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Bones and Cartilage, 1st Edition

Developmental and Evolutionary Skeletal Biology

 
Bones and Cartilage, 1st Edition,Brian K. Hall,Brian Hall,ISBN9780123190604
 
 
 

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9780123190604 New edition

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Key Features

* Complete coverage of every aspect of bone and cartilage
* Full of interesting and unusual facts
* The only book available that integrates development and evolution of the skeleton
* Treats all levels from molecular to clinical, embryos to evolution
* Written in a lively, accessible style
* Extensively illustrated and referenced
* Integrates analysis of differentiation, growth and patterning
* Covers all the vertebrates as well as invertebrate cartilages
* Identifies the stem cells in embryos and adults that can make skeletal tissues

Description

Bones and Cartilage provides the most in-depth review ever assembled on the topic. It examines the function, development and evolution of bone and cartilage as tissues, organs and skeletal systems. It describes how bone and cartilage is developed in embryos and are maintained in adults, how bone reappears when we break a leg, or even regenerates when a newt grows a new limb, or a lizard a tail.

This book also looks at the molecules and cells that make bones and cartilages and how they differ in various parts of the body and across species. It answers such questions as “Is bone always bone?” “Do bones that develop indirectly by replacing other tissues, such as marrow, tendons or ligaments, differ from one another?” “Is fish bone the same as human bone?” “Can sharks even make bone?” and many more.

Readership

Biologists, medical researchers, evolutionary biologists, paleontologists, skeletal biologists, endocrinologists as well as graduate students and clinicians in all of these areas

Brian K. Hall

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax NS Canada

View additional works by Brian K. Hall

Brian Hall

Affiliations and Expertise

Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

View additional works by Brian K. Hall

Bones and Cartilage, 1st Edition

Epigraph
Preface
Table of Contents (FULL)

PART I – SKELETAL TISSUES
Chapter 1 — Types of Skeletal Tissues
Bone
Cartilage
Dentine
Enamel
Intermediate Tissues
Cementum
Enameloid
Chondroid and Chondroid bone
Bone or Cartilage

Chapter 2 — Bone
Discovery of the Basic Structure of Bone
Cellular Bone
Intramembranous vs Endochondral Bone?
Embryonic Origins
Other Modes
Metabolic Differences
Morphogenetic Differences
Osteones
Growth
Regional Remodeling
Ageing
Osteones Over Time
Acellular Bone
Caisson Disease and Abnormal Acellular Bone in Mammals
Acellular Bone in Teleost Fishes
Development
Resorption
Repair of Fractures
Ca++ Regulation
Aspidine
Bone in 'Cartilaginous' Fishes (Sharks and Rays)

Chapter 3 —Cartilage
Types
Chondrones
Cartilage Growth
Cartilage Canals
Secondary Ossification Centres
Elastic Cartilage
Elastic Fibres
The Cells
Elastic Cartilage Intermediates
Shark Cartilage
Development and Mineralization
Growth
Inhibition of Vascular Invasion
Lampreys
Mucocartilage
Lamprin
Mineralization
Hagfish

PART II – NATURAL EXPERIEMENTS
Chapter 4 — Invertebrate Cartilages
Chondroid, Cartilage or Neither
Odontophoral Cartilage of the Channeled Whelk, Busycon canaliculatum
Branchial (Gill Book) Cartilage of the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus
Cranial Cartilages in Squid, Cuttlefish and Octopuses
Composition of the ECM
Glycosaminoglycans
Collagens
Tentacular Cartilages of Polychaete Annelids
Lophophore Cartilage in the Articulate Brachiopod, Terebratalia transversa
Mineralization of Invertebrate Cartilages
Cartilage Origins

Chapter 5 — Intermediate Tissues
Chondroid and Chondroid Bone
Modulation and Intermediate Tissues
Cartilage from Fibrous Tissue and Metaplasia
Metaplasia of Epithelial Cells to Chondroblasts or Osteoblasts
Chondroid
Teleosts
Mammals
Chondroid Bone
Teleosts
Mammals
Chondroid Bone and Pharyngeal Jaws
Tissues Intermediate Between Bone and Dentine
Dentine
Cementum
Enameloid: a Tissue Intermediate Between Dentine and Enamel

