

10.12 Paternal Sex-Ratio Chromosomes and Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Nasonia

10.13 Male Killing in the Coccinellidae

10.14 Sex and the Sorted Insects

10.15 Conclusion

References Cited

Chapter 11. Molecular Genetics of Insect Behavior

11.1 Overview

11.2 Introduction

11.3 The Insect Nervous System

11.4 Traditional Genetic Analyses of Behavior

11.5 Molecular-Genetic Analyses of Insect Behavior

11.6 Symbionts and Insect Behavior

11.7 Human Neurodegenerative Diseases and Addictions in Drosophila

11.8 High-Throughput Ethomics

11.9 Systems Genetics of Complex Traits in Drosophila

11.10 Social Behavior in Bees and Ants

11.11 Conclusions

References Cited

Chapter 12. Molecular Systematics and the Evolution of Arthropods

12.1 Overview

12.2 Introduction

12.3 Controversies in Molecular Systematics and Evolution

12.4 Molecular Methods for Molecular Systematics and Evolution

12.5 Targets of DNA Analysis

12.6 Steps in Phylogenetic Analysis of DNA Sequence Data

12.7 The Universal Tree of Life

12.8 The Fossil Record of Arthropods

12.9 Molecular Analyses of Arthropod Phylogeny

12.10 Molecular Evolution and Speciation

12.11 Some Conclusions

Relevant Journals

References Cited

Chapter 13. Insect Population Ecology and Molecular Genetics

13.1 Overview

13.2 Introduction

13.3 What is Molecular Ecology?

13.4 Collecting Arthropods in the Field for Analysis

13.5 Molecular Ecological Methods

13.6 Analysis of Molecular Data

13.7 Case Studies in Molecular Ecology and Population Biology

13.8 Applied Pest Management

Relevant Journals

References Cited

Chapter 14. Genetic Modification of Pest and Beneficial Insects for Pest-Management Programs

14.1 Overview

14.2 Introduction

14.3 Why Genetically Modify Insects?

14.4 Why Use Molecular-Genetic Methods?

14.5 What Genetic Modification Methods are Available?

14.6 Methods to Deliver Exogenous Nucleic Acids into Arthropod Tissues

14.7 What Genes are Available?

14.8 Why are Regulatory Signals Important?

14.9 How are Modified Arthropods Identified?

14.10 How to Deploy Genetically Modified Pest and Beneficial Arthropods

14.11 Potential Risks Associated with Releases of Genetically Modified Arthropods

14.12 Permanent Releases of Genetically Modified Arthropods into the Environment

14.13 Regulatory Issues: Releases of Genetically Modified Arthropods

14.14 Conclusions

References Cited

Glossary

Index

Quotes and reviews

"...a fantastic textbook for an introductory insect molecular genetics course. I would also recommend it to new and established researchers that need an introduction to, or need to brush up on, current molecular methods in arthropod genetics." --Bulletin of the ESC

"It is both a genetics bible and a superlative homage to the wonderful diversity of insect lifestyles and the underlying genetics that drive them. It is quite simply a stunning and gargantuan work of art." --The Quarterly Review of Biology

"It is therefore comprehensive in every sense of the term and via its clever organization takes readers on a white-knuckle ride through not only all of modern insect biology and genetics but also the new -omics techniques that now promise to enrich that biology. It should be useful to everyone from the aging professor (myself included) to the budding and more youthful student. It is both a genetics bible and a superlative homage to the wonderful diversity of insect lifestyles and the underlying genetics that drive them. It is quite simply a stunning and gargantuan work of art." --Richard H. French-Constant, Centre for Ecology & Conservation and Biosciences, University of Exeter, Falmouth, UK

"Hoy presents this third edition of her molecular entomology textbook, with updated material on genetic modification, sequencing, and symbiosis. The author notes that although the title refers to insects, other arthropods such as ticks and mites are increasingly contributing to related knowledge." --Reference & Research Book News, October 2013

 
 
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