Solid State Physics, 1st Edition

Preface

Chapter I Electrons in One-Dimensional Periodic Potentials

1 The Bloch Theorem for One-Dimensional Periodicity

2 Energy Levels in a Periodic Array of Quantum Wells

3 Electron Tunneling and Energy Bands

3.1 Transmission and Reflection of Electrons through an Arbitrary Potential

3.2 Electron Tunneling through a Periodic Potential

4 The Tight-Binding Approximation

4.1 Expansion in Localized Orbitals

4.2 Tridiagonal Matrices and Continued Fractions

5 Plane Waves and Nearly Free-Electron Approximation

5.1 Expansion in Plane Waves

5.2 The Mathieu Potential and the Continued Fraction Solution

6 Some Dynamical Aspects of Electrons in Band Theory

Further Reading

Chapter II Geometrical Description of Crystals: Direct and Reciprocal Lattices

1 Simple Lattices and Composite Lattices

1.1 Periodicity and Bravais Lattices

1.2 Simple and Composite Crystal Structures

2 Geometrical Description of Some Crystal Structures

3 Wigner-Seitz Primitive Cells

4 Reciprocal Lattices

4.1 Definitions and Basic Properties

4.2 Planes and Directions in Bravais Lattices

5 Brillouin Zones

6 Translational Symmetry and Quantum Mechanical Aspects

6.1 Translational Symmetry and Bloch Wavefunctions

6.2 the Parametric K•P Hamiltonian

6.3 Cyclic Boundary Conditions

6.4 Special K Points for Averaging over the Brillouin Zone

7 Density-of-States and Critical Points

Further Reading

Chapter III the Sommerfeld Free-Electron Theory of Metals

1 Quantum Theory of the Free-Electron Gas

2 Fermi-Dirac Distribution Function and Chemical Potential

3 Electronic Specific Heat in Metals and Thermodynamic Functions

4 Thermionic Emission from Metals

Appendix A. Outline of Statistical Physics and Thermodynamic Relations

Al. Microcanonical Ensemble and Thermodynamic Quantities

A2. Canonical Ensemble and Thermodynamic Quantities

A3. Grand Canonical Ensemble and Thermodynamic Quantities

Appendix B. Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein Statistics for Independent Particles

Appendix C. Modified Fermi-Dirac Statistics in a Model of Correlation Effects

Further Reading

Chapter IV The One-Electron Approximation and Beyond

1 Introductory Remarks on the Many-Electron Problem

2 The Hartree Equations

3 Identical Particles and Determinantal Wavefunctions

4 Matrix Elements Between Determinantal States

5 the Hartree-Fock Equations

5.1 Variational Approach and Hartree-Fock Equations

5.2 Ground-State Energy, Ionization Energies and Transition Energies

5.3 Hartree-Fock Equations and Transition Energies in Closed-Shell Systems

5.4 Hartree-Fock-Slater and Hartree-Fock-Roothaan Approximations

6 Overview of Approaches Beyond the One-Electron Approximation

7 Electronic Properties and Phase Diagram of the Homogeneous Electron Gas

8 The Density Functional Theory and the Kohn-Sham Equations

Appendix A. Bielectronic Integrals among Spin-Orbitals

Appendix B. Outline of Second Quantization Formalism for Identical Fermions

Appendix C. An Integral on the Fermi Sphere

Further Reading

Chapter V Band Theory of Crystals

1 Basic Assumptions of the Band Theory

2 The Tight-Binding Method (LCAO Method)

2.1 Description of the Method for Simple Lattices

2.2 Description of the Tight-Binding Method for Composite Lattices

2.3 Illustrative Appucations of the Tight-Binding Scheme

3 The Orthogonalized Plane Wave (OPW) Method

4 the Pseudopotential Method

5 The Cellular Method

6 The Augmented Plane Wave (APW) Method

6.1 Description of the Method

6.2 Expression and Evaluation of the Matrix Elements of the APW Method

7 the Green'S Function Method (KKR Method)