Chapter 6 — An Evolutionary Perspective
Fossilized Skeletal Tissues
All Four Skeletal Tissues are Ancient
Evolutionary Experimentation
Intermediate Tissues in Fossil Agnatha
Dinosaur Bone
Developing Fossils
Problematica
Palaeopathlogy
Conodonts

Part III — UNUSUAL MODES OF SKELETOGENESIS

Chapter 7 — Horns and Ossicones
Horns
Distribution of Horns as Organs
Bovidae
Rhinos
Titanotheres
Pronghorn Antelopes
Giraffes
Horn as a Tissue
Development and Growth of Horns

Chapter 8 — Antlers
Antlers
Size and Absence
Initiation of Antler Formation
Pedicle Formation
The Antler Bud and Dermal-Epidermal Interactions
Hormonal Control of Pedicle Development and Growth
Antler Regeneration
The Shedding Cycle
Histogenesis of Antlers
White-tailed Deer, American Elk, European Fallow and Roe Deer
Rocky Mountain Mule Deer
Sika Deer
Hormones, Photoperiod and Antler growth
Photoperiod and Testosterone
Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin

Chapter 9 — Tendons and Sesamoids
Tendons and Skeletogenesis
Fibrocartilage in Tendons
Rodent Achilles Tendons
Ossification of Avian Tendons
Formation and Composition of Tendon Fibrocartilages
Condensation
Scleraxis
Composition
Sesamoids
Amphibians
Reptiles
Birds
Teleosts

PART IV – STEM CELLS

Chapter 10 — Embryonic Stem Cells
Stem Cells
Set-aside Cells?
Stem Cells for Periosteal Osteogenesis in Long Bones
Modulation of Synthetic Activity and Differentiative Pathways of Cell Populations
Fibroblast-Chondroblast Modulation
Modulation of Glyocaminoglycan Synthesis
Modulation of Synthetic Activity and Differentiative Pathways in Single Cells
Degradative Activity

Chapter 11 — Stem Cells in Adults
Fibroblast Colony-Forming Cells
Osteogenic Precursor Cells
Clonal Analysis
Lineages of Cells
Dexamethasone
Epithelial Induction of Ectopic Bone
Transitional Epithelium of the Urinary Bladder
Epithelial Cell Lines

PART V – SKELETOGENIC CELLS

Chapter 12—Osteo- and Chondroprogenitor Cells
Identifying Osteo- and Chondroprogenitor cells
Execrable Terminology
Features
Cell Cycle Dynamics
Bipotential Progenitor Cells for Osteo- and Chondrogenesis
Bipotential Cell Populations or Bipotential Cells?
Uncovering Bipotentiality
Discovering Bipotentiality
Biochemical and Metabolic Markers
Collagen Types
The Tumor Suppressor Gene p53
Condylar Cartilage on the Condylar Process of the Mammalian Dentary
Histodifferentiation and Scurvy
One or Two Cell Populations
Evidence Against Bipotentiality
Evidence Supporting Bipotentiality
All or Some?
Secondary Cartilage on Avian Membrane Bones

Chapter 13 — Dedifferentiation Provides Progenitor Cells for Jaws and Long Bones
Condylar Cartilage of the Mammalian Temporomandibular Joint
The TMJ
Hypertrophic Chondrocytes Survive
Hypertrophic Chondrocytes Transform to OPCs
Meckel's Cartilages
Mammalian Meckel’s
Dedifferentiation During Endochondral Bone Formation
Rodent Ribs
Mice
Rats
Appendicular Long Bones
Enzyme Activity
Evidence from 3H-Thymidine-Labelling and Other Approaches
Murine Interpubic Joints

Chapter 14 — Dedifferentiation and Urodele Limb Regeneration
Dedifferentiation
Morphological Dedifferentiation
Functional Dedifferentiation
Hyaluronan
Blastema Formation
Aneurogenic Limbs
More than One Cell Fate
Myoblast and Chondroblast Fates
Factors Controlling Dedifferentiation
Innervation
Aneurogenic Limbs
Proliferation
Not the Stump
Electrical Signals?
Hox Genes
FgfR1 and FgfR2
Radical Fringe
Why can’t Frogs Regenerate?
Augmenting Regeneration
Finger Tips of Mice, Monkeys and Men

Chapter 15 — Cells to Make and Cells to Break:
Clasts and Blasts
Resorption
Coupling Bone Resorption to Bone Formation
Coupling Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
Some Molecular Players
When Coupling Goes Awry
TRAP-staining for Osteoclasts
Mammalian Osteoclasts
Teleost Osteoclasts
Nitric Oxide – It’s a Gas
Progenitor Cells for Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
Japanese Quail-domestic Fowl Chimaeras
Osteopetrosis and Osteoclast Origins
Osteoclast-Phagocyte-Macrophage or Osteoclast-Monocyte Lineages?
Phagocyte/Macrophage Origin
Interleukins
IL-1
IL-6
IL-10
Evidence Against Monocytes
Evidence for Monocytes
Chondroclasts and Osteoclasts
Synovial Cells?

PART VI – EMBRYONIC ORIGINS

Chapter 16 — Skeletal Origins: Somitic Mesoderm
Somitic Mesoderm and the Origin of the Vertebrae
Paraxial Mesoderm —> Somites
Sclerotome Formation and Migration
Resegmentation
Somitic Contribution to Limb Buds
Formation of Muscle
Innervation and Myogenesis
Signals to Initiate a Limb Bud
A Comment on the Pectoral Girdle
The Clavicle: Even More Surprising
Humans
Other Mammals
Mammals that Lack Clavicles
Birds
Wishbone or Clavicles

Chapter 17 — Skeletal Origins: Neural Crest
Different Mesenchyme, Same Tissues
Neural Crest as a Source of Skeletal Cells
Evidence of Skeletogenic Potential
Ablation and Transplantation Experiments
Marker Experiments
3H-thymidine
Xenopus laevis-Xenopus borealis Chimaeras
Quail-chick Chimaeras
Genetic Markers for Murine Neural Crest
Information from Mutants
Regionalization of the Cranial Neural Crest
The Ventral Neural Tube
Migration of NCC: the Role of the Extracellular Matrix

Chapter 18 — Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions: Jaws
Urodele Amphibians: Chondrogenesis
Avian Mandibular Skeleton: Chondrogenesis and Osteogenesis
Isolated Mesenchyme — Chondrogenesis
Isolated Mesenchyme — Osteogenesis
Ruling out any Role for Meckel’s Cartilage
Molecular Mechanisms
Osteogenesis in Avian Maxillary Arch Skeleton
Mammalian Mandibular Skeleton
Endothelin-1
The Dlx Family and Craniofacial Development
Teleost Mandibular Arch Skeleton
Fgf
Hoxd-4 and Retinoic Acid
Limb Development
Craniofacial Development
Fish
Endothelin-1 (En-1)
Mutants
Lateral Line, Neuromasts and Dermal Bone
Hope from a Single Trout
Teratomas
Germ-Layer Combinations
Mesenchyme Signals to Epithelium
Specificity of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions

PART VII – GETTING STARTED

Chapter 19 — The Membranous Skeleton: Condensations
The Membranous Skeleton
Congenital hydrocephalus (ch)
Characterizing Condensations
How Condensations Arise
Altered Mitotic Activity
Changing Cell Density
Aggregation and/or Failure to Disperse
Limb Buds and Limb Regeneration
Molecular Control
Establishing Boundaries
Syndecan and Tenascin
Fgfs
Wnt-7a

Chapter 20 — From Condensation to Differentiation
Condensation Growth
Lessons from Mutants
talpid3
bpH
Adhere, Proliferate and Grow
Gap Junctions
Limb Bud Mesenchyme
Craniofacial Mesenchyme
Transcription Factors and Hox genes
Position and Shape
Establishing Condensation Size
Bmps
Fibronectin
Hyaluronan
Extrinsic Control
From Condensation to Overt Differentiation
The Molecular Cascades
Bmps
Tenascin and N-CAM
Runx-2