7.1 Scattering Integral Equation for a Generic Potential

7.2 Scattering Integral Equation for a Periodic Muffin-Tin Potential

7.3 Expression and Evaluation of the Structure Coefficients

8 Other Methods and Developments in Electronic Structure Calculations

8.1 The Linearized Cellular Methods

8.2 The Lanczos Or Recursion Method

8.3 Modified Lanczos Method for Excited States

8.4 Renormalization Method for Electronic Systems

Further Reading

Chapter VI Electronic Properties of Selected Crystals

1 Band Structure and Cohesive Energy of Rare-Gas Solids

1.1 General Features of Band Structure of Rare-Gas Solids

1.2 Cohesive Energy of Rare-Gas Solids

2 Electronic Properties of Ionic Crystals

2.1 Introductory Remarks and Madelung Constant

2.2 Considerations on Bands and Bonds in Ionic Crystals

3 Covalent Crystals with Diamond Structure

4 Band Structures and Fermi Surfaces of Some Metals

Further Reading

Chapter VII Excitons, Plasmons and Dielectric Screening in Crystals

1 Exciton States in Crystals

2 Plasmon Excitations in Crystals

3 General Considerations on the Longitudinal Dielectric Function

4 Static Dielectric Screening in Metals with the Thomas-Fermi Model

5 Static Dielectric Screening in Metals with the Lindhard Model

6 Dynamic Dielectric Screening in Metals and Plasmon Modes

7 Quantum Expression of the Longitudinal Dielectric Function in Materials

8 Quantum Expression of the Longitudinal Dielectric Function in Crystals

9 Longitudinal Dielectric Function and Energy-Loss of a Fast Charged Particle

Appendix A. Lindhard Dielectric Function for the Free-Electron Gas

Further Reading

Chapter VIII Interacting Electronic-Nuclear Systems and the Adiabatic Principle

1 Electronic-Nuclear Systems and Adiabatic Potential-Energy Surfaces

2 Non-Degenerate Adiabatic Surface and Nuclear Dynamics

2.1 Non-Degenerate Adiabatic Surface and Classical Nuclear Dynamics

2.2 Non-Degenerate Adiabatic Surface and Quantum Nuclear Dynamics

3 Degenerate Adiabatic Surfaces and Jahn-Teller Systems

3.1 Degenerate Adiabatic Surfaces and Nuclear Dynamics

3.2 the Jahn-Teller Effect for Doubly Degenerate Electronic States

3.3 the Jahn-Teller Effect for Triply Degenerate Electronic States

4 the Hellmann-Feynman Theorem and Electronic-Nuclear Systems

4.1 General Considerations on the Hellmann-Feynman Theorem

4.2 Charge Density and Atomic Forces

5 Parametric Hamiltonians and Berry Phase

6 Macroscopic Electric Polarization in Crystals and Berry Phase

Further Reading

Chapter IX Lattice Dynamics of Crystals

1 Dynamics of Monatomic One-Dimensional Lattices

2 Dynamics of Diatomic One-Dimensional Lattices

3 Dynamics of General Three-Dimensional Crystals

4 Quantum Theory of the Harmonic Crystal

5 Lattice Heat Capacity. Einstein and Debye Models

6 Considerations on Anharmonic Effects and Melting of Solids

7 Optical Phonons and Polaritons in Polar Crystals

7.1 General Considerations

7.2 Lattice Vibrations in Polar Crystals and Polaritons

7.3 Local Field Effects on Polaritons

Appendix A. Quantum Theory of the Linear Harmonic Oscillator

Further Reading

Chapter X Scattering of Particles by Crystals

1 General Considerations

2 Elastic Scattering of X-Rays from Crystals

2.1 Elastic Scattering of X-Rays and Bragg Diffraction Condition

2.2 Elastic Scattering of X-Rays and Intensity of Diffiracted Beams

3 Inelastic Scattering of Particles and Phonon Spectra of Crystals

4 Compton Scattering and Electron Momentum Density

5 Diffusion of Particles by a Single Elastically-Bound Scatterer

5.1 Dynamical Structure Factor of a Single Scattering Center

5.2 Dynamical Structure Factor of a Three-Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator

6 Diffusion of Particles by a Crystal and Effects of Lattice Vibrations

7 Mossbauer Effect

Further Reading

Chapter XI Optical and Transport Properties in Metals

1 Macroscopic Theory of Optical Constants in Homogeneous Materials

2 the Drude Theory of the Optical Properties of Free Carriers

3 Transport Properties and Boltzmann Equation

4 Static and Dynamic Conductivity in Metals

4.1 Static Conductivity with the Boltzmann Equation

4.2 Frequency and Wavevector Dependence of the Conductivity

4.3 Anomalous Skin Effect

5 Boltzmann Treatment and Quantum Treatment of Intraband Transitions

6 The Boltzmann Equation in Electric Fields and Temperature Gradients

6.1 The Transport Equations in General Form

6.2 Thermoelectric Phenomena

Further Reading

Chapter XII Optical Properties of Semiconductors and Insulators

1 Quantum Expression of the Transverse Dielectric Function in Materials

1.1 Optical Constants of Homogeneous Media in the Linear Response Theory

1.2 Optical Constants and Green's Function of the Electronic System

2 Quantum Theory of Band-to-Band Optical Transitions and Critical Points