Chapter 21 — Skulls, Eyes and Ears: Condensations and Tissue Interactions
The Bony Skull
Avian Skull Development
Mammalian Skull Development
The Cartilaginous Skull
Type II Collagen
Otic, Optic and Nasal Capsules
The Otic Vesicle
Morphogenesis
Tympanic Cartilages
Scleral Cartilage
Heterogeneity
Chondrogenic Mesenchyme
Chondrogenic Mesenchyme
Morphogenesis
Scleral Ossicles
Ossicle Number
Scleral Papillae
An Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interaction
Scaleless Mutant Fowl
A Role for Tenascin?

PART VIII – SIMILARITY AND DIVERSITY

Chapter 22 —Chondrocyte Diversity
Segregation from Precursors
Perichondria
Morphogenetic Specificity
Cartilages of Different Embryological Origins
Chondrocyte Hypertrophy
Type X Collagen
Discovery and Regulation of Synthesis
Syndromes and Mutations
Type X Does Not Always Indicate Hypertrophy
Regulation of Chondrocyte Hypertrophy
Tgf-ß
Bmps
Type X and Mineralization
Matrix Vesicles
Hypertrophic Chondrocytes and Subperiosteal Ossification
Brachypod (bpH) in mice

Chapter 23 — Cartilage Diversity
Sternal Chondrocytes
Synthesis of Collagen and GAG
Differential expression of Type II Collagen
Differential Synthesis and Organization of Collagen Types
Type X Collagen and Hypertrophy
Fibronectin
Nanomelia
Tumour Invasion
Vascularity
Resisting Vascular Invasion
Inhibitors of Angiogenesis and Vascular Invasion
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (Vegf)
PTH-PTHrP
Interpubic Joints and the Transformation of Cartilage to Ligament
Cartilage —> Ligament
Mediation by Oestrogen and Relaxin

Chapter 24 —Osteoblast and Osteocyte Diversity
Osteocytic Osteolysis
Initiating Osteogenesis in vitro from Embryonic Mesenchyme
Osteogenic Cells in Vitro
Folded Periostea
Establishing Osteoblasts/Osteogenesis in vitro
Calvarial Osteoblasts in vitro
Isolating Subpopulations of Calvarial Osteogenic Cells
Chondrogenesis from Osteogenic Cells
Clonal Cultures

Chapter 25 — Bone Diversity
Heterogeneity of Response to Sodium Fluoride
Enhanced Proliferation and Osteogenesis
Interaction with Hormonal Action
Osteoporosis
Chondrogenesis
Mineralization
Mechanical Properties of Bone
Alveolar Bone of Mammalian Teeth
Origin
Physiology and Circadian Rhythms
Penile and Clitoral Cartilages and Bones
Os penis
Os clitoris
Hormonal Control
Digits and Penile Bones
Oestrogen-Stimulated Deposition of Medullary Bone in Laying Hens
Oestrogen-Stimulated Resorption of Innominate Bones in Mice

PART IX – MAINTAINING CARTLAGE IN GOOD TIMES AND BAD

Chapter 26 — Maintaining Differentiated Chondrocytes
Differentiated Chondrocytes
Synthesis and Deposition of Cartilaginous Extracellular Matrix
Synthesis of Chondroitin Sulphate
Synthesis of Type-II Collagen
Synthesis of Collagen and Chondroitin Sulfate by the Same Chondrocyte
Collagen Gel Culture
Feedback Control of the Synthesis of Glycosaminoglycans
Evidence from Organ Culture
Evidence from Chondrocyte Cell Cultures
Interactions Between Glycosaminoglycans and Collagens within the ECM
Synthesis of Collagen and CS are Regulated Independently
Hypertrophy
The Interactive Extracellular Matrix

Chapter 27 — Maintenance Awry: Achondroplasia
Genetic Disorders of Collagen Metabolism
Cartilage Anomaly (can) in Mice
Achondroplasia (ac) in Rabbits
Achondroplasia (cn) in Mice
FgfR-3
Chondrodysplasia (cho) in Mice
Sprouty
Brachymorphic (bm) Mice
Stumpy (stm) Mice
Nanomelia (nm) in Domestic Fowl
Induced Micromelia
Metabolic Regulation and Stability of Differentiation

Chapter 28 — Restarting Mammalian Articular Chondrocytes
Mammalian Articular Chondrocytes in Vitro
A Role for Oxygen
Responsiveness to Environmental Signals
Mechanisms of Articular Cartilage Repair
Dividing Again in vitro
Dividing Again in vivo
DNA Synthesis vs. Division
Osteotomy and Trauma
Transcription Factor

Chapter 29 — Repair of Fractures and Regeneration of Growth Plates
A Brief History of Fracture Repair
Standardizing the Fracture
Motion
Non-unions and Persistent Non-unions
Growth Factors and Fracture Repair
Bmps
Jump-Starting Repair
Regeneration of Growth Plates in Rats, Opossums and Men

PART X- GROWING TOGETHER

Chapter 30 — Initiating Skeletal Growth
What is Growth?
Numbers of Stem Cells
Cell movement and Cell Viability
Epithelia and Fgf/FgfR-2
Metabolic Regulation
Creeper (Cp) Fowl
Tibia/Fibula
Growth Retardation
A Growth Inhibitor
Mechanical Stimulation and Chondroblast Differentiation/Growth
Mechanical Stimuli and Metabolic Activity
Transduction
Membrane Potential
Skeletal Responses Mediated by cAMP
Matrix Synthesis and Condensation
Hormones
Teeth and Alveolar Bone
Electrical Stimulation
cAMP and Prechondroblast Proliferation
Long Bones
Limb Regeneration
Condylar Cartilage

Chapter 31 — Form, Polarity and Long-Bone Growth
Fundamental Form
Polarity
Polarized Cells
Long Bone Growth
Growth Plates
Growth Plate Dynamics
New Cells, Bigger Cells and Matrix
Cell Proliferation
Birds and Mammals
Clones and Timing
Hormonal Involvement
Growth at Opposite Ends
Diurnal and Circadian Rhythyms
Rhythms are Under Hormonal Control
A role for the periosteum in Regulation the Growth Plate?
Periosteal Sectioning
Feedback Control

Chapter 32 — Long Bone Growth: a Case of Crying Wolff?
Wolff, von Meyer or Roux
Response to Pressure
Continuous or Intermittent Mechanical Stimuli
Scaling and Variation: When Wolff meets the Dwarfs
Gravity
Transduction of Mechanical Stimuli

PART XI – STAYING APART

Chapter 33 — The Temporomandibular Joint and Synchondroses
The Mammalian Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
Mechanical Factors
The Condylar Process
The Angular Process
Diet
Other Functional Approaches
Cranial Synchondroses
As Pacemakers
Limited Growth Potential
As Adaptive

Chapter 34 — Sutures and Craniosynostosis
Sutural Growth as Secondary and Adaptive
Working with the Functional Matrix
Sutural Cartilage
The Dura
Craniosynostosis
Msx-2
Fgf Receptors
Sutural Growth
Sutural Fusion

PART XII – LIMB BUDS

Chapter 35 — The Limb Field and the AER
The Mesodermal Limb Field
Ectodermal Responsiveness
Mesoderm Specifies Fore vs. Hindlimb
Roles for the Ectoderm Associated with the Limb Field
Limb Bud Growth
Cell Proliferation
Suppressing the Flank
Mitotic Rate in Limb Mesenchyme
Proximo-Distal Patterning of the Limb Skeleton
Mesenchymal Factors Maintain the AER
AEMF
The PNZ
Specificity of Limb-Bud Epithelium
Specificity of Distal Limb Mesenchyme
The Temporal Component
A Mechanical Role for the Epithelium

Chapter 36 — Adding or Deleting an AER
AER Regeneration
Experimental Removal of the AER
Failure to Maintain the AER: the wingless (wl) Mutant
Mutual Interaction
Experimental Addition of an AER
Mutants with Duplicated Limbs
An Enlarged AER
Duplicating the AER
Narrow or Subdivided AERs