3 Indirect Phonon-Assisted Transitions

4 Two-Photon Absorption

5 Exciton Effects on the Optical Properties

6 Fano Resonances and Absorption Lineshapes

7 Optical Properties of Vibronic Systems

7.1 Optical Properties of the Pranck-Condon Vibronic Model

7.2 Optical Properties of Typical Jahn-Teller Systems

Appendix A. Transitions Rates at First and Higher Orders of Perturbation Theory

Further Reading

Chapter XIII Transport in Intrinsic and Homogeneously Doped Semiconductors

1 Fermi Level and Carrier Density in Intrinsic Semiconductors

2 Impurity Levels in Semiconductors

3 Fermi Level and Carrier Density in Doped Semiconductors

4 Thermionic Emission in Semiconductors

5 Non-Equilibrium Carrier Distributions

5.1 Drift and Diffusion Currents

5.2 Generation and Recombination of Electron-Hole Pairs in Semiconductors

6 Solutions of Typical Transport Equations in Uniformly Doped Semiconductors

Further Reading

Chapter XIV Transport in Inhomogeneous Semiconductors

1 Properties of The PN Junction at Equilibrium

2 Current-Voltage Characteristics of the PN Junction

3 The Bipolar Junction Transistor

4 The Junction Field-Effect Transistor (JFET)

5 Semiconductor Heterojunctions

6 Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Mesfet Transistor

7 The Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structure and Mosfet Transistor

Further Reading

Chapter XV Electron Gas in Magnetic Fields

1 Magnetization and Magnetic Susceptibility

2 Energy Levels and Density-of-States of a Free-Electron Gas in Magnetic Fields

2.1 Energy Levels of the Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in Magnetic Fields

2.2 Energy Levels of the Three-Dimensional Electron Gas in Magnetic Fields

3 Orbital Magnetic Susceptibility and De Haas-Van Alphen Effect

3.1 Orbital Magnetic Susceptibiuty of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

3.2 Orbital Magnetic Susceptibiuty of a Three-Dimensional Electron Gas

4 Spin Paramagnetism of a Firee-Electron Gas

5 Magnetoresistivity and Classical Hall Effect

6 the Quantum Hall Effect

Appendix A. Free Energy of an Electron Gas in a Uniform Magnetic Field

Appendix B. Generalized Orbital Magnetic Susceptibiuty of the Free-Electron Gas

Further Reading

Chapter XVI Magnetic Properties of Localized Systems and Kondo Impurities

1 Quantum Mechanical Treatment of Magnetic Susceptibility

2 Magnetic Susceptibility of Closed-Shell Systems

3 Permanent Magnetic Dipoles in Atoms or Ions with Partially Filled Shells

4 Paramagnetism of Localized Magnetic Moments

5 Localized Magnetic States in Normal Metals

6 Dilute Magnetic Alloys and the Resistance Minimum Phenomenon

6.1 Some Phenomenological Aspects

6.2 The Resistance Minimum Phenomenon

6.3 Microscopic Origin of the Kondo Interaction: A Molecular Model

7 Magnetic Impurity in Normal Metals at Very Low Temperatures

Further Reading

Chapter XVII Magnetic Ordering in Crystals

1 Ferromagnetism and the Weiss Molecular Field

2 Microscopic Origin of the Coupling between Localized Magnetic Moments

3 Antiferromagnetism in the Mean Field Approximation

4 Spin Waves and Magnons in Ferromagnetic Crystals

5 The Ising Model with the Transfer Matrix Method

6 The Ising Model with the Renormalization Group Theory

7 the Stoner-Hubbard Itinerant Electron Model for Magnetism

Further Reading

Chapter XVIII Superconductivity

1 Some Phenomenolgical Aspects of Superconductors

2 The Cooper Pair Idea

3 Ground State for a Superconductor in the BCS Theory at Zero Temperature

3.1 Variational Determination of the Ground-State Wavefunction

3.2 Ground-State Energy and Isotopic Effect

3.3 Momentum Distribution and Coherence Length

4 Excited States of Superconductors at Zero Temperature

4.1 The Bogoliubov Canonical Transformation

4.2 Persistent Currents in Superconductors

4.3 Electron Tunneling into Superconductors

5 Treatment of Superconductors at Finite Temperature and Heat Capacity

6 Diamagnetism of Superconductors and Meissner Effect

6.1 the Phenomenological London Model

6.2 Pippard Electrodynamics and Effective Magnetic Penetration Depth

7 Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena

7.1 Order Parameter in Superconductors and Ginzburg-Landau Theory

7.2 Magnetic Flux Quantization

7.3 Type-I and Type-II Superconductors

8 Cooper Pair Tunneling between Superconductors and Josephson Effects

Appendix A. the Phonon-Induced Electron-Electron Interaction

Further Reading

Subject Index

Contents Synopsis

I, II, III Introductory Information and Propedeutic Subjects

IV, V, VI, VII Electronic Structure of Crystals

VIII, IX Adiabatic Principle and Lattice Vibrations

X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV Scattering; Optical and transport properties

XV, XVI XVII Magnetic Field Effects and Magnetism

XVIII Superconductivity