Chapter 37 — AERs in Limbed and Limbless Tetrapods
AERs Across the Tetrapods
Amphibians
Anurans
Urodeles
Reptiles
Mammals
Mice
Chimaeras
Humans
Limbless Tetrapods
Evolutionary Patterns
Gaining Limbs Back
Ecological Correlates of Limblessness
The Developmental Basis of Limblessness in Snakes and Legless Lizards
Inability to Maintain an AER
Molecular Mechanisms

PART XIII – LIMBS AND LIMB SKELETONS

Chapter 38 — Axes and Polarity
Establishing Axes and Polarity
The A-P Axis and the ZPA
A Role for Fgf-2
dHAND and shh
Wnts and Fgf
ZPAs Abound
D-V Polarity
P-D Polarity and the Progress Zone
Extension to Amphibian Limb Regeneration
Connecting D-V and P-D Polarity
Thalidomide and Limb Defects
Time of Action
Mode of Action

Chapter 39 — Patterning Limbs and Limb Skeletons
Morphogenesis and Growth
Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)
Posterior and Anterior Necrotic Zones (PNZ, ANZ)
Interdigital Cell Death
A Role for BmpR-1
The Opaque Patch
Cell Adhesion and Morphogenesis: Talpid (ta) Mutant Fowl
Talpid2
Talpid3

Chapter 40 — Before Limbs There Were Fins
Dorsal Median Unpaired Fins
Teleost Fish
Life Style
Developmental Origins
Evolutionary Origins
Paired Fins
Fin Buds and Fin Folds
Fin Skeletons
Retinoic Acid
…Regeneration
A retinoic Acid-shh Link
Fin Regeneration
Fins —> Suckers
Fins —> Limbs
From Many to Fewer Digits

PART XTV – BACKBONES AND TAILS

Chapter 41 — Vertebral Chondrogenesis: Spontaneous or Not?
Self Differentiation or Induction?
Morphogenesis
Spinal Ganglia and Vertebral Morphogenesis
Chondrogenesis in vitro
Spontaneous Chondrogenesis
Environmental Influences
Cell Division and Cell Death

Chapter 42 —The Search for the Magic Bullet
Integrity of Notochord/Spinal Cord and Vertebral Morphogenesis
Fish Skeletal Defects
For How Long are Notochord and Spinal Cord Active?
Can Dermamyotome or Lateral Plate Mesoderm Chondrify?
The Search for the Magic Bullet
A Role for Ectoderm?
Cartilage Cells as Cartilage Inducers
Active Extracellular Matrices
Chondrocyte Extracellular Matrix
Notochord and Spinal Cord Extracellular Matrices
Glycosaminoglycans
Collagens
Function of Notochord and Spinal Cord Matrix Products
Key Roles for Pax-1 and Pax-9
Conclusions

Chapter 43 — Tail Buds, Tails and Tail-lessness
Embryological Origin
The Ventral Epithelial Ridge (VER)
Tbx Genes
Tail Growth
Genes or Environment
Temperature
Temperature-induced Change in Vertebral Number
Natural Variation and Adaptive Value
Studies with Teleost Fish
Studies with Avian Embryos
Studies with Mammals
Studies with Amphibian Embryos
Temperature Plus...
Taillessness
And Thereby Hangs a Tail
Fish Tails
Lizards Tails: Autotomy


PART XV – EVOLUTIONARY SKELETAL BIOLOGY

Chapter 44 — Evolutionary Experimentation Revisited
Variation
Variation of Individual Elements
Variation that Tests an Hypothesis
Pattern Variation
Adaptive Value
Miniaturization
Heterochrony
Process Heterochrony
Coupling and Uncoupling Dermal and Endochondral Ossification
Primates
Neomorphs
The Preglossale of the Common Pigeon
Digits
Secondary Jaw Articulations
A Boid Intramaxillary Joint
Regenerated Joints
Wishbones
Limb Rudiments in Whales
Turtle Shells
Atavisms
Limb Skeletal Elements in Whales
Mammalian Teeth
Teleosts and Taxic Atavisms
Late-developing Bones in Anurans
Neomorph or Atavism?
 
 

